Polygamy is literally translated as polygamy. In other words, polygamy refers to the form of a marriage union, characterized by the fact that the marriage partner of one sex more than one partner of another sex. Two variations of the phenomenon under consideration are distinguished: polyandry (otherwise, polyandry) and polygamy (polygyny). At the same time, the analyzed concept should not be confused with multiple monogamy. Repeated entry into the marital union and, accordingly, the action connected with this, called divorce, is not identical in content to polygamy. The main difference here is that during polygamy, a person simultaneously has a marriage relationship with several partners of opposite sex.

What is polygamy

The concept being analyzed is a rather complex and ambiguous phenomenon, despite the fact that modern society is inclined to simplify its meaning, justifying its own lack of understanding and immoral impulses.

Today, more and more often human minds, especially women’s, are interested in the word polygamy. This concept applies to both animal and human species. It means a certain marriage system.

Biology considers it surprising that several different permanent marital systems exist in homo sapiens, since the majority of animal representatives have one established marital system, which is a species trait.

In this case, as mentioned above, a person has polygamy in two variations. Today, the phenomenon under consideration is practiced in states that preach Islam, and involves polygamy, that is, the presence of more than one spouse.

The very existence of the division of the concept being considered into polygamy and polyandry confirms that the weaker sex, as well as the strong half of humanity, are prone to this archaic phenomenon. Therefore, the question of why men are polygamous, and women do not, which is so often found on the net, is fundamentally wrong. Here we need to distinguish between polygamy from the multiple conclusion of a marriage union, as well as from banal debauchery.

It must be understood that in the original sense polygamy implies precisely multiple marriage. In other words, the term in question implies a serious relationship based on mutual responsibility, the presence of responsibilities among all participants in the process, joint management. The desire to have many sexual partners, adultery - are not polygamy. The modern man with this term justifies his own promiscuity and immorality.

The history of polygamous unions with its roots dates back to ancient times, almost to the origins of the birth of a human tribe. Examples of such marriages can be observed at almost all stages of the formation of human society. Polygamy was considered absolutely natural among the Jewish people, in India, Ancient Greece, China, and Polynesia.

At the same time, it is necessary to emphasize that polygamy prevailed mainly due to the patriarchal nature of the society at that time.

Primitive society did not have such a thing as monogamy. The ancestors of modern man without polygamy simply would not have survived. Polygamy was due to the harsh conditions of existence. It was only thanks to polygamy in that distant era that humanity survived, since it allowed it to continually be fruitful, increasing its number, which allowed the tribe to survive in difficult conditions.

At the same time, the internal hierarchy was of tremendous importance. Thus, the leader, who was the strongest representative of the clan, and then other tribesmen, depending on significance, had the prerogative to fertilize the representative of the weak part of the tribe. This also triggered the mechanism of natural selection, since stronger offspring were born from stronger men.

Every sociocultural introduction has its own history. The marriage union in the variation in which it is presently present in the west is also a product of historical development. The formation of such a phenomenon as marriage was influenced by the culture that reigned in a certain territory, philosophy, behavioral norms adopted in society.

Today, most researchers agree that the emergence of a modern marriage is due to the trends of Western European civilization: the legislative practice of Rome and Greek culture. With the fall of the Roman Empire and the advent of the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic religious institution became the main bearer of the sociocultural heritage of the Greco-Roman times. This led to the strengthening of monogamy. In modern society, only about 10% of individuals recognize polygamy.

However, for many centuries, polygamy was commonplace for almost all nations not affected by European culture. Historically, polygyny took place in about 80% of cultural communities. But with the advent of globalization, polygamy increasingly surrendered its own positions.

Moreover, the further away from the pressure of Greco-Roman culture, the greater the prevalence and recognition of polygamy. The Chinese have long believed that, above all, it was not the husband of the marriage that made a good union, but it was a good marriage, especially with several spouses, that refined and made stronger than their husbands. Then it was believed that the number of wives has a beneficial effect on the development of male potency.

The ancient Egyptians also welcomed polygamy. She was officially authorized at the court of the ruler. At the same time, in a non-Tsarist environment, polygamy was more rare than the rule, although it was not officially prohibited.

In ancient Greece, polygyny was allowed only to compensate for human losses in bloody wars. However, after the restoration of the population, polygamy was officially forbidden.

Scientists of various eras, including thinkers of antiquity, sought to determine the role of family relationships in society, highlight signs of the family and answer other questions regarding such a phenomenon as marriage, the origin of the concept, its essence. This phenomenon is studied by various sciences: sociology, pedagogy, psychology, political science. In this case, no science can give a clear and complete definition of the concepts of family and marriage. In essence, they define the system of relationships between spouses, their parents, children.

To this day, there are noisy debates about the need to ban polygamy, or vice versa its validation everywhere. At the same time, there is an increasing trend towards the departure of modern society from legally defined relations to free relations or a civil union.

The human being is the only representative of the animal environment, endowed with the ability to love. This he isolates himself from the world of beasts. Four-legged brothers and other representatives of the fauna are not able to love. There is no need to confuse the affection of pets with true love, so the human race has two ways. On one thing - humanity is moving towards monogamy, that is, it is developing, humanizing. The second way is the way of polygamy and it leads, on the contrary, to the brutality, destruction of society, the degradation of humanity, its degeneration.

When a person does not like, to accommodate in his own mind the desire for a single marriage for life is not able to. This is where various theories about human polygamous nature arise. Unfortunately, the majority of individuals, using the concept being analyzed, are only trying to justify their own imperfection and immorality.

The current legislation of most countries of the world and the institution of marriage in its traditional sense, where the marriage union itself is often without love, still directs people to follow the path of monogamy. Having lost such an institution, the human race will lose its difference from the representatives of the fauna.

In primitive society, polygamy in relationships was not a desirable phenomenon, as it is now, but a means for survival, since it allowed rapid population growth. For example, if you take 11 people who need to fill the population as quickly as possible, then a group with one woman and ten men will be in obviously losing conditions, compared to a group with one man and ten women. Since the process of reproduction itself will be rather slow, on average a woman will be able to give birth to one baby per year, while in the second group ten children will be born during the same period.

Studies by anthropologists have shown that, despite the prevalence and acceptance by most world societies (approximately 80%) of polygyny as a legitimate and acceptable model of family relationships, the overwhelming majority of marriages in such communities remained monogamous. As a rule, in those times the number of polygamous unions did not exceed 10%. Most often, polygamy was practiced among the nobility. Scientists explain the desire of mankind to monogamous unions instinctive feeling, programmed in man.

Polygamous family today is banned at the legislative level in almost all countries of the Eurasian continent. She is outlawed in most of the Western powers. At the same time, the United Kingdom and Australia recognize polygamous marriages if they are concluded in states with legalized polygamy. The vast majority of Christian countries also do not recognize polygamy except for Uganda, the Republic of the Congo, and Zambia.

According to research conducted by American biologists, polygyny has had a huge impact on the human gene pool, reducing the diversity of male chromosomes.

Male polygamy

For centuries, ladies wondered why men are polygamous. Is there male polygamy in reality or is it a myth invented by the sons of Adam themselves in order to justify his own lust?

Most of the representatives of the strong half justify their licentiousness, constant betrayal and numerous amorous adventures by their own nature. Why is it so common in society that the representatives of the stronger sex are polygamous? This delusion is rooted in primitive culture and ancient instincts. The first primitive communities of people needed to survive in rather difficult conditions. The pledge of their survival was the number of people, so primitive men sought to fertilize the maximum number of women.

In addition, over the centuries bloody wars have destroyed the male population, which gave rise to the need to increase the number of boys. Therefore, the harems in those days were not a luxury, but a vital need. From here and the birth of boys was a great joy. The situation described has remained unchanged for thousands of years. And therefore it is not surprising that even after the development of a civilized society, the emergence of the institution of marriage and the legal framework, it is still difficult for many men to contain their own lustful impulses. After all, this instinct goes back several hundred thousand years, while cultural norms insist on the need to maintain loyalty to a partner for only about three thousand years.

Thus, even if we assume that men are physiologically predisposed to polygamy, then you cannot disown the rationality of a human being. Homo sapiens is still different from the rest of the animal world by the presence of intelligence and the ability to resist the call of nature. Therefore, there is nothing impossible in keeping men loyal to their partners.

Also, do not forget that in ancient times polygamy was the result of harsh living conditions. It was not originally peculiar to people. In addition, men who advocate polygamy and justify their licentiousness, polygamous nature, need to understand that the main meaning of polygamy among ancestors was the continuation of the species, and not the satisfaction of lust. Therefore, one's own profligacy and striving for self-assertion, by increasing the number of intimate partners, should not be justified by nature if there is no intention to get offspring from all of them. Nature has nothing to do with it. It’s all the fault of just indulging one’s own whims, solving psychological problems, lack of moral principles and banal lewdness.

Thus, the polygamy of the strong half is greatly exaggerated. This is a myth invented by the men themselves in order to "legalize" treason and level the importance of the institution of marriage and the role of women in it. For the most part, polygamy is determined by social norms and traditions established in a certain community of people.

Many scholars, speaking in favor of polygamy, refer to Muslim countries, losing sight of, above all, their religiosity and historical determinants. In the countries of Islam polygamy reigned due to historical development, becoming a social norm, which took shape in families over a long period. It is unshakable Muslim norms, their traditions, foundations, and keep order, peace and harmony in marriage relations. But a similar pattern of things among the Islamists in no way proves the natural polygamous nature of Muslim men.

Female polygamy

In modern society, double standards still exist today. Socium can openly talk about polygamy of men, often justifying the unbridledness of men, but at the same time it becomes excessively moral in talking about female polygamy. By male adventures, infidelity, the desire to have several spouses at the same time, society treats condescendingly, but if Eva’s daughters even hint at something like this, this same society stigmatizes them and is ready to tear them to pieces. Most men turn down the talk of female polygamy. And this is understandable. After all, the modern woman is moving more and more rapidly in the opposite direction to the ossified patriarchal foundations.

Many are convinced that female polygamy is a product of urgent reality, generated by feminization, the desire for independence of the beautiful half of humanity and the rather large financial opportunities that have emerged.

For some reason, a strong half of humanity is convinced that only male polygamy is historically conditioned. In fact, polygamy is not a preference for men, even despite the fact that in many countries that welcome polygamy, it is polygyny rather than polyandry that is more common. However, there are ethnic groups in which the weak half is not only forbidden to have several spouses at the same time, but is even encouraged.

Today, the phenomenon of polyandry, although quite rare, but occurs. As a rule, it is common in Tibet, the southern regions of India, in Nepal, in certain tribes of Africa, South America, among the Aleuts and Eskimos. The cause of this phenomenon, first of all, is considered an extremely difficult situation of society. The lack of land suitable for agricultural work and the harsh climate lead to the rejection of the division of land among all the heirs. Therefore, the elder son chooses the spouse, which becomes common for all the brothers. Also, parents can pick up a wife so that she fits all brothers.

In such cells of society, all children are considered common and all husbands treat them as their own.

Fraternal polyandry, in which siblings have a marriage relationship with one spouse, is traditionally accepted in China, Nepal, northern India. While in the southern regions of India, fraternal variation of polyandry was found in the Toda ethnic group, but now they are more welcome to monogamy. Today, polyandric marriages in India are more often practiced in rural communes in the state of Punjab (the Malwa region), which are most likely common there with a similar purpose in order to avoid crushing land plots.

Fraternal polyandry, in contrast to the mayorat adopted in Europe and forcing the younger sons of the feudal lords to leave their native places in order to find other activities for themselves, avoids the division of property during inheritance and enables native people to live together and keep together.

Thus, polygamy in women is mostly inherent in communities that are experiencing a shortage of natural resources. Lack of resources makes it necessary to increase the importance of the survival of each baby, at the same time limiting the birth rate. At the same time, in such societies, the considered form of marital relations is widespread among peasants and among nobility. For example, the shortage of suitable for agricultural land and the entry into marriage of all the brothers with one woman in Tibet avoids the fragmentation of land belonging to the family of the spouses. If each brother created his own social unit, then the land plot would have to be divided between them. As a result, each family would get too small a plot of land, unable to feed them. Именно этим обусловлена распространённость полиандрии и среди богатых землевладельцев. Наряду с этим аборигены буддистских Занскара и Ладакха намного реже заключают полиандрические союзы из-за отсутствия собственной земли.

It is also possible to explain female polygamy by the instinctive aspiration of Eve’s daughters to find for her own offspring the most powerful and qualitative “male.” Such an explanation is more viable and scientifically substantiated than the theory, which asserts that male polygamy is caused by the instinctive aspiration of the sons of Adam to fertilize as many females as possible.

Practically every young lady, entering into a marriage with the partner most suitable for her, strives to continue the race, and when this partner ceases to be acceptable for a number of reasons for the spouse, she goes in search of a new spouse. A man, engaging in sexual relations with various partners and justifying such behavior by polygamous nature, does not have the goal of fertilizing them. Thus, the substitution of concepts.

The tolerance of modern society to male polygamy and intolerance to female, for the most part due, above all, the substitution of concepts (most, speaking of the polygamous nature of men, does not imply a form of marriage, expressed in polygamy, they justify male adultery to the change of partners and banal debauchery), as well as echoes of the patriarchy, which is not fully eradicated today, which is especially evident in traditions, foundations and marriage relations.