Psychology and Psychiatry

Hyperactive child

Hyperactive child - This is a kid suffering from excessive mobility. Previously, the presence of hyperactivity in the history of the baby was considered a pathological minimal disorder of mental functions. Today, hyperactivity in a child is referred to as an independent ailment, which is called ADHD syndrome. It is characterized by increased motor activity of children, restlessness, easy distractibility, impulsivity. At the same time, in individuals with a high level of activity, a level of intellectual development is observed, corresponding to their age norm, and in some individuals even higher than the norm. The primary symptoms of increased activity are less common in girls and begin to be detected already at an early age. This violation is considered to be a fairly common disorder of the behavioral-emotional aspect of mental functions. Children with the syndrome of excessive activity immediately visible in the environment of the rest of the kids. Such crumbs cannot sit still for a minute in one place, they constantly move, rarely bring matters to an end. Symptoms of hyperactivity are observed in almost 5% of the child population.

Signs of a hyperactive baby

It is possible to diagnose hyperactivity in a child only after a long-term observation by specialists of children's behavior. Some manifestations of increased activity can be seen in most children. Therefore, it is important to know the signs of hyperactivity, the main of which is the impossibility of concentrating attention for a long time on one phenomenon. When this symptom is detected, the age of the baby must be taken into account, since at various stages of child development the inability to focus attention is manifested unequally.

A child suffering from increased activity is too restless, he constantly fidgets or tossing and running. If the baby is in constant aimless movement and he has an inability to concentrate, then we can talk about hyperactivity. Also, the actions of a kid with heightened activity should have a bit of uplifting and fearlessness.

Signs of a hyperactive child include the inability to put words into sentences, a steady desire to take things in hand, lack of interest in listening to children's fairy tales, the inability to wait for their turn.

In hyperactive children, there is a decrease in appetite, along with an increased sense of thirst. It is hard to put such kids to sleep, both in the daytime and at night. Older children with increased activity suffer from low self-esteem. They react sharply to very ordinary situations. Along with this they are quite difficult to console and calm. Children with this syndrome are overly sensitive and rather irritable.

Distinct sleep and appetite loss, low weight gain, anxiety, and increased excitability can be attributed to clear precursors of hyperactivity in the early age period. However, it should be borne in mind that all of the listed symptoms may be other reasons not related to hyperactivity.

In principle, psychiatrists believe that the diagnosis of increased activity can be made to children only after they have overcome the age of 5 or 6 years. In the school period become more visible and pronounced manifestations of hyperactivity.

In training, a child with hyperactivity is characterized by the inability to work in a team, the presence of difficulties with the retelling of textual information and the writing of stories. Interpersonal relationships with peers do not add up.

A hyperactive child often shows aggression towards the environment. He is inclined not to fulfill the teacher's requirements in the classroom, he is distinguished by restlessness in the classroom and unsatisfactory behavior, often does not fulfill his homework, in a word, such a child does not obey the established rules.

Hyperactive kids, in most cases, are too talkative and extremely awkward. In such children, usually everything falls out of their hands, they all touch or hit everything. More pronounced difficulties are observed in fine motor skills. So kiddies hard to independently catch buttons or tie their own shoelaces. They usually have an ugly handwriting.

A hyperactive child in general terms can be described as inconsistent, illogical, restless, scattered, rebellious, stubborn, sloppy, clumsy. At the older age stage, restlessness and flimsy, usually go away, but the impossibility of concentration remains, sometimes for life.

In connection with the foregoing, the statement of the diagnosis of increased pediatric activity should be treated with caution. You also need to understand that even if the baby has a history of hyperactivity diagnosis, this does not make him bad.

Hyperactive child - what to do

Parents of a hyperactive child should, first of all, contact an expert to determine the cause of this syndrome. Such reasons may be genetic predisposition, in other words, hereditary factors, causes of a socio-psychological nature, for example, the climate in the family, living conditions in it, etc., biological factors, which include various brain lesions. In cases when, after establishing the cause that provoked the occurrence of hyperactivity in a child, appropriate treatment is prescribed by the therapist, such as massage, adherence, and medication, it must be carried out rigorously.

Correctional work with hyperactive children, in the first turn, should be carried out by parents of toddlers, and it begins with creating around the crumbs a calm, supportive environment, since any discrepancies in the family or loud showdowns only “charge” them with negative emotions. Any interaction with such children, and in particular, communicative, should be calm, gentle, due to the fact that they are extremely susceptible to the emotional state and mood of loved ones, especially parents. All adult members of family relationships are advised to follow a single model of behavior in the upbringing of children.

All actions of adults in relation to hyperactive children should be aimed at developing their self-organization skills, increasing self-esteem, removing disinhibition, building respect for others around them and teaching accepted norms of behavior.

An effective way to overcome the difficulties of self-organization is to hang out special leaflets in the room. To this end, it is necessary to determine the two most important and most serious things that the crumb can successfully complete during the daylight hours, and write them on sheets. These sheets should be posted on the so-called notice board, for example, in the nursery or on the refrigerator. Information can be displayed not only by means of written speech, but also with the help of figurative drawings, symbolic images. For example, if the kid should wash the dishes, then you can draw a dirty plate or spoon. After the crumb fulfills the assignment, he should make a special note on the leaflet opposite the corresponding instruction.

Another way to develop self-organization skills is to use color marking. For example, for classes in school, you can make certain colors of notebooks, which the student will be easier to find in the future. For the purpose of teaching the child to restore order in the room also help multi-colored symbols. For example, attach different leaf colors to the toy boxes, clothes of notebooks. Marking sheets must be large in size, clearly visible and have different drawings that will represent the contents of the boxes.

In the primary school period, classes with hyperactive children should mainly be focused on the development of attention, the development of voluntary regulation, and the formation of psychomotor functions. Also, therapeutic methods should cover the development of specific skills of interaction with peers and adults. The initial correctional work with an overly active crumb must occur individually. At this stage of the correctional impact, it is necessary to teach a small individual to listen, to understand the instructions of a psychologist or another adult and to pronounce them loudly, to express independently during classes the rules of behavior and the norms for performing a specific task. It is also desirable at this stage to work out, along with the crumb, the procedure of rewards and the system of punishments, which will subsequently help him to adapt in the team of his peers. The next stage involves the involvement of an overly active child in collective activity and should also be implemented gradually. First, the child must be involved in the gameplay, go to work with a small group of children, and then he can be invited to participate in group classes, which include a large number of participants. Otherwise, if such a sequence is not observed, the baby may become overexcited, which will cause a loss of behavior control, general fatigue and a lack of active attention.

At school, it’s also quite difficult to work with overly active children, however, such children also have their own attractive features.

Hyperactive children in school are characterized by a fresh spontaneous reaction, they are easily inspired, always willingly help teachers and other peers. Hyperactive kids are completely vindictive, they are more enduring than their peers, and relatively less often classmates are prone to diseases. They often have a very rich imagination. Therefore, teachers are advised to try to understand their motives and define a model of interaction in order to choose a competent behavior strategy with such kids.

Thus, it was proved in a practical way that the development of the motor system of children has an intensive effect on their all-round development, namely, on the formation of the visual, auditory and tactile analyzer systems, speech abilities, and intelligence. Therefore, classes with hyperactive children must necessarily contain a motor correction.

Work with hyperactive children

Three key areas include the work of a psychologist with hyperactive children, namely the formation of mental functions that are lagging behind such children (control over movements and behavior, attention), working out specific abilities to interact with peers and adults, work with anger.

Such corrective work takes place gradually and begins with the working off of a single function. Since the hyperactive baby is physically unable to listen to the teacher with the same attention for a long time, restrain impulsivity and sit quietly. After steady positive results have been achieved, it is necessary to proceed to the simultaneous training of two functions, for example, lack of attention and behavioral control. At the last stage, you can enter classes aimed at the development of all three functions simultaneously.

The work of a psychologist with a hyperactive child begins with personal lessons, then you should move on to exercises in small groups, gradually connecting an increasing number of children. Because the individual characteristics of children with excessive activity prevent them from concentrating when there are many peers around.

In addition, all classes should take place in an emotionally acceptable form for kids. The most attractive for them are classes in the form of the game. Special attention and approach requires a hyperactive child in the garden. Since with the advent of such a kid in a preschool institution, many problems arise, the solution of which lies with the caregivers. They need to direct all the actions of the crumbs, and the system of prohibitions must be accompanied by alternative proposals. Game activity should be directed to relieve tension, decrease aggressiveness, and develop the ability to focus attention.

A hyperactive child in the garden can withstand quite a quiet hour. If the baby is unable to calm down and fall asleep, then the caregiver is recommended to sit down next to him and gently talk with him, stroking his head. As a result, muscle tension and emotional arousal will decrease. Over time, such a baby will get used to the quiet hour, and after it will feel rested and less impulsive. When interacting with an overly active crumb, emotional interaction and tactile contact have a rather effective impact.

Hyperactive children at school also require a special approach. In the first turn, it is necessary to increase their motivation. For this purpose, non-traditional forms of remedial work can be applied, for example, using the training of children by older students. Older students act as instructors and can teach the art of origami or beadwork. In addition, the educational process should be focused on the psycho-physiological characteristics of students. For example, it is necessary to change the types of activities if the child is tired, or to implement his motor need.

Teachers need to take into account the originality of the disorders in children with hyperactive behavior. Often they interfere with the normal conduct of classes, because it is difficult for them to control and control their own behavior, they are always distracted by something, they are more agitated compared to their peers.

In the course of schooling, especially at the beginning, it is quite difficult for children with excessive activity to fulfill the learning task and to be neat at the same time. Therefore, teachers are advised to reduce the requirements for accuracy in such children, which will further contribute to developing their sense of success and increasing self-esteem, which will result in an increase in academic motivation.

Very important in the corrective impact is the work with parents of a hyperactive child, aimed at explaining to adults the features of a child with excessive activity, their training in verbal and non-speech interaction with their own children, the development of a unified strategy of educational behavior.

Hyperactive child - recommendations to parents

Psychologically stable situation and calm microclimate in family ties are key components of the health and prosperous development of any child. That is why it is necessary, in the first turn, parents to pay attention to the situation surrounding the crumbs at home, as well as in school or preschool.

Parents of a hyperactive child should watch that the child does not overwork. Therefore, it is not recommended to exceed the required load. Overwork leads to children's whims, irritability and deterioration of their behavior. In order for the crumbs not to become overexcited, it is important to observe a certain daily routine, in which time for daytime sleep is required, outdoor games are replaced with calm games or walks, etc.

Also, parents should remember that the less they make comments to their hyperactive child, the better it will be for him. If adults do not like childish behavior, it is better to try to distract them with something. It should be understood that the number of prohibitions must correspond to the age period.

For a hyperactive child, praise is very necessary, so you should try to praise him as often as possible. However, one should not do it too emotionally in order not to provoke over-stimulation. You should also try to ensure that the request addressed to the child does not carry several instructions at the same time. When talking with the baby is recommended to look into his eyes.

For the correct formation of fine motor skills and comprehensive organization of movements, children with high activity should be involved in choreography, various types of dances, swimming, tennis or karate. It is necessary to attract the crumbs to the games of mobile nature and sports orientation. They must learn to understand the goals of the game and obey its rules, as well as try to plan the game.

Raising a child with high activity does not need to be bent, in other words, parents are advised to stick to a middle position in behavior: you should not show excessive softness, but you should also avoid exaggerated requirements that children are not able to fulfill, combining them with punishments. Negative impact on kids has a constant change of punishments and moods of parents.

Parents should spare no effort or time for the formation and development of obedience, accuracy, self-organization in children, development of responsibility for their own actions and behavior, ability to plan, organize and bring to the end what was started.

Для улучшения концентрации внимания в ходе выполнения уроков или других заданий следует по возможности исключить все раздражающие и отвлекающие малыша факторы. Therefore, the child needs to be allocated a quiet place in which he can focus on the lessons or other activities. In the process of doing homework, parents are encouraged to periodically look in to the child to check whether he is doing the tasks. You should also provide a short break every 15 or 20 minutes. Discuss with the child his actions and behavior should be in a calm and benevolent manner.

In addition to all the above, remedial work with hyperactive children consists in increasing their self-esteem, gaining confidence in their own potential. Parents can do this with the help of teaching children new skills. Also, success in school or any achievements in everyday life contribute to the growth of self-esteem in children.

A child with increased activity is characterized by excessive sensitivity, he does not adequately respond to any comments, prohibitions or notations. Therefore, children suffering from excessive activity more than others need the spiritual warmth of loved ones, care, understanding and love.

There are also many games aimed at mastering hyperactive children with the skills of control and learning how to manage their own emotions, actions, behavior and attention.

Games for hyperactive children are the most effective way to develop the ability to concentrate and contribute to the removal of disinhibition.

Often, relatives of children with heightened activity experience many difficulties in the process of educational activities. As a result, many of them are fighting with so-called child disobedience with the help of harsh measures, or, on the contrary, in desperation, “give up” to their behavior, thereby giving full freedom to their children. Therefore, working with the parents of a hyperactive child, first of all, should include enriching the emotional experience of such a child, helping him to master the elementary skills of self-control, which helps smooth out the manifestations of excessive activity and thus leads to changes in relationships with close adults.

Treatment of a hyperactive child

Today, the question has arisen about the need to treat hyperactivity syndrome. Many therapists believe that hyperactivity is a psychological condition that must be subjected to corrective action in order for children to continue to adapt to life in the team, while others are against drug therapy. The negative attitude towards drug treatment is a consequence of the use of amphetamine-type psychotropic drugs in some countries for this purpose.

In the former CIS countries, the drug Atomoksetin is used for treatment, which is not a psychotropic drug, but also has a number of side effects and contraindications. The effect of taking this drug becomes noticeable after four months of therapy. Choosing drug intervention as a means of combating hyperactivity, it should be understood that any drugs are aimed solely at eliminating the symptoms, and not at the causes of the disease. Therefore, the effectiveness of such an intervention will depend on the intensity of the manifestations. But nevertheless, drug treatment of a hyperactive child should be used exclusively in the most difficult cases. Since it can often harm the child, due to the fact that it has a huge number of side effects. Today, the most benign medications are homeopathic medicines, since they do not have such a strong influence on the activity of the nervous system. However, taking such drugs requires patience, since the effect of them occurs only after accumulation in the body.

Non-pharmacological therapy is also successfully applied, which should be comprehensive and developed individually for each child. Typically, this therapy contains a massage, manual effects on the spine and physiotherapy exercises. The effectiveness of such funds is observed in almost half of the patients. The disadvantages of non-drug therapy is the need for an individual approach, which is almost impossible in the conditions of modern healthcare organization, huge financial costs, the need for constant correction of therapy, the lack of qualified specialists and limited effectiveness.

Treatment of a hyperactive child also involves the use of other methods, for example, the use of biofeedback techniques. For example, the biofeedback method does not completely replace the treatment, but contributes to the reduction and adjustment of drug doses. This technique relates to behavioral therapy and is based on the use of the latent potential of the organism. The key task of this methodology involves the formation of skills of self-regulation and mastering them. The method of biofeedback relates to modern areas. Its effectiveness is to improve the ability of the kids to plan their own activities and to realize the consequences of inappropriate behavior. The disadvantages include inaccessibility for most families and the impossibility of obtaining effective results in the presence of injuries, dislocation of vertebrae and other diseases.

Behavioral therapy is also quite successfully used for the correctional effects of hyperactivity. The difference in the approach of behavioral therapy specialists from the approach of followers of other directions lies in the fact that the former do not seek to understand the causes of the phenomenon or predict their consequences, while the latter are looking for the sources of the problems. Behaviorists work directly with behavior. They positively reinforce the so-called "right" or desired behavior and negatively reinforce the "wrong" or inappropriate. In other words, a kind of reflex is developed in patients. The effectiveness of this method is observed in almost 60% of cases and depends on the severity of symptoms and the presence of concomitant diseases. The disadvantages include the fact that the behavioral approach is more common in the United States.

Games for hyperactive children are also methods of correctional impact, contributing to the development of skills to control motor activity and control their own impulsivity.

Comprehensive and individually designed treatment contribute to the onset of a positive effect in the correction of hyperactive behavior. However, it should not be forgotten that for maximum results, joint efforts of parents and other close surroundings of the child, teachers, doctors and psychologists are necessary.