Monogamy is a historically established form of family relationships, consisting in the creation of a family by two individuals of opposite gender affiliation. Today monogamy is also possible among members of the same sex in the states where such marriages are allowed by law. This variation of the cell of society is opposed to polygamy, which implies that one partner may have several marriage partners of a different gender. Modern biologists professing the theory of evolution, this term is considered as a phenomenon inherent not only in homo sapiens, but also representatives of the fauna.
The interaction of the sexes, implying cohabitation, joint life, based on loyalty, is called monogamous. Spouses in such a relationship seem to enter into a tacit agreement among themselves about the absence of betrayals.
Monogamy is a form of marriage in which an individual has one partner either throughout his life, or at a certain life stage (consistent monogamy).
Family ties are based precisely on monogamy. In addition, scientists who advocate evolutionary theory, argue that it is monogamy that is obliged by man to walk directly.
Despite the commonness and prevalence of monogamy, adultery in family life is not uncommon. Psychologists explain this behavior by the immaturity of partners. For monogamous relationships, a person must mature in mental and mental plan. People are imperfect and weak. They too tend to indulge their own desires, having deep feelings for a partner, at the same time not stopping to descend into the whirlpool of adultery with the head. Often betrayals are the result of intoxication or family quarrel. There are fewer cases of prolonged adultery, when the individual has a marriage partner and extra-marital for a long period.
Human feelings are quite complex in structure and nature. Often they are characterized by inconsistency. Due to the inability to resist the inclinations of one's own organism, the charm of the opposite sex, there are betrayals in monogamous relationships. Individuals lack moral guidelines and moral principles, so they do not even try to resist temptation, often consciously striving for extramarital affairs.
There are people who advocate polygamy, arguing that monogamy in relationships is against human nature. Such subjects come into contact, negotiating with a partner in advance a similar alignment, so that there are no complaints and offenses.
In European states, only monogamous marriage bonds are officially allowed. At the same time, a lot of partners who created the social unit of society officially still get an affair on the side, often blaming their own half for this.
Eastern residents who practice Islam are adherents of polygamy, namely polygyny (polygamy). At the same time polyandry (polyandry) is prohibited there.
There are four variations of monogamy.:
- family (marriage) - refers to unions that include only two partners (in this case, this form, in its turn, is subdivided into one marriage bond in life and a union at the same time with one spouse - consistent monogamy);
- social monogamy involves the cohabitation of partners entering into intimate relations with each other (promiscuity is possible) and cooperating to acquire basic resources, for example, housing, material goods, food;
- intimate monogamy lies in the exclusive sexual relations between the two partners between themselves (the partners enter into intimate relationships only with each other);
- genetic type monogamy refers to a previous variation of monogamous ties with genetic evidence of paternity.
Behavioral ecologists, physical anthropologists and biologists often use the term in question not in a genetic sense, but in an intimate one. Cultural and other representatives of the social sciences imply social monogamy or family monogamy by the concept of "monogamy".
It is a mistake to assume that animals are polygamous, as a result of which they do not care with whom the mating will take place. Most of the fauna is indeed polygamous, but there are enough representatives of the animal kingdom, which are prone to monogamy. So, for example, everyone heard about swan fidelity. Couples created by swans, often exist for many years or until the death of one of the individuals. That is why today the swans are considered a kind of love and a symbol of loyalty.
The brightest example of loyalty to a partner is wolves. If the male dies, then, as a rule, the she-wolf remains lonely until her own demise. In turn, the male is ready to protect his own offspring and she-wolf to death.
Beavers also differ fidelity. While the female prepares to give birth to offspring, the male produces food for her. Then they grow a crumb together for several years, and then they let go into a free life.
Penguins live in a pair for a long period. After forming a pair, they, returning to the colony, strive to find each other among the other penguins.
Thus, it is considered that monogamous ties are a special interaction between partners, which does not allow the possibility of mutual relations with another individual or an affair on the side. It is on this foundation that the family is based, which is not only a structural unit of society, but also a place where new citizens of society are born and receive education. Therefore, for the further progressive development of society and its well-being, gender relations should be built exclusively on mutual respect and love.
Maybe for many representatives of modern society, polygamy is attractive, but it has a destructive and destructive effect on the soul and the whole personality of individuals. Torn apart between several relationships, a person loses his own "I", its depth, integrity. Monogamy also allows the individual to feel peace and confidence in the future. But besides this, living in a society and following the norms of this society, the family is not amenable to censure. It is recognized and understood. Couples following the moral and ethical foundations of the community are welcome in any dwelling, because the owners are not afraid that the free views of the guests may negatively affect the moral stability of the halves.
Another positive point of monogamy is such an aspect as health. It is proved that people adhering to monogamous relationships are much healthier than their polygamous associates. Since they are sure that they are the only ones, they are loved, and therefore they do not feel the fear of loneliness, lack of trust and discomfort. They do not compete with other partners of the halves, and therefore do not exist in constant stress. In monogamous relationships, where partners love their chosen ones, there are fewer conflicts: spouses do not feel the threat of family breakup. But they feel an absolute unity with the half, striving to open the soul to the chosen one, warm it with warmth and envelop it with all the accumulated care.
Thus, a monogamous family is a form of a monopoly union, which is the most common among the aborigines of the planet. This is the union of two loving hearts, ready to raise offspring together. Only in the monogamous cell of society are there all the prerequisites for the formation of healthy personalities.
Why men are polygamous and women are monogamous
This question is not entirely correct. In nature, there are about 90% of species of feathered brethren and 5% of mammals are monogamous, that is, they create stable pairs and together raise offspring. Among primates, 23% of species are monogamous. Also belongs to the order of primates and homo sapiens. At the same time, to this day, scientists are engaged in loud debates on the subject of monogamy and polygamy, which is more typical of the human race.
Some researchers are convinced that a man is polygamous in accordance with his own nature, as a result of which the biological task of the sons of Adam is to fertilize as many females as possible. At the same time, the task of Eva’s daughters is to be pregnant from the most physically developed and status partner.
However, this view is refuted by anthropologists and historians. They argue that distant ancestors, as well as the current primitive communities, formed pairs for the joint existence and upbringing of children. Such unions are beneficial from the standpoint of the survival of the population, since they allowed parents to share responsibilities and care for children. According to T. Smith's research, the model of relationships under consideration for children and spouse guarantees support from the father of the family and at the same time gives the husband confidence that the offspring in which he invests his own strength, work and care from him.
At the same time, contrary to popular opinion, there are no and never existed communities where intimate relationships and love affairs would not be regulated by law and regulated by traditions. Such customs and foundations can be hard or not very, but they always have a place to be.
However, regardless of the point of view, which scientists of various fields adhere to, they all agree that the entire human race should be attributed to polygamous or monogamous, not dividing Adam and Evin daughters into sons.
Arguing about gender differences, scientists note that the strong half has a significantly higher concentration of testosterone, which is also responsible for libido. However, based only on this hypothesis, it is impossible to conclude that the sons of Adam are polygamous. After all, this hormone stimulates only an intimate desire, and not the desire for sexual contact with different partners.
Modern scientists carry out a lot of sociological research and experiments in order to reveal the presence of a causal link between gender and a predisposition to polygamy or monogamy. These studies have shown that men really want to have many intimate partners, they are more ready to go into intimate relationships, and also indulge in thoughts about sex more often than femin.
In the US, they conducted a social experiment, which showed that 72% of Adam’s sons agreed to have sexual contact with a beautiful stranger. At the same time, women who took part in the same study refused to enter into intimate intimacy with a handsome stranger.
One of the surveys carried out clearly demonstrated that American men would prefer, on average, to have about 18 sexual partners throughout their existence, while American girls would prefer to have no more than 4.
At the same time, the reality is that the subjects had approximately an equal number of sexual partners: men - about 4, women - 3.5. In addition, a rather significant percentage of Americans (25% of 30-year-olds and about 40% of those over 60), regardless of their gender, remain faithful to one partner throughout their lives.
Thus, sociological interviews showed that Adam's sons and daughters of Eve expressed, as a rule, only the desired position. At the same time, they sought to harmonize as much as possible with tacitly accepted social norms, which prescribe the strong half to have as many intimate partners as possible, and the weak half to strive to find the “only” one. The reality is very different from the data "dry" statistics. Practice shows that the number of sexual partners differs little from the fair sex and from the sons of Adam.
Summing up, it should be emphasized that it is the double standards of morality, based on the patriarchal nature of society, which limit the attraction of Eve’s daughters, and led to the appearance of the issue in question. In fact, these very moral guidelines, firmly established in society, reduce the possibility of feminine sexual satisfaction, as well as their average sexual activity in comparison with Adam’s courageous sons, which consequently reduces the chances of the strong half to find sex.
In fact, it is quite profitable for men to be considered polygamous, and the feminish monogamous in turn. After all, it gives them a free hand. They get some share of sexual freedom, while limiting it to the fair sex. And in this striving they completely miss the lack of scientific validity of male polygamousness, forgetting even the original meaning of this term, twisting it to their advantage.
The term polygamy means precisely polygamy, and not promiscuous sex. At the same time, there are two variants of polygamy: polyandry (a woman has several spouses at the same time) and polygyny (respectively, polygamy). Consequently, even the very existence of such a separation implies that according to their nature, both the beautiful femines and the sons of Adam can be polygamous or monogamous.
Many men want to have the guarantee of a woman’s loyalty, but they themselves are not in a hurry to be faithful to their chosen ones. Thus, strong men drive themselves into the trap of their own selfishness. Since the desire to strengthen the installation in society, that a man is a priori polygamous, and Eve's daughter does not, will only lead to the fact that he will have to join only in communication among representatives of his own sex.