Psychology and Psychiatry


Psychoanalysis - This is a term introduced into the psychological use of Z. Freud. It is a teaching that focuses on the unconscious processes of the psyche and motivation. This is a psychotherapeutic method based on the analysis of the implicit, repressed experiences of the individual. In human psychoanalysis, a fundamental source of neurotic manifestations and a variety of pathological diseases is considered to be pushing out from the consciousness of unacceptable aspirations and traumatic experiences.

The psychoanalytic method prefers to view the human nature from the standpoint of confrontation: the functioning of the personality psyche reflects the struggle of diametrically opposed tendencies.

Psychoanalysis in Psychology

Psychoanalysis reflects how unconscious confrontation affects the self-esteem of the individual and the emotional side of the personality, its interactions with the rest of the environment and other social institutions. The root cause of the conflict lies in the very circumstances of the individual experience. After all, man is both a biological creature and a social being. Accordingly, its own biological aspirations are aimed at seeking pleasure and avoiding pain.

Psychoanalysis is a concept introduced by S. Freud to denote a new method of research and cure mental disorders. The principles of psychology are many-sided and broad, and one of the particularly famous methods of studying the psyche in psychological science is psychoanalysis.

Sigmund Freud's theory of psychoanalysis consists of a conscious, preconscious part and an unconscious.

In the preconscious part, many fantasies of the individual and his desires are saved. Desires can be redirected to the conscious part, if enough attention is focused on it. A phenomenon that is difficult for an individual to realize, because it contradicts his moral and ethical attitudes, or seems too painful for him, is located in the unconscious part. Actually this part is separated from the other two by censorship. Therefore, it is important to always remember that the subject of careful study of the psychoanalytic technique is the relationship of the conscious part and the unconscious.

Psychological science refers to the underlying mechanisms of psychoanalysis: an analysis of the unreasonable actions of the symptomatic structure arising in everyday life, an analysis with the help of free associations, the interpretation of dreams.

With the help of psychological teachings, people discover answers to questions that disturb their souls, and psychoanalysis is only pushing them to find an answer, often one-sided, private. Psychologists mainly work with the motivational sphere of clients, their emotions, relationships to the surrounding reality, and sensual images. Psychoanalysts concentrate mainly on the essence of the individual, on his unconscious. Along with this, there is a common thing in psychological practice and in psychoanalytic methods.

Sigmund Freud psychoanalysis

The main regulatory mechanism of human behavior is consciousness. S. Freud discovered that behind the veil of consciousness is hidden the deep, "raging" layer of not recognized by the individual powerful aspirations, aspirations, desires. As a medical practitioner, Freud was faced with the serious problem of the complication of being, due to the presence of unconscious unrest and motives. Often this "unconscious" causes neuropsychic disorders. Such a discovery directed him to search for tools that would help rid the patients of confrontation between the "spoken" consciousness and hidden, unconscious motives. Thus, Sigmund Freud's theory of psychoanalysis was born — the method of healing the soul.

Not limiting himself to the research and cure of neuropaths, as a result of the hard work of re-creating their mental health, Freud formed a theory that explained the experiences and behavioral responses of sick individuals and healthy individuals.

The theory of psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud is known as classical psychoanalysis. She gained immense popularity in the West.

The concept of "psychoanalysis" can be presented in three ways: psychopathology and the theory of personality, the method of studying unconscious thoughts of the individual and his feelings, the method of treatment of personality disorders.

Freud's classic psychoanalysis demonstrated a completely new system in psychology, which is often referred to as the psychoanalytic revolution.

Sigmund Freud philosophy of psychoanalysis: he argued that the hypothesis of unconscious processes of the psyche, the recognition of the teaching of resistance and suppression, the Oedipal complex and sexual development form the fundamental elements of psychoanalytic theory. In other words, no physician can be considered a psychoanalyst without agreeing with the basic assumptions of psychoanalysis listed above.

Freud's psychoanalysis is the basis for comprehending the many processes in the social mind, mass behavior, preferences of individuals in the field of politics, culture, etc. From the standpoint of psychoanalytic studies, the modern subject lives in a world of intense mental motives, embraced by repressed aspirations and inclinations, which leads him to television screens, multi-part films and other forms of culture that give a sublimation effect.

Freud identified two fundamental antagonistic driving forces, namely, Thanatos and Eros (for example, life and death). All processes of a destructive nature in the subject and society are based on such oppositely directed motives - “striving for life” and “craving for death”. Eros Freud, in a broad sense, regarded his aspiration for life and assigned this concept to a central place.

The theory of Freudian psychoanalysis gave science an understanding of such an important phenomenon of the psyche of the individual as "libido" or, in other words, sexual desire. The central idea of ​​Freud was the idea of ​​unconscious sexual behavior, which is the basis of the subject's behavior. Behind most manifestations of fantasy, creative potential, mainly, sexual issues are hidden. Any creativity was considered by Freud to be a symbolic fulfillment of unfulfilled desires. However, it is not necessary to exaggerate this Freudian concept. He proposed to consider that the intimate background is necessarily hidden behind every image, but in principle it is undoubted.

Introduction to psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud is often referred to as the concept of the unconscious psyche. The core of psychoanalytic teaching is a study of an active affective aggregate, which is formed as a result of repressed traumatic experiences from consciousness. The strength of this theory was always considered to be that it managed to focus attention on the unthinkable complexity of the affective side of the individual, on the problem of clearly experienced and suppressed impulses, on conflicts arising between various motives, on the tragic confrontation between the “desired” and “due” spheres. Neglect of unconscious, but real mental processes, as a determinant of behavior, in the field of education inevitably leads to a deep curvature of the whole image of the internal life of the subject, which in turn, creates an obstacle to the formation of deeper knowledge of nature and instruments of spiritual creativity, norms of behavior, personal structure and activity.

Psychoanalytic learning by focusing represents the motives and processes of an unconscious nature and is a technique that forces the unconscious to be explained by the language of consciousness, brings it to the surface in order to find the cause of personal suffering, internal confrontation to cope with it.

Freud discovered the so-called "spiritual underground", when the individual notices the best, praises him, but strives for the bad. The issue of the unconscious is acute in individual psychology, social life and social relationships. As a result of the impact of some factors, a misunderstanding of the surrounding conditions and one’s own “I” appears, contributing to a sharp pathologization of social behavior.

In a general sense, psychoanalytic theory is considered not only a scientific concept, but a philosophy, a therapeutic practice related to the healing of the psyche of individuals. It is not limited to experimental scientific knowledge and consistently draws closer to humanist-oriented theories. However, many scientists considered psychoanalytic theory a myth.

For example, the psychoanalysis Erich Fromm considered limited due to his biologizing determination of personal development and considered the role of sociological factors, political, economic, religious and cultural reasons in personal formation.

Freud developed a radical theory in which he argued the prevailing role of repression and the fundamental importance of the unconscious. Human nature has always believed in the mind as the apogee of human experience. Z. Freud freed mankind from this delusion. He forced the academic community to doubt the inviolability of the rational. Why the mind can be fully relied upon. Does he always bring comfort and relieve from torment? And is torture less grandiose in terms of the impact on the individual than the ability of the mind?

S. Freud argued that a significant proportion of rational thinking only masks real judgments and feelings, in other words, serves to conceal the truth. Therefore, for the treatment of neurotic states, Freud began to apply the method of free association, which consisted in the fact that patients in a lying relaxed state say everything that comes to mind, and it does not matter whether such thoughts are absurd or unpleasant, obscene. Powerful emotional drives lead uncontrollable thinking towards mental conflict. Freud argued that the random first thought is a forgotten continuation of the memory. However, later, he made a reservation that this is not always the case. Sometimes the thought arising in a patient is not identical to forgotten ideas, due to the mental state of the patient.

Also, Freud argued that with the help of dreams there is a presence in the depths of the brain of intense mental life. A direct analysis of the dream involves the search for hidden content, a deformed unconscious truth, which is hidden in every dream. And the more confusing the dream, the more important the hidden content is for the subject. This phenomenon is called the language of psychoanalysis resistance, and they are expressed even when the individual who has seen a dream does not want to interpret the nightly images that inhabit his mind. With the help of resistances, the unconscious defines barriers to protect itself. Dreams express hidden desires through symbols. Hidden thoughts, transforming into symbols, are made acceptable to consciousness, as a result of which it becomes possible for them to overcome censorship.

Freud's anxiety was viewed as a synonym for the affective state of the psyche — fear, which was given a special section in its work, an introduction to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis. In general, the psychoanalytic concept identifies three forms of anxiety, namely, realistic, neurotic and moral. All three forms aim at warning of a threat or danger, elaboration of a behavioral strategy, or adaptation to the threatening circumstances. In situations of internal confrontation, the “I” forms psychological defenses that are special types of unconscious mental activity, allowing at least temporarily alleviate the confrontation, relieve tension, get rid of anxiety by distorting the actual situation, changing attitudes to threatening circumstances, changing perceptions of reality in certain living conditions.

Theory of psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis is a concept based on the concept that the motivation of human behavior is largely unaware and is not obvious. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Z. Freud developed a new structural model of the psyche that made it possible in another aspect to consider internal confrontation. In this structure, he identified three components, called: "it", "I" and "super-I". The pole of the individual's drives is called "it." All processes in it flow unconsciously. From “IT” it originates and forms in interaction with the environment and the environment.
"I", which is a very complex set of identifications with other "I". In the conscious surface, preconscious and unconscious planes, the “I” functions and performs psychological defense.

All protective mechanisms are originally intended to adapt subjects to the requirements of the external environment and internal reality. But due to impaired development of the psyche, such natural and usual methods of adaptation within the family can themselves cause serious problems. All protection, along with the weakening of the impact of reality, also distorts it. In the case when such distortions are too massive, adaptive methods of protection are transformed into a psychopathological phenomenon.

The “I” is considered to be a middle region, the territory in which two realities intersect and overlap one another. One of its most important functions is reality testing. “I” invariably confronted with complex and dual requirements that come from “IT”, the external environment and “super-I”, “I” have to find compromises.

Any psychopathological phenomenon is a compromise solution, an unsuccessful desire to self-heal the psyche, which arose as a response to pain caused by intrapsychic confrontation. "TOP-I" is a storehouse of moral precepts and ideals; it implements several significant functions in psychic regulation, namely, control and self-observation, encouragement and punishment.

E. Fromm developed a humanistic psychoanalysis with the aim of expanding the boundaries of psychoanalytic teaching and emphasizing the role of economic, sociological and political factors, religious and anthropological circumstances in personality formation.

Fromm's psychoanalysis is brief: he began his interpretation of personality with an analysis of the circumstances of an individual's life and their modifications, starting with the Middle Ages and ending with the twentieth century. The humanistic psychoanalytic concept was developed to resolve the basic contradictions of human existence: egoism and altruism, possession and life, negative "freedom from" and positive "freedom for."

Erich Fromm argued that the way out of the crisis stage of modern civilization lies in creating a so-called "healthy society" based on the beliefs and guides of humanistic morality, recreating harmony between nature and subject, person and society.

Erich Fromm is considered the founder of neo-Freudianism, a trend that has become widespread mainly in the United States. Proponents of neo-Freudianism united Freudian psychoanalysis with American sociological studies. Horney’s psychoanalysis can be distinguished among the most well-known works on neofredeism The followers of neo-Freudism sharply criticized the chain of postulates of classical psychoanalysis with regard to the interpretation of the processes occurring within the psyche, but at the same time saved the most important components of its theory (the concept of the irrational motivation of the subjects).

Neofreydists focused on the study of interpersonal relationships in order to find answers to questions about the existence of man, about the proper way of life of the person and what she needs to do.

Horney's psychoanalysis consists of three fundamental behavioral strategies that an individual can use to resolve a basic conflict. Each strategy corresponds to a certain basic orientation in relations with other subjects:

- the strategy of movement towards society or an orientation towards individuals (corresponds to a compliant personality type);

- strategy of movement against society or orientation against subjects (corresponds to a hostile or aggressive personal type);

- strategy of movement from society or orientation from individuals (corresponds to a detached or isolated personality type).

For an individual-oriented interaction style, servitude, insecurity, and helplessness are inherent. Such people are governed by the conviction that if an individual retreats, he will not be touched.

An agile type needs love, protection and guidance of its actions. He usually sets up a relationship to avoid loneliness, worthlessness or helplessness. За их учтивостью может таиться подавленная потребность к агрессивному поведению.

При стиле поведения, ориентированного против субъектов, характерно доминирование, агрессивность и эксплуатация. The person acts, starting from the belief that she has the power, so no one will touch her.

The hostile type adheres to the point of view that society is aggressive, and life is a struggle against all. Hence, the hostile type views every situation or any relationship from the position that it will have from it.

Karen Horney argued that this type is able to behave correctly and friendly, but in the end, his behavior is always directed towards gaining power over the environment. All his actions are aimed at increasing his own status, credibility or the satisfaction of personal ambitions. Thus, this strategy reveals the need to exploit the environment, to receive social recognition and delight.

A separate type uses a protective device - "I do not care" and is guided by the principle that if he withdraws, he will not suffer. For this type, the following rule is characteristic: under no circumstances be allowed to be carried away. And no matter what it is about - either about love relationships or about work. As a result, they lose their genuine interest in the environment, akin to superficial pleasures. Inherent in this strategy is the desire for solitude, independence, and self-sufficiency.

Introducing this separation of behavioral strategies, Horney noted that the concept of "types" is used in the concept to simplify the designation of individuals characterized by the presence of certain traits of character.

Psychoanalytic direction

The most powerful and diverse trend in the current psychology is the psychoanalytic trend, the forefather of which is Freud's psychoanalysis. The most famous works in the psychoanalytic direction are individual psychoanalysis Adler and analytical psychoanalysis Jung.

Alfred Adler and Carl Jung, in their writings, supported the theory of the unconscious, but sought to limit the role of intimate motives in interpreting the human psyche. As a result, the unconscious acquired new content. The content of the unconscious, according to A. Adler, was the striving for power as a tool compensating for a sense of inferiority.

Jung's psychoanalysis briefly: G. Jung rooted the concept of "collective unconscious." He considered the unconscious psyche saturated with structures that cannot be individually acquired, but are a gift from distant ancestors, whereas Freud believed that the subject’s unconscious psyche could include phenomena previously ousted from consciousness.

Jung further develops the concept of the two poles of the unconscious - the collective and the personal. The surface layer of the psyche, covering all the content that have a connection with personal experience, namely, forgotten memories, repressed motivations and desires, forgotten traumatic impressions, Jung called personal unconscious. It depends on the personal history of the subject and may awaken in fantasies and dreams. Collective unconscious, he called the supra-personal unconscious psyche, which includes inclinations, instincts, which in personality are natural creatures, and archetypes, in which the human soul is found. The collective unconscious contains national and racial beliefs, myths and prejudices, as well as a certain inheritance that was acquired from animals by humans. Instincts and archetypes play the role of regulator of the inner life of the individual. Instinct determines the specific behavior of the subject, and the archetype determines the specific formation of the conscious contents of the psyche.

Jung singled out two human types: extravertive and introvertive. The first type is characterized by orientation to the outside and enthusiasm for social activity, and the second - by internal orientation and focus on personal drives. Subsequently, Jung called such inclinations of the subject the term "libido" as well as Freud, but at the same time Jung did not identify the concept of "libido" with sexual instinct.

Thus, psychoanalysis Jung is an addition to classical psychoanalysis. Jung's philosophy of psychoanalysis had a rather serious influence on the further development of psychology and psychotherapy, along with anthropology, ethnography, philosophy, and esotericism.

Transforming the initial postulate of psychoanalysis, Adler singled out a sense of inferiority, caused, in particular, by physical defects as a factor of personal development. In response to such sensations, there appears a desire to compensate for it, in order to gain superiority over others. The source of neurosis, in his opinion, is hidden in the inferiority complex. He was fundamentally disagree with the statements of Jung and Freud about the prevalence of personal unconscious instincts of human behavior and his personality, which oppose the individual to society and alienate him.

Adler's psychoanalysis is brief: Adler argued that a sense of community with society, stimulating social relationships and orientation to other subjects, is the main force that drives human behavior and determines the life of an individual, and not innate archetypes or instincts.

However, there is something in common that links the three concepts of individual psychoanalysis Adler, analytic psychoanalytic theory of Jung and classical psychoanalysis of Freud - all of these concepts claimed that the individual possesses some inner characteristic of him alone that affects his personality formation. Only Freud gave a decisive role to sexual motives, Adler noted the role of social interests, and Jung attached decisive importance to primary types of thinking.

Another convinced follower of Freud's psychoanalytic theory was E. Bern. In the course of further development of the ideas of classical psychoanalysis and the development of methods for the treatment of neuropsychic ills, Bern focused on the so-called "transactions" that form the foundation of interpersonal relationships. Bern's psychoanalysis: he considered the three ego states, namely the child, the adult, and the parent. Bern suggested that in the process of any interaction with the environment, the subject is always in one of the listed states.

Introduction to psychoanalysis of Bern - this work was created to explain the dynamics of the psyche of the individual and the analysis of problems experienced by patients. Unlike fellow psychoanalysts, Bern considered it important to bring the analysis of personality problems to the history of the life of her parents and other ancestors.

An introduction to the psychoanalysis of Bern is devoted to the analysis of the varieties of "games" used by individuals in daily communication.

Psychoanalysis methods

The psychoanalytic concept has its own psychoanalysis techniques, which include several stages: the production of material, the stage of analysis and the working alliance. The main methods of producing material include free association, transfer reaction and resistance.

The method of free association is called diagnostic, research and therapeutic reception of classical psychoanalysis of Freud. It is based on the use of associative thinking to comprehend the underlying mental processes (mostly unconscious) and further apply the data to correct and cure functional mental disorders through customer awareness of the sources of their problems, causes and nature. A feature of this method is considered to be jointly directed, meaningful and purposeful struggle of the patient and the therapist against the sensations of mental discomfort or illness.

The method consists in the patient pronouncing any thoughts that come to his head, even if such thoughts are absurd or obscene. The effectiveness of the method depends, for the most part, on the relationship that originated between the patient and the therapist. The basis of such a relationship is the phenomenon of transference, which consists in the patient’s subconscious transfer of the properties of the parents to the therapist. In other words, the client transfers to the therapist the feelings that he or she has towards the surrounding subjects in the early age period, in other words, projects the early children's desires and relationships to another person.

The process of understanding causal relationships during psychotherapy, constructive transformation of personal attitudes and beliefs, as well as renunciation of old and the formation of new types of behavior are accompanied by certain difficulties, resistance, and opposition from the client. Resistance is a recognized clinical phenomenon accompanying any form of psychotherapy. It means striving not to hurt an unknowable conflict, which creates an obstacle to any attempt to identify the true sources of personality problems.

Freud considered the resistance of the opposition, unconsciously rendered by the client attempts to recreate the "repressed complex" in his mind.

The analysis stage contains four steps (confrontation, interpretation, clarification and study), which do not necessarily go one after the other.

Another important psychotherapeutic stage is the working alliance, which is a relatively healthy, rational relationship between the patient and the therapist. It enables the client to work purposefully in an analytical situation.

The method of interpreting dreams is to search for hidden content, a deformed unconscious truth that lies behind every dream.

Modern psychoanalysis

Modern psychoanalysis is an adult in the field of Freud's concepts. It is a constantly evolving theories and methods designed to open the most intimate aspects of human nature.

For more than a hundred years of its existence, the psychoanalytic study has undergone many cardinal changes. On the basis of Freud's monotheistic theory, a complex system has been formed, which covers a variety of practical approaches and scientific points of view.

Modern psychoanalysis is a set of approaches related to a common subject of analysis. This subject is the unconscious side of the mental being of the subjects. The overall goal of psychoanalytic works is to free individuals from a variety of unconscious limits that give rise to anguish and block progressive development. Initially, the development of psychoanalysis went solely as a method of healing from neuroses and the doctrine of unconscious processes.

Modern psychoanalysis identifies three areas that are interconnected, namely the psychoanalytic concept that forms the foundation for a variety of practical approaches, applied psychoanalysis, aimed at the study of cultural phenomena and the solution of social problems and clinical psychoanalysis aimed at assisting psychological and psychotherapeutic nature in cases of personal difficulties or neuropsychiatric disorders.

If during Freud's creativity, the concept of drives and the theory of infantile sexual desire were especially prevalent, then today the undoubted leader in the field of psychoanalytic ideas is the ego-psychology and the concept of object relations. Along with this, the techniques of psychoanalysis are constantly transformed.

Modern psychoanalytic practice has already gone far beyond the treatment of neurotic states. Despite the fact that the symptoms of neurosis, as before, is considered an indication for the use of the classical technique of psychoanalysis, modern psychoanalytic teaching finds adequate ways to assist individuals with a variety of issues, ranging from everyday psychological difficulties and ending with severe mental disorders.

Structural psychoanalysis and neo-Freudism are considered the most popular branches of modern psychoanalytic theory.

Structural psychoanalysis is the direction of modern psychoanalysis, based on the meaning of language for the evaluation of the unconscious, the characteristics of the subconscious and for the treatment of psycho-neurological diseases.

Neo-Freudianism also refers to the trend in modern psychoanalytic theory that has arisen on the foundation of the implementation of Freud's postulates about unconscious emotional motivation of subjects. Also, all followers of neo-Freudism were united in their desire to rethink Freud's theory in the direction of its greater sociologization. For example, Adler and Jung rejected Freud's biologism, instinctive activism and sexual determinism, and also attached less importance to the unconscious.

The development of psychoanalysis, thus, led to the emergence of numerous modifications that changed the content of key concepts of Freud's concept. However, all followers of psychoanalysis are bound by the recognition of the judgment of "conscious and unconscious."