Hyperactive child - This is a kid suffering from excessive mobility. Previously, the presence of hyperactivity in the history of the baby was considered a pathological minimal disorder of mental functions. Today, hyperactivity in a child is referred to as an independent ailment, which is called ADHD syndrome. It is characterized by increased motor activity of children, restlessness, easy distractibility, impulsivity. At the same time, in individuals with a high level of activity, a level of intellectual development is observed, corresponding to their age norm, and in some individuals even higher than the norm. The primary symptoms of increased activity are less common in girls and begin to be detected already at an early age. This violation is considered to be a fairly common disorder of the behavioral-emotional aspect of mental functions. Children with the syndrome of excessive activity immediately visible in the environment of the rest of the kids. Such crumbs cannot sit still for a minute in one place, they constantly move, rarely bring matters to an end. Symptoms of hyperactivity are observed in almost 5% of the child population.
It is possible to diagnose hyperactivity in a child only after a long-term observation by specialists of children's behavior. Some manifestations of increased activity can be seen in most children. Therefore, it is important to know the signs of hyperactivity, the main of which is the impossibility of concentrating attention for a long time on one phenomenon. When this symptom is detected, the age of the baby must be taken into account, since at various stages of child development the inability to focus attention is manifested unequally.
A child suffering from increased activity is too restless, he constantly fidgets or tossing and running. If the baby is in constant aimless movement and he has an inability to concentrate, then we can talk about hyperactivity. Also, the actions of a kid with heightened activity should have a bit of uplifting and fearlessness.
Signs of a hyperactive child include the inability to put words into sentences, a steady desire to take things in hand, lack of interest in listening to children's fairy tales, the inability to wait for their turn.
In hyperactive children, there is a decrease in appetite, along with an increased sense of thirst. It is hard to put such kids to sleep, both in the daytime and at night. Older children with increased activity suffer from low self-esteem. They react sharply to very ordinary situations. Along with this they are quite difficult to console and calm. Children with this syndrome are overly sensitive and rather irritable.
Distinct sleep and appetite loss, low weight gain, anxiety, and increased excitability can be attributed to clear precursors of hyperactivity in the early age period. However, it should be borne in mind that all of the listed symptoms may be other reasons not related to hyperactivity.
In principle, psychiatrists believe that the diagnosis of increased activity can be made to children only after they have overcome the age of 5 or 6 years. In the school period become more visible and pronounced manifestations of hyperactivity.
In training, a child with hyperactivity is characterized by the inability to work in a team, the presence of difficulties with the retelling of textual information and the writing of stories. Interpersonal relationships with peers do not add up.
A hyperactive child often shows aggression towards the environment. He is inclined not to fulfill the teacher's requirements in the classroom, he is distinguished by restlessness in the classroom and unsatisfactory behavior, often does not fulfill his homework, in a word, such a child does not obey the established rules.
Hyperactive kids, in most cases, are too talkative and extremely awkward. In such children, usually everything falls out of their hands, they all touch or hit everything. More pronounced difficulties are observed in fine motor skills. So kiddies hard to independently catch buttons or tie their own shoelaces. They usually have an ugly handwriting.
A hyperactive child in general terms can be described as inconsistent, illogical, restless, scattered, rebellious, stubborn, sloppy, clumsy. At the older age stage, restlessness and flimsy, usually go away, but the impossibility of concentration remains, sometimes for life.
In connection with the foregoing, the statement of the diagnosis of increased pediatric activity should be treated with caution. You also need to understand that even if the baby has a history of hyperactivity diagnosis, this does not make him bad.
Hyperactive child - what to do
Parents of a hyperactive child should, first of all, contact an expert to determine the cause of this syndrome. Such reasons may be genetic predisposition, in other words, hereditary factors, causes of a socio-psychological nature, for example, the climate in the family, living conditions in it, etc., biological factors, which include various brain lesions. In cases when, after establishing the cause that provoked the occurrence of hyperactivity in a child, appropriate treatment is prescribed by the therapist, such as massage, adherence, and medication, it must be carried out rigorously.
Correctional work with hyperactive children, in the first turn, should be carried out by parents of toddlers, and it begins with creating around the crumbs a calm, supportive environment, since any discrepancies in the family or loud showdowns only “charge” them with negative emotions. Any interaction with such children, and in particular, communicative, should be calm, gentle, due to the fact that they are extremely susceptible to the emotional state and mood of loved ones, especially parents. All adult members of family relationships are advised to follow a single model of behavior in the upbringing of children.
All actions of adults in relation to hyperactive children should be aimed at developing their self-organization skills, increasing self-esteem, removing disinhibition, building respect for others around them and teaching accepted norms of behavior.
An effective way to overcome the difficulties of self-organization is to hang out special leaflets in the room. To this end, it is necessary to determine the two most important and most serious things that the crumb can successfully complete during the daylight hours, and write them on sheets. These sheets should be posted on the so-called notice board, for example, in the nursery or on the refrigerator. Information can be displayed not only by means of written speech, but also with the help of figurative drawings, symbolic images. For example, if the kid should wash the dishes, then you can draw a dirty plate or spoon. After the crumb fulfills the assignment, he should make a special note on the leaflet opposite the corresponding instruction.
Another way to develop self-organization skills is to use color marking. For example, for classes in school, you can make certain colors of notebooks, which the student will be easier to find in the future. For the purpose of teaching the child to restore order in the room also help multi-colored symbols. For example, attach different leaf colors to the toy boxes, clothes of notebooks. Marking sheets must be large in size, clearly visible and have different drawings that will represent the contents of the boxes.
In the primary school period, classes with hyperactive children should mainly be focused on the development of attention, the development of voluntary regulation, and the formation of psychomotor functions. Also, therapeutic methods should cover the development of specific skills of interaction with peers and adults. The initial correctional work with an overly active crumb must occur individually. At this stage of the correctional impact, it is necessary to teach a small individual to listen, to understand the instructions of a psychologist or another adult and to pronounce them loudly, to express independently during classes the rules of behavior and the norms for performing a specific task. It is also desirable at this stage to work out, along with the crumb, the procedure of rewards and the system of punishments, which will subsequently help him to adapt in the team of his peers. The next stage involves the involvement of an overly active child in collective activity and should also be implemented gradually. First, the child must be involved in the gameplay, go to work with a small group of children, and then he can be invited to participate in group classes, which include a large number of participants. Otherwise, if such a sequence is not observed, the baby may become overexcited, which will cause a loss of behavior control, general fatigue and a lack of active attention.
At school, it’s also quite difficult to work with overly active children, however, such children also have their own attractive features.
Hyperactive children in school are characterized by a fresh spontaneous reaction, they are easily inspired, always willingly help teachers and other peers. Hyperactive kids are completely vindictive, they are more enduring than their peers, and relatively less often classmates are prone to diseases. They often have a very rich imagination. Therefore, teachers are advised to try to understand their motives and define a model of interaction in order to choose a competent behavior strategy with such kids.
Thus, it was proved in a practical way that the development of the motor system of children has an intensive effect on their all-round development, namely, on the formation of the visual, auditory and tactile analyzer systems, speech abilities, and intelligence. Therefore, classes with hyperactive children must necessarily contain a motor correction.