Psychodrama - this is both a psychotherapeutic technique and a psychological counseling mechanism developed by J. Moreno. In classical psychodrama, the mechanism of dramatic improvisation is used to study the internal life of the subject. The work of individuals who complete their own actions with the help of theatricalization, dramatic self-expression and role-playing games is the basis of the psychodrama method.

Psychodrama as a method of psychotherapy is used as an individual practice (monodrama) and in group action. The psychodrama technique involves the use of verbal communication and non-verbal interaction. A session is based on playing a few scenes, which can depict, for example, client memories of some past events, some unfinished situations, his dreams or fantasies, etc. Such scenes can be either close to reality or can bring out internal processes of the psyche. With the help of stage play of his own moments of life, the subject gets the opportunity to acquire abilities that will be useful to him in the future.

Psychodrama method

Psychodrama is a psychotherapeutic practice, which is a role-playing game. In the process of such a game, a dramatic improvisation takes place, contributing to the study of the inner world of the subjects and forming the conditions for the spontaneous expression of feelings, which are closely related to the most significant problems for the individual.

Group psychodrama is based on game norms.

The concept of psychodrama as a correction technique originated as a result of the experiment set by Ya. L. Moreno. Such an experiment was later called "spontaneous theater." For the first time, the therapeutic component of game technicians Moreno thought when he saw children walking in the parks of Vienna playing their own fantasies. During the experiments of playing out situations, Moreno remarked that spontaneity arises, creativity is produced, a true emotional contact arises that connects the participants of the situation, the so-called catharsis, which helps to achieve creative activity and insight to individuals.

Group psychodrama provides the subject in the game the role of the hero. The content of the game should be fixed on the problems of the personality, which contributes to the free expression of one's own feelings in therapist-driven improvisations. The participants of psychodrama carefully observe the events and compare the actions performed on the game scene with their own difficulties.

The purpose of psychodrama is to diagnose and correct for inadequate attitudes and emotional responses, their elimination, deepening self-knowledge and working out social perception.

Psychodrama contributes to the disclosure of deep-seated emotions in a much richer and more effective configuration than other techniques based on the verbal description of experience allow.

In the process of psychodrama, the individual finds effective methods for solving problems of a psychological nature at various levels: from the everyday to the existential. The subject, with the help of a therapist and participants, reproduces significant life events in a dramatic act, plays scenes related to his problem situation. All scenes are played in accordance with the principle of "here and now", in other words, they do not depend on the time of occurrence of situations. The action is structured in such a way as to facilitate the concretization of the problem situation. There is an analysis of new roles, alternative reactions, affective behavioral styles, the search and testing of more fruitful problem-solving models is being carried out in practice. Physical actions on which psychodrama is built, increase the possibility of using such a significant source of knowledge of one’s own person and those around him, as signals of nonverbal behavior.

Psychodrama is aimed at helping those individuals who have difficulty in verbal expression of feelings and life experience. In the process of psychodrama, the subject is at the same time the protagonist of the situation being played out, its creator, the researcher of himself and his own life.

Pediatric psychodrama is widely used in deviant behavior to eliminate inadequate emotional responses and the development of social perception skills.

Types of psychodrama offered A. Voltman, such as puppet dramatization and biodrama. A characteristic feature of biodrama is the distribution of the roles of animals among babies. Voltman believed that the kid, especially in the preschool age, is easier to play the role of some little animals than to play themselves, comrades or relatives. Puppet dramatization involves playing adults in front of a child of significant conditions or conflict situations through a puppet show. Puppet dramatization is recommended to be used with babies who are difficult to communicate and are in the pre-preschool and pre-school age periods.

There are other types of psychodrama. For example, one of the individuals participating in a group therapy session demonstrates or narrates about life events in a theatrical form. In this case, the key role is played by improvisation and the benevolent mood of the group.

Psychodrama methods can be used as independent psychotherapeutic techniques, but at the same time, its use in combination with other therapeutic methods of group practice, for example, with group discussion, is more effective.

Psychodrama in psychotherapy prevents excessive rationalization, helps the subject to show emotions, the expression of which is difficult with the help of a verbalik, and contributes to the achievement of awareness. This method as a component of group practice is widely used in the process of remedial work with emotional disorders, the treatment of certain psychosomatic diseases, and in family psychocorrectional work.

The effect of catharsis on the psychodramatic practice, which arises as a result of the reaction of internal conflicts found in the process of psychodrama act, has a great significance.

The elements of psychodrama are quite popular in other psychotherapeutic areas, for example, in gestalt therapy or behavioral-oriented therapy.

Gestalt and psychodrama today are among the highest priority and most popular. After all, they have been tested by time, have an accumulated theoretical basis and practical basis, are widely practiced in many countries. Also important is the fact that the use of psychodrama methods and the gestalt approach practically have no boundaries. They can be applied equally effectively, both in psychological practices and in social work. The universality of these techniques allows them to be used in individual work with subjects and in group work, regardless of the number of participants.

Gestalt and psychodrama are not just psychotherapy techniques or a set of techniques used in training. Mainly, it is a way of thinking, the practice of everyday comprehension of one’s own living here and now, contributing to the formation of personality.

The tasks of psychodrama include creative rethinking of one’s own conflicts, formation of more perfect and adequate aspects of self-knowledge of an individual, overcoming destructive behavioral models and styles of emotional response, development of new adequate behavioral responses and models of emotional response.

Classical psychodrama sessions contain 5 key positions. In the first position is the protagonist, that is, the first player, depicting in the psychodrama act of the hero, the leading actor, who demonstrates his own problems. The second position is occupied by the director or facilitator. With it, the protagonist revives its own actual reality. In other words, the director is an individual who helps the client analyze his own problems, creates the right atmosphere in the group and assigns roles to the participants. The third position is occupied by auxiliary "I", which are other members of the group, playing secondary roles and reinforcing the actions of the director. The main functions of the auxiliary "I" include playing up the roles necessary for the protagonist to realize his plan, helping the protagonist to understand his relationship with other actors, displaying unconscious protagonist relationships, helping the protagonist in moving from a dramatic act to real life. In the fourth position are the spectators who are members of the group who do not directly participate in the psychodrama act, but who participate in further discussion of the situation after the end of its beating. The scene takes the fifth position. Stage is a place in a room or other space where the stage action is played.

Psychodrama Moreno

The development of group methods of psychotherapy as a single therapeutic direction, is closely associated with the name of J. Moreno. The psychodrama practice of the last few decades has been used effectively in almost all European countries and the USA.

The core concepts of psychodrama practice include: roles and various role-playing games, body, spontaneity, insight and catharsis.

It is necessary to comprehend the fundamental difference of psycho-dramatic practice as a method of therapy from the theatrical form of playing role-playing images. If in the theater absolutely all the roles are distributed and painted by the author, then in psycho-ramatic practices they do not imply any predetermined scenario.

In psychodrama, all the participants themselves recreate the script in the process of plot development and have no idea what this might lead to. The roles involved in the script are chosen and shared among themselves. The therapist merely clarifies the main rules and, in their limits, encourages all improvisation and spontaneity.

The concept of "body" is akin to the transfer (transfer) of Z. Freud. Under the transfer analysis, Freud meant one of the technical tools of the practice of psychoanalysis, through which he tried to describe the personality of the patient and identify the causes that provoke the emergence of neurosis. And transferring means the process of empathy (empathy) by the psychotherapist for the client’s feelings and emotional states.

In his own method, Moreno unites the transference and the counter-pereposure, which characterize the mutually directed empathy process - the psychotherapist-patient and between all participants in psychodrama under one concept of "body". Along with this, in psychodrama transference and countertransference are used not so much for the ability to characterize the personality of the subject, but for the purpose of therapeutic influence for his self-disclosure and victory over certain complexes and neuroses, to enhance the group process.

By spontaneity, he meant the naturalness (unintentionality) of reaction and perception. Many customers are too clamped in their own psychological defense mechanisms and standards of behavior. Finding such spontaneity and naturalness helps individuals to effectively free themselves from their own complexes and, consequently, from neuroses. In order for individuals to gain spontaneity, the psychotherapist should only push them to act "here and now" without imposing their own script of the role-playing game.

The catharsis in the ancient Greek tragedy meant the so-called purification, illumination through suffering. In psychoanalysis, Freud used the concept of catharsis in the sense of disclosing the causes of neurosis through intense emotional unrest and the resulting relief, that is, healing. In the psychodrama scenario, the catharsis must be experienced not only by the protagonist and all participants of a particular storyline, but also by all other individuals who are not involved in a particular situation, but are spectators. In J. Moreno, the process of catharsis is the key task of the participants in the psychodramatic process and empathizing viewers. He has an impact on them psychotherapeutic orientation.

The concept of insight, translated from English, means "unexpected insight" and means it is the subject's unexpected understanding of his own problems or a modification of his view on his own person, expanding the possibilities of solving problems. Insight usually occurs due to catharsis. The atmosphere and dynamic actions of psychodrama should lead subjects to Qatar-sis, and through it to insight.

A psychodrama session consists of an explanation of the group of meaning and the core tasks of psychodrama practice, a description of the stages of implementation. The practical embodiment of psychodrama contains several stages and three stages of the organization of the psychodrama itself.

Today, children's psychodrama is gaining special popularity for the treatment of their neurotic behavior. Playing in psychodrama is not only a symbolic playing up of conflicts, but also an active processing of experience. In psychodrama, this work is being carried out to overcome and resolve conflict situations. In the game process, kids feel and experience themselves as a creative design engineer, creator, co-creator of their own lives. Psychodrama provides an opportunity for children to be “reborn” for a more satisfying life.
Children's psychodrama is focused on the creation of a creative and natural personality, so it is not limited to the elimination of disorders, she sees her own key task in promoting the development of an expressive, creative personality. Children's psychodrama is used to stimulate and support spontaneity, naturalness and creative activity in the baby.

Psychodrama techniques

Today there is a whole psychodrama institute whose goal is to assist in the development and application of various psychodrama techniques and tools in various fields of activity, for example, in psychotherapy or education. Therefore, psychodrama practice is notable for its considerable technical equipment. Most of the techniques were developed and used in practice in one particular situation. However, there are universal technicians who do not have to depend on the content of the problem situation.

As a rule, at the beginning of work the technique of self representation is used. It allows the subject to present himself or portray significant personalities in short scenes. This technique can be performed in monologue or in the form of an interview. The presentation in it is aimed at providing information about the true behavior of the subject, and not about his fantasies about himself. In this case, the subject himself decides what information to provide, which contributes to a sense of security. Entry into the psychodrama act through this technique multiplies the effect of heating, provides an opportunity to focus on the problem.

Technique playing a role involves the recognition and finding the role. Mostly, it is performed by the auxiliary "I" at the same time, contributing to the protagonist in the production of the plot from his own life.

The technique of the double involves the auxiliary "I" playing the role of the protagonist. In this case, the "twin" is recommended to be located behind and slightly away from the protagonist. At the beginning of the process he should try to become a kind of shadow of the protagonist and, with the help of movements, his manner of expressing himself will get used to the state of the protagonist. In this case, the auxiliary "I" acquires feedback from the protagonist, is guided by it and accordingly adjusts its own behavior. After this, the “double” tries to deepen its own understanding and express a meaningful aspect that is not demonstrated by the protagonist. The prototype, in turn, can either accept the proposed variation or ignore it. He may also disagree and express disagreement in a calm manner or violent emotional reactions. At the end of this technique, the remaining participants are connected to discuss the actions of the "twin".

In many modern countries, the psychodrama institute provides an opportunity to study and apply various techniques for further use in practice.

Psychodrama training

Training implies the existence of three stages and the use of exercises.

Psychodrama exercises can set various goals for themselves: from the so-called warm-up to practicing the role-playing skills. Exercises can be used for the emancipation of participants, for example, use elements of group gymnastics or pantomime in pairs or triples.

At the first stage, the main burden falls on the director.Here, his tasks include: achieving the emancipation of participants, overcoming motor restraint, encouraging, stimulating the occurrence of spontaneity of non-verbal verbal manifestation of emotions, focusing participants on the common goal.
Psychodrama exercises contribute to the acquisition of a group of relaxedness, naturalness and spontaneity. At the same time, the faster they acquire such states, the more efficient the process of psychodrama will be.

After the subjects have acquired a certain proportion of relaxedness, naturalness, and the creation of an active creative environment, the second stage of therapy, the main part of psychodramatic practice, comes as a result of a well-conducted warm-up.
First, the leader determines the protagonist and asks him to choose an important situation, theme or problem for him, to acquaint everyone with the general idea of ​​the plot, which the protagonist wants to play. The director draws the attention of the participants that the protagonist presents only a general direction, and the direct development of actions must be spontaneous in psychodrama. After this, the protagonist needs to find partners who will be his subsidiary "I" and explain the tasks to them. Then the protagonist plays the intended plot directly.
At the final stage of psychodrama, a joint discussion of actions and analysis of the behavior of the protagonist and other participants takes place. All participants in the process should participate in this discussion.