The most powerful and diverse trend in the current psychology is the psychoanalytic trend, the forefather of which is Freud's psychoanalysis. The most famous works in the psychoanalytic direction are individual psychoanalysis Adler and analytical psychoanalysis Jung.
Alfred Adler and Carl Jung, in their writings, supported the theory of the unconscious, but sought to limit the role of intimate motives in interpreting the human psyche. As a result, the unconscious acquired new content. The content of the unconscious, according to A. Adler, was the striving for power as a tool compensating for a sense of inferiority.
Jung's psychoanalysis briefly: G. Jung rooted the concept of "collective unconscious." He considered the unconscious psyche saturated with structures that cannot be individually acquired, but are a gift from distant ancestors, whereas Freud believed that the subject’s unconscious psyche could include phenomena previously ousted from consciousness.
Jung further develops the concept of the two poles of the unconscious - the collective and the personal. The surface layer of the psyche, covering all the content that have a connection with personal experience, namely, forgotten memories, repressed motivations and desires, forgotten traumatic impressions, Jung called personal unconscious. It depends on the personal history of the subject and may awaken in fantasies and dreams. Collective unconscious, he called the supra-personal unconscious psyche, which includes inclinations, instincts, which in personality are natural creatures, and archetypes, in which the human soul is found. The collective unconscious contains national and racial beliefs, myths and prejudices, as well as a certain inheritance that was acquired from animals by humans. Instincts and archetypes play the role of regulator of the inner life of the individual. Instinct determines the specific behavior of the subject, and the archetype determines the specific formation of the conscious contents of the psyche.
Jung singled out two human types: extravertive and introvertive. The first type is characterized by orientation to the outside and enthusiasm for social activity, and the second - by internal orientation and focus on personal drives. Subsequently, Jung called such inclinations of the subject the term "libido" as well as Freud, but at the same time Jung did not identify the concept of "libido" with sexual instinct.
Thus, psychoanalysis Jung is an addition to classical psychoanalysis. Jung's philosophy of psychoanalysis had a rather serious influence on the further development of psychology and psychotherapy, along with anthropology, ethnography, philosophy, and esotericism.
Transforming the initial postulate of psychoanalysis, Adler singled out a sense of inferiority, caused, in particular, by physical defects as a factor of personal development. In response to such sensations, there appears a desire to compensate for it, in order to gain superiority over others. The source of neurosis, in his opinion, is hidden in the inferiority complex. He was fundamentally disagree with the statements of Jung and Freud about the prevalence of personal unconscious instincts of human behavior and his personality, which oppose the individual to society and alienate him.
Adler's psychoanalysis is brief: Adler argued that a sense of community with society, stimulating social relationships and orientation to other subjects, is the main force that drives human behavior and determines the life of an individual, and not innate archetypes or instincts.
However, there is something in common that links the three concepts of individual psychoanalysis Adler, analytic psychoanalytic theory of Jung and classical psychoanalysis of Freud - all of these concepts claimed that the individual possesses some inner characteristic of him alone that affects his personality formation. Only Freud gave a decisive role to sexual motives, Adler noted the role of social interests, and Jung attached decisive importance to primary types of thinking.
Another convinced follower of Freud's psychoanalytic theory was E. Bern. In the course of further development of the ideas of classical psychoanalysis and the development of methods for the treatment of neuropsychic ills, Bern focused on the so-called "transactions" that form the foundation of interpersonal relationships. Bern's psychoanalysis: he considered the three ego states, namely the child, the adult, and the parent. Bern suggested that in the process of any interaction with the environment, the subject is always in one of the listed states.
Introduction to psychoanalysis of Bern - this work was created to explain the dynamics of the psyche of the individual and the analysis of problems experienced by patients. Unlike fellow psychoanalysts, Bern considered it important to bring the analysis of personality problems to the history of the life of her parents and other ancestors.
An introduction to the psychoanalysis of Bern is devoted to the analysis of the varieties of "games" used by individuals in daily communication.
The psychoanalytic concept has its own psychoanalysis techniques, which include several stages: the production of material, the stage of analysis and the working alliance. The main methods of producing material include free association, transfer reaction and resistance.
The method of free association is called diagnostic, research and therapeutic reception of classical psychoanalysis of Freud. It is based on the use of associative thinking to comprehend the underlying mental processes (mostly unconscious) and further apply the data to correct and cure functional mental disorders through customer awareness of the sources of their problems, causes and nature. A feature of this method is considered to be jointly directed, meaningful and purposeful struggle of the patient and the therapist against the sensations of mental discomfort or illness.
The method consists in the patient pronouncing any thoughts that come to his head, even if such thoughts are absurd or obscene. The effectiveness of the method depends, for the most part, on the relationship that originated between the patient and the therapist. The basis of such a relationship is the phenomenon of transference, which consists in the patient’s subconscious transfer of the properties of the parents to the therapist. In other words, the client transfers to the therapist the feelings that he or she has towards the surrounding subjects in the early age period, in other words, projects the early children's desires and relationships to another person.
The process of understanding causal relationships during psychotherapy, constructive transformation of personal attitudes and beliefs, as well as renunciation of old and the formation of new types of behavior are accompanied by certain difficulties, resistance, and opposition from the client. Resistance is a recognized clinical phenomenon accompanying any form of psychotherapy. It means striving not to hurt an unknowable conflict, which creates an obstacle to any attempt to identify the true sources of personality problems.
Freud considered the resistance of the opposition, unconsciously rendered by the client attempts to recreate the "repressed complex" in his mind.
The analysis stage contains four steps (confrontation, interpretation, clarification and study), which do not necessarily go one after the other.
Another important psychotherapeutic stage is the working alliance, which is a relatively healthy, rational relationship between the patient and the therapist. It enables the client to work purposefully in an analytical situation.
The method of interpreting dreams is to search for hidden content, a deformed unconscious truth that lies behind every dream.
Modern psychoanalysis is an adult in the field of Freud's concepts. It is a constantly evolving theories and methods designed to open the most intimate aspects of human nature.
For more than a hundred years of its existence, the psychoanalytic study has undergone many cardinal changes. On the basis of Freud's monotheistic theory, a complex system has been formed, which covers a variety of practical approaches and scientific points of view.
Modern psychoanalysis is a set of approaches related to a common subject of analysis. This subject is the unconscious side of the mental being of the subjects. The overall goal of psychoanalytic works is to free individuals from a variety of unconscious limits that give rise to anguish and block progressive development. Initially, the development of psychoanalysis went solely as a method of healing from neuroses and the doctrine of unconscious processes.
Modern psychoanalysis identifies three areas that are interconnected, namely the psychoanalytic concept that forms the foundation for a variety of practical approaches, applied psychoanalysis, aimed at the study of cultural phenomena and the solution of social problems and clinical psychoanalysis aimed at assisting psychological and psychotherapeutic nature in cases of personal difficulties or neuropsychiatric disorders.
If during Freud's creativity, the concept of drives and the theory of infantile sexual desire were especially prevalent, then today the undoubted leader in the field of psychoanalytic ideas is the ego-psychology and the concept of object relations. Along with this, the techniques of psychoanalysis are constantly transformed.
Modern psychoanalytic practice has already gone far beyond the treatment of neurotic states. Despite the fact that the symptoms of neurosis, as before, is considered an indication for the use of the classical technique of psychoanalysis, modern psychoanalytic teaching finds adequate ways to assist individuals with a variety of issues, ranging from everyday psychological difficulties and ending with severe mental disorders.
Structural psychoanalysis and neo-Freudism are considered the most popular branches of modern psychoanalytic theory.
Structural psychoanalysis is the direction of modern psychoanalysis, based on the meaning of language for the evaluation of the unconscious, the characteristics of the subconscious and for the treatment of psycho-neurological diseases.
Neo-Freudianism also refers to the trend in modern psychoanalytic theory that has arisen on the foundation of the implementation of Freud's postulates about unconscious emotional motivation of subjects. Also, all followers of neo-Freudism were united in their desire to rethink Freud's theory in the direction of its greater sociologization. For example, Adler and Jung rejected Freud's biologism, instinctive activism and sexual determinism, and also attached less importance to the unconscious.
The development of psychoanalysis, thus, led to the emergence of numerous modifications that changed the content of key concepts of Freud's concept. However, all followers of psychoanalysis are bound by the recognition of the judgment of "conscious and unconscious."