PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) - This is a special complex of psychological problems or painful deviations in behavior dictated by a stressful situation. PTSD are synonymous with PTSS (Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome), "Chechen Syndrome", "Vietnamese Syndrome", "Afghan Syndrome". This condition occurs after a single traumatic or multiple recurring situations, such as physical injury, participation in hostilities, sexual violence, the threat of death.

Features of PTSD consist in manifestations of more than a month of characteristic symptoms: involuntary recurrent memories, high level of anxiety, avoidance or loss of traumatic events from memory. According to statistics, most people do not develop PTSD after traumatic situations.

PTSD is the most common psychological disorder in the world. Statistics claim that up to 8% of all the inhabitants of the planet during this life endure this state at least once. Women are prone to this disorder 2 times more often than men because of reactivity and physiological instability to a stressful situation.

Causes of PTSD

This condition is caused by the following traumatic effects: natural disasters, terrorist acts, military actions, which include violence, taking hostage, torture, as well as serious long-term illness or death of loved ones.

In many cases, if the psychological trauma is severe, it is expressed in the experiences of helplessness, intense fear, and extreme horror. To the traumatic events include service in the security forces, domestic violence, where the individual witnesses serious crimes.

Post-traumatic stress disorders in people develop due to post-traumatic stress. Peculiarities of PTSD are expressed in the fact that the individual, having managed to adapt himself to the various circumstances of life, has changed internally himself. Changes occurring with him help to survive, in what conditions he would not fall.

The degree of development of the pathological syndrome depends on the level of participation of the individual in a stressful situation. Also, the development of PTSD can affect the social and living conditions in which the individual is after the trauma experienced. The risk of a disorder is greatly reduced when there are people around who have experienced a similar situation. Often, PTSD is susceptible to individuals with poor mental health, as well as increased reactivity to surrounding stimuli.

In addition, there are other individual features that trigger the occurrence of the disorder:

- hereditary factors (mental illness, suicide of close relatives, alcoholism, drug addiction);

- children's psychological trauma;

- Nervous, concomitant mental pathologies, diseases of the endocrine system;

- the difficult economic and political situation in the country;

- loneliness.

One of the most common causes of PTSD is participation in hostilities. The military situation develops in people the neutrality of the mental attitude to difficult situations, but these circumstances, remaining in memory and emerging in peacetime, cause a strong traumatic effect. For most of the participants in hostilities are characterized by violations of internal balance.

What are some signs of PTSD? The criteria for PTSD are events that go beyond the normal human experience. For example, war horrors have an impact on their intensity as well as on their frequent repeatability, which does not encourage a person to recover.

The other side of PTSD affects the inner world of the individual and is related to his reaction to the experienced events. All people react differently. A tragic accident may cause one person a permanent injury, while the other is almost not affected.

If the injury is relatively insignificant, then the increased anxiety and other signs will disappear within a few hours, days, weeks. If the injury is strong or the traumatizing psyche events have recurred many times, then the painful reaction persists for many years. For example, for combat veterans, an explosion or the hum of a low-flying helicopter can cause an acute stressful situation. At the same time, the individual seeks to feel, think, act so as to avoid unpleasant memories. The human psyche in PTSD produces a special mechanism to protect against painful experiences. For example, an individual who has experienced the tragic death of loved ones will subconsciously continue to avoid a close emotional connection with someone, or if a person believes that at a crucial moment he has shown irresponsibility, then in the future he will not take responsibility for something.

"Reflexes of fighting" does not seem to be a normal occurrence for a person until he gets into peacetime and makes a strange impression on people.

Help with PTSD participants in the tragic events includes creating an atmosphere so that people can rethink everything that happens to them, analyze sensations and internally accept, as well as accept the experience. This is necessary in order to continue to move through life further and not get stuck on their experiences. It is very important for people who have survived military events, violence, so that love, harmony, and understanding surround them at home, but often this is not the case and at home people are confronted with misunderstanding, lack of a sense of security and emotional contact. Often, people are forced to suppress emotions in themselves, not allowing them to go outside, risking losing self-control. In these situations, nervous mental stress does not find a way out. When an individual has not been able to relieve internal tension for a long time, his mind and body themselves find a way to get along with this state.

PTSD symptoms

The course of PTSD is expressed in repetitive and intrusive reproduction in the minds of psycho-traumatic events. Often, the stress experienced by the patient is expressed in extremely intense experiences, causing suicidal thoughts to stop the attack. There are also characteristic nightmare recurring dreams and involuntary memories.

The characteristics of PTSD are expressed in the heightened avoidance of feelings, thoughts, conversations associated with traumatic events, as well as the actions, people and places that trigger these memories.

Symptoms of PTSD include psychogenic amnesia, manifested in the inability to reproduce in detail the traumatic event. People have constant vigilance, as well as a constant state of waiting for a threat. This condition is often complicated by diseases and somatic disorders of the endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous and digestive systems.

The “trigger” for PTSD is an event that causes a seizure in a patient. Often the “trigger” is only part of the traumatic experience, for example, the noise of a car, the crying of a child, an image, being at a height, a text, a telecast, and so on.

Patients with PTSD usually by all means avoid encounters with factors that trigger this disorder. They do this subconsciously or consciously, trying to avoid a new attack.

PTSD is diagnosed with the following symptoms:

- exacerbations of psychopathic repressive practices that seriously harm mental trauma;

- the desire to avoid situations reminiscent of the experienced trauma;

- loss of traumatic situations from memory (amnestic phenomena);

- a significant level of generalized anxiety during the 3rd - 18th week after the traumatic incident;

- manifestation of aggravation attacks after meeting with factors triggering the development of this disorder - anxiety triggers. Triggers are often auditory and visual stimuli - a shot, a creak of brakes, the smell of some substance, crying, engine hum, and so on;

- dullness of emotions (a person partially loses the ability for emotional manifestations - friendship, love, there is a lack of creativity, spontaneity, playfulness);

- aggressiveness (the desire to solve their problems through verbal, physical, mental aggression);

- impaired memory and concentration when the stress factor appears;

- depression with a concomitant feeling of apathy, a negative attitude towards life and nervous exhaustion;

- general anxiety (concern, anxiety, fear of persecution, fear, guilt complex, lack of self-confidence);

- bouts of rage (explosions like a volcanic eruption, often inherent under the influence of alcohol and drugs);

- abuse of drugs and narcotic substances;

- uninvited memories that pop up in ugly, creepy scenes associated with traumatic psyche events. Unsolicited memories emerge, both during wakefulness and in sleep. Nayavu they appear in situations where the environment resembles what happened during a traumatic situation. From ordinary memories they are distinguished by a sense of fear and anxiety. Coming in a dream, uninvited memories, attributed to nightmares. The individual wakes up "broken", wet from sweat, with strained muscles;

- hallucinatory experiences for which behavior is peculiar, as if the person is re-experiencing a traumatic event;

- insomnia (intermittent sleep, difficulty falling asleep);

- thoughts of suicide because of despair, lack of strength to live;

- feeling of guilt due to the fact that he survived in the ordeal and others did not.

PTSD treatment

Therapy of this condition is complex, at the beginning of the disease it is medicamental, and then psychotherapeutic help.

In the treatment of PTSD, all groups of psychotropic drugs are used: hypnotics, tranquilizers, antipsychotics, antidepressants, in some cases - psychostimulants and anticonvulsants.

Anti-depressants of the SSRI group are most effective in the treatment, as well as tranquilizers and drugs acting on MTreceptors.

Effective in the treatment of methods in which the patient at the beginning of the attack focuses on distracting vivid memories, which over time contributes to the formation of the habit of automatically switching to positive or neutral emotions, bypassing the traumatic experience when a trigger occurs. The psychotherapeutic method in the treatment of PTSD is the method of desensitization, as well as processing using eye movements.

Psychedelic psychotherapy using serotonergic psychedelics and psychostimulants of the phenylethylamine group is prescribed for patients with severe symptoms.

Psychological assistance in PTSD is aimed at teaching patients to accept the reality of their lives and create new cognitive models of life activity.

Correction of PTSD is expressed in the attainment of true mental and physical health, which is not in accordance with someone's standards and norms, but in reaching an agreement with oneself. To do this, on the way to true recovery, it is not so important to behave, as is customary in society, but you have to be extremely honest with yourself, assessing what is happening in life at the moment. If the circumstances of life are influenced: mindsets, disturbing memories, behavior, it is important to honestly acknowledge their existence. Full disposal of PTSD can be obtained by seeking help from specialists (psychologist, psychotherapist).