Psychology and Psychiatry

Child development in months to a year

Child development in months to a year interested in many parents worrying about their crumbs. In the first year of life, the child learns a variety of actions and manipulations, such as sitting or standing, crawling, holding or taking, smiling, playing, etc. During this year, the child will have to overcome a lot of achievements and make a huge leap in their own development. After all, a crumb from a baby previously completely helpless turns into a small individual who can sit on his own, move around, express his own "want" and other needs.

The developmental norms of a child up to one month old exist to determine the adequacy of the development of an infant. If a child is brought up in a "normal" cell of society, in which two parents provide him with care, proper care and prosperous existence, then a healthy little tot will develop evenly over months to a year in all spheres.

Thus, the physical development of a child up to one month old implies an increase in body weight and its rapid growth. In the cognitive sphere of child development, the ability to memorize and fast learner will be observed for months to a year. In the social development of the child, there is a response to the surrounding reality, which is manifested in the distinction between the faces of loved ones and their interest in various subjects. In the motive sphere of the development of the child, months or years appear forces to first hold the head independently, and then sit and take the first steps.

Child development calendar for months to a year

Most moms are concerned about the correctness of the development of the child for months to a year. They are particularly concerned about issues related to what should happen in the development of a child for months up to 1 year in a particular age period, and what is not. The adequacy of the formation of the child can be assessed only on the condition that there is something to push off.

To this end, it is necessary to study the physical development of the child up to one month old, so that the mother can help the baby develop in the right direction by working with it. Parents need to understand what activities need to be conducted with the child. Most doctors and educators are confident that a significant role in the child development of a child is not played by the parents, but directly by the baby.

The development of the child for months to a year is regulated by the baby himself through the natural mechanisms laid down in him that direct him to the knowledge of the world. Parental intervention is necessary solely to create conditions that promote adequate formation and will not allow the crumbs of knowledge to wither away the inner urges of the crumbs. In addition, parental intervention should be timely and in place. However, it involves the implementation of three key tasks. The first of which is to study the signs that manifest themselves in a certain period, the second - to observe the crumbs, the third - to create conditions conducive to development.

The child development calendar for months to a year was developed specifically to solve the above problems.

In the first thirty days of existence, the baby has ten reflexes, namely sucking, grasping, searching, reflexes of Babkin, Mora and Babinski, reflex support, swimming, reflex crawling Bauer, walk. The sucking reflex is manifested in the reproduction of the sucking movements of the baby when the lips are irritated with a finger or nipple. When investing in the handle of the crumbs of the finger, he immediately closes it. Thus, the grasping reflex is manifested.

The search reflex is manifested in the baby turning the head when touching or stroking his cheek. When pressing on the mound of the baby’s thumb, he opens his mouth and tilts his head. This is the Babkin reflex. Reflex Mora is manifested in a sharp dilution of the arms or legs with a crumb or in their mixing with a loud sound. Babinski's reflex is expressed when holding with a finger or other object on the outer part of the children's foot from the heel region to the little finger. The response to this action will be breeding fingers. Along with this, the baby's leg will bend in the ankle, knee and hip. If you put a newborn on a solid smooth plane while holding it in the armpits, then he will stop completely against this plane, extending the leg. Thus, the support reflex appears. Being in a supine position on the tummy, the infant will reproduce movements resembling swimming - the swimming reflex. The Bauer crawl reflex is manifested when creating a support for the feet when the crumb is in a position on the stomach. The baby in such actions will perform movements that resemble crawling. If the infant is supported under the arms in such a manner that it touches the plane of the floor, then he will imitate the steps - this is a reflex of walking.

In fact, approximately seventy percent of the time of the first thirty days of life a child spends on sleep. In the first month, the baby can still focus his gaze on the faces bent over him. However, by the beginning of the third decade, the baby, while lying on his stomach, tries to lift and hold the head, can fix his gaze on the immovable object. The child responds to the ringing of bells or rattles, may shudder from loud noises.

The absence of one or several reflexes may indicate abnormal formation, therefore, it is necessary to study various sources in which the development of a child by months to 1 year will be described. Such actions will help identify abnormalities and provide an opportunity to respond as soon as possible to any disorders in children's behavior.

Most researchers are convinced that in the first three decades of the life of a newborn, a foundation is laid on which to build trust in the world, depending on the primary psychological and emotional connection with the mother. After all, everything a baby needs (protection, food, care, etc.) he receives from his mother. It is thanks to my mother's closeness, care and support that the newborn learns to adapt to the surrounding reality.

A two-month baby quietly awakes, looking at the toys hanging in front of him, can follow the pupils with the moving object, listen to the sound of the object or the sound of the voice, and appeal to him with a smile.

The child at this stage learns to exist according to the rhythms. The infant produces a daily mode of life - it sleeps mostly at night, and awake - during the day. The infant already recognizes the touch of the mother, her voice, there is an emotional response to communication with him. He learns to control his own body. In the waking state, the kids almost constantly move in different directions with arms and legs, as they are not able to control them yet. If you put the baby on its side, then he will be able to roll over onto his back. By the end of the third decade of the second month, the baby can already move the handles to her mouth and suck a finger. And having seen a colorful toy, the child begins to reach out for it, trying to grab it. Objects that fall into the hands of the crumbs, he feels and relentlessly pulls into his mouth. The baby can already see off the parents moving away from the bed, he also rejoices at the mother and smiles at her, waving his limbs.

The third month is marked by a steady holding of the head of the baby, lying on the tummy, leaning on the forearms, or being on the hands of parents in an upright position. Also being in the hands of a parent who is talking to him, the crumb fixes his own gaze on his face, listening to his voice. The response to the conversation with his parent is a manifestation of joy: a smile, various sounds, lively movements of the limbs (animation complex). When supported by the armpits, the baby can be bent in the thigh with its feet firmly against the hard surface.

The third month is characterized by the emergence of a revitalization complex not only at the sight of the parent, but also at the sound of his voice, after feeding, bathing, in other words, at moments when the baby feels comfort or pleasure. At this stage, the response to the speech addressed to the child, he will "roar" -produce quiet vowels.

The fourth month is characterized by the ability of the crumbs to search for an invisible object by the sound (it turns its head towards the source of the sound). In the waking state, the baby makes loud sounds, often smiles and moves a lot, laughs loudly while playing with him, looks at the rattles hanging over him, feels and captures, holds the breast of the mother or a bottle of food while feeding. At this stage, the baby is exploring the world. He is in a good mood for a long time, walking quite loudly and for a long time. In four months, the crumb wants to sit, because he is already tired of lying, and also the world is acutely interested in it from a vertical position. Therefore, at this age interval, the baby will make the first attempts to sit down. Holding the pens of the baby or supporting it under the arms, the baby will stand, stepping legs. Being on the belly, the baby can be raised on the straightened arms. At this stage, he has the ability to look at objects at close range, begins to distinguish between individual colors and configurations, as well as the voices of relatives.

In the fifth month, the child already reacts differently to the close environment and strangers, that is, it already allocates relatives. He also distinguishes the tone of voice addressed to him. It can lie on the tummy for a long time, raising the body and resting on straightened hands. When supported under the arms, it is stable on its legs. Also, the baby learns to pronounce the first syllables consisting of vowels and labial consonants. The fifth month is marked by a transition to a vertical (standing) position. The body of the baby tends to adapt to the vertical position. This stage can be characterized as research. The child begins to be interested in various objects and things, he seeks to learn how to handle them. Sight, smell, taste and touch are involved in such research activities.

The development of the child in the fifth month is characterized by the beginning of the training of fingers and the development of the first grasping movements. In this age period, the baby has already learned to intercept the object from the hand of the parent. Taking possession, pushing away or attracting rattles or other objects, the crumb learns to determine their shape, sound, color, weight.

A half-year old baby can already clearly pronounce syllables, freely take a rattle from various positions, play with it for a long time, roll over without any difficulties from its tummy to its back, eat well with a spoon, grabbing food with its lips. Half a year old child can already stand and sit at the same time, maintaining balance and not falling aside. He independently tries to sit down from a lying position. At the age of six months, the baby makes the first crawling attempts, moving on all fours, resting on the palms. Often, at this age, the first tooth begins to erupt, which can affect the behavior of the infant.

In the seventh month of development, the child is able to babble for a long time while re-pronouncing the same syllables. If you ask a question to the baby, where is an object well known to him and repeatedly called (for example, a clock), he will look for it with a look and find it in a particular place. Playing a toy, the crumb will knock and swing it. A seven-month-old baby is masterly (quickly, in different directions) and crawls for a long time. His driving force is curiosity. Therefore, knowing the physical development of the child up to a year by months, parents can take care of the safety of the crumbs in advance. There are also children who bypass the crawling stage and start walking at once. The seven-month babies turn around a lot and can roll over in any direction, so they should not be left unattended on a plane located at a height not limited by the bumpers. Another neoplasm of this period is the ability of the infant to take objects independently from different positions. Handles crumbs become more skillful in the seventh month. At this age gap, he learns from hand to hand to shift toys, pulling, tapping, throwing.

At the eight-month age stage of development, the child loudly pronounces various syllables, long manipulates toys, examines them, taps each other. At the request of the parent, performs previously learned movements, for example: "ladies", etc. Independently lays down from a sitting posture or sits down, using hands, for example, sticking to the bed rail, he rises and falls, crosses his legs, drinks from a cup held by an adult . In this time interval, the crumb plays with a pyramid. He also knows how to produce actions with "direct" and "returnable" actions. For example, put balls into a box and empty them. Gulenie will be replaced by clear babble. The baby already recognizes objects from different distances and from different points of view, identifying them by external signs, such as size, configuration, color. By the end of the third decade, a strong emotional attachment is formed in the infant’s relation to the mother. He is ready to spend with her every moment of existence.

At the nine-month age stage of development, the child begins to imitate his parents, reproducing after them the syllables previously pronounced by him. When asking where, the baby finds several objects known to him. He knows his own name, and if his name is, he turns around. Manipulations with objects become more conscious. The child can already perform with him actions in accordance with their properties. For example, he will roll the ball. Nine-month baby gets stronger. His body was prepared for movements on its own legs, the musculoskeletal skeleton was fully grown, the cardiovascular system and the digestive tract were also adapted to the force of gravity acting along the axis of the body. Therefore, this stage is marked by the first attempts to make independent steps. Some children, at the age of nine months, begin to comprehend walking skills with increased zeal, while for others, intensive mastering of walking begins later. Walking in nine-month-old babies is characterized by uncertainty, frequent falls and persistent attempts to walk. In the process of their own movements, the crumb is supported by the wall, furniture, parental hands. If there is no support near, it will crawl.

At the ten-month age stage of development, the child continues to imitate parents, reproducing syllables and various sounds behind them. In children, there is a response to various flirtings, known to him, for example, when pronouncing "ku-ku" he covers his face with matter. At the request of the parent can find and give a familiar item. Playing on his own, he is able to perform previously learned manipulations with objects, prompted by their qualities, for example, to open and close. Holding the railing, the kid can climb up 3-4 steps. At this stage, the baby is ready to communicate, watching the adults, he imitates them. He is interested in how parents use those or other objects. As a result, the baby begins to almost mirror the adult environment and reflect everyday situations and actions. The imitative tendency of the baby contributes to the ability to drink from a cup, use a spoon, etc. The tenth month is marked by the development of motility. A crumb can independently assemble toys, take objects with two fingers, separate or connect separate parts of the toy, etc. In addition, the baby already understands the speech addressed to him, and is able to utter separate words (mother, woman, or father). The kid performs simple requests from parents, understands well words of a prohibitive nature, understands the names of many objects or parts of the body. He has significantly increased active vocabulary.

The eleventh month is marked by the use of the first words of designation, for example, give or kis-kis. At the suggestion of an adult, he finds the necessary object or object, performs previously learned manipulations with subject toys (show eyes at the kitten, shake the little lily). At this stage, the baby is striving for independence. He tries to help with dressing, tends to eat on his own without the help of his mother. The kid is characterized by the manifestation of increasing activity and improvement of walking skills. Can sit down if there is a need to lift the toy from the floor, and then get up. He learns to play with toys that resemble a living creature, such as a doll or a plush dog. Such a toy for the baby becomes the second "I" for him. Game manipulations convey not only the actions of the child, but also reflect his emotional state. An eleven-month crumb can already recognize a familiar object in the picture.

In the twelfth month, the child already owns ten words and multiplies the stock of understood words. Ходит без помощи и не придерживаясь, садится, встает, пьет из чашки, держа ее самостоятельно. Важнейшим направлением развития крохи в этот период является речь. Теперь он за взрослым вслед моментально повторяет наиболее простые слова-обозначения.He can consciously utter words, and sometimes simple phrases, for example, "Dad, go." The number of words understood is 6 times more than the infant can use in active speech. The crumb responds to the requests of parents or another adult environment, understands requests addressed to him, such as to find, give, bring, etc. He knows and understands the word "no". He learns to summarize objects, remembering their names, learns familiar toys in the picture. The one-year-old baby is oriented among the toys, highlighting some of them. For example, among the cubes selects balls. If the baby needs a specific item, then he points to it. Twelve-month baby can memorize the names of relatives and nicknames of animals.

In addition to the above information, parents should also examine the development of teeth by month. Children under one year may become more capricious and restless, they pull all the objects in their mouth, relieving the itching, they lose their appetite.

The development of a premature baby for months to a year

Due to the poor health of the pregnant woman, due to the transfer of various ailments or the woman’s overly active lifestyle, the baby can be born earlier than it should be. From the state of health of the newborn at the time of birth depends on what will be the lag in the development of a premature baby for months to a year.

In addition, the development of a premature baby for months to a year is greatly influenced by the following factors: the social status of the socium cell, the moral state of parents and other close surroundings, the quality of care, nutrition, etc.

In the first three decades of life, the development of a premature baby is characterized by inactivity, weak muscle tone, and lack of activity.

In the second month of existence, the infant is also characterized by weakness and increased fatigue. Therefore, mothers need to provide the baby with maximum nutrition and proper care. At this stage, there is a rather rapid increase in weight and height, which may exceed the norms adopted for term babies. The physical achievement of the crumbs this month is the ability to lift the head.

The third month marks the normalization and entry into the active stage of the weight gain process. In comparison with the body weight that the baby had after birth, it doubles. At this stage, it is possible to note the presence in the crumbs of reactions to sounds and light. However, his main pastime is still sleep.

In the fourth month, there is noticeable progress in the development of the newborn. The kid can hold her head up for a short time, focus her gaze on contrasting objects, and make sounds that resemble a gut. Muscle tone also begins to increase, and as a result, problems with crumbs of sleep can appear, as it can often wake up.

In the fifth month, the first smile of the baby appears. Slightly increased muscle tone of the limbs can give movements of the toddler a little convulsive nature. The baby can already hold a small toy in the handle. This period is marked by enhanced psychological development. The crumb can easily determine the location of the sound source and turn his head to it.

A six-month-old baby begins to rapidly catch up with its peers in development. He constantly makes different sounds and babbles, laughs, manipulates toys. It rests against the legs while supporting it under the arms in a hard plane.

At the age of seven months, the crumb can easily turn over on his stomach from the back, take items in his hands. At the level of full-term babies there is a variety of pronounced sounds.

An eight-month-old baby already controls his own body quite well, turns over, tries to sit down and even crawl, and can search for a named object.

At nine months old, the baby tries to get up and then sit back in the playpen or crib. In periods of wakefulness, the crumb can already independently manipulate objects, carry out simple requests. The baby tries to pronounce short words or their first syllables, can also reproduce the intonation speech of their relatives.

A ten-month-old baby is already standing steadily and can even move along the fence, keeping his hands on it, being able to hold the gaze on a moving object for a long period of time. A child listens with interest to surrounding sounds.

The eleven-month-old baby can already make the first independent steps, at will he sits down and gets up, quickly crawling around. He masters the pyramid, cubes and other toys for the development of logic with interest. At the request of the parent can bring the specified item.

The one-year-old baby practically does not lag behind in development from full-term karapuz However, some sharpness and lack of coordination in movements may persist for a short time.

Teeth development by months. Children up to a year with prematurity are characterized by a teething lag by about a month. However, in more serious cases (severe degree of prematurity), the eruption of the first tooth may occur at twelve months.