Psychology and Psychiatry

Development of thinking

Development of human thinking - is a multi-faceted process, characterized by duration, systematic and focused. After all, what is a mental activity? Thinking is a specific operational function of the psyche, aimed at integral and indirect comprehension of objective reality through the identification of relationships and interrelationships that exist between comprehended objects, objects or phenomena.

The development of thinking is the key task of the adult environment of the child, teachers and the need for any individual, regardless of his social or age group. Therefore, many technological tools were born and recommendations were developed that focused on developing a comprehensively developed individual's thinking, for example, there are techniques aimed at increasing its speed, imagery and meaningfulness. So, for example, the development of verbal-logical thinking in children contributes to the correct performance of mental operations, the phased finding of solutions, and competent knowledge of speech. This kind of mental activity is necessary when "soloing" in public, writing essays, conducting disputes, and in any cases where you need to express your own thoughts using an oral verbalik.

The development of logical thinking

The ability to think using logic makes it possible to find more correct solutions, to take them faster, to build relationships between different objects or objects, to predetermine the results of the decision made as soon as possible. In addition, it is due to the trained logical thinking that any individual is able to analyze the behavior of the surrounding society and determine the stimuli of his actions.

The development of logical thinking in children is not an innate gift. The ability to think is logically achieved using special tools, techniques, games and regular exercise.

Games on the development of logical thinking today acquire a new meaning, since with the advent of computers and other gaming technology, children simply cannot be torn away from devices. Therefore, parents are encouraged to reduce the negative impact of constant "sitting at the computer" to a minimum. To do this, you need to captivate children with games aimed at training mental activities that activate the formation of strategic thinking, the development of logic and relieve fatigue or stress.

To think logically is to separate the significant from the minor, to find arguments, refutations and draw conclusions. This is the ability to be convincing and not to feel gullible. Every individual periodically thinks logically. However, most people think of patterns, parents "hammered" in childhood, "stuck in" teachers and hammered in daily from blue screens. Therefore, we must try to develop logical mental activity, train it. To engage in the development of logic should begin almost from the cradle. And for this it is necessary to understand that each age period corresponds to a certain type of mental activity. For example, it is not in the nature of little children to ponder something in the mind in the abstract. In children, the primary stages of the formation of logic are visual thinking - effective and figurative. In other words, to comprehend - it is necessary to see and touch.

At the next stage, a verbal-logical mental function is born. At this stage, the crumb can already speak and think about a thing that is not in front of his eyes. In adults, such logical thinking is transformed into the ability to master the task and set goals, plan and find ways to achieve it. The highest aerobatics thinking is the ability to think creatively, that is, without the use of ready-made knowledge, to invent and invent.

To develop the ability to think logically, it is necessary to realize three key postulates. The first one says that it is never as late as it is too early for the formation of logical thinking skills. Therefore, we should not expect the crumb to learn to think mentally to begin to engage with it. Also, do not consider yourself old to improve thinking.

The second one says that the corresponding exercises are suitable for the level of mental activity, which are aimed at the formation of abilities to perform logical operations, despite the fact that they may seem overly primitive or too simple. For example, visual thinking in babies is a stepping stone to the logical, which cannot be ignored. Therefore, it is not necessary to immediately demand from the crumbs of abstract mental operations.

The third postulate says that imagination and logic are not mutually exclusive concepts, and therefore it is impossible to replace one with another. Imagination contributes to the development of mental abilities, rather than interfere with it. That is why, in addition to standard exercises, the tools for developing logical thinking, which are simultaneously aimed at stimulating imagination and intelligence, are used to train logic.

Below are the most popular exercises on the development of logical thinking. The most famous method of training logic is to unravel anagrams, which are a word with rearranged places in it. For example, from the word "weasel" you can make the word "rock."

The tasks of eliminating the superfluous either a word or an object from a logical series also contribute to the development of logic.

Also one of the fairly common methods for the development of the logical function of thinking are considered exercises, consisting in determining the sequence. In other words, it is necessary to consistently build concepts in a chain, starting from the concrete and reducing it to the general. Such exercises teach building logical chains.

With the help of inventing puzzles, you can also develop not only the work of logical operations, but also imagination. To compose them, you should submit an object, recall all its qualities and create a riddle for them.

Exercises for the development of logical thinking are aimed at developing the skills of active processing in the mind of information using techniques of logical and analytical thinking.

The development of verbal-logical thinking in children is possible with the help of exercises in which it is required to compose other words from a set of letters or a specific word. And the more words there are, the better.

Also popular are various puzzles or rebuses. In addition, computer games have been developed for the development of logical thinking. For example, "sapper" or "chess". In addition, the game of checkers can be used as an effective means of developing logical thinking in preschoolers. However, it is better to choose the means aimed at the development of logic among the kids, taking into account the goals set and focusing on the individual characteristics and preferences of the crumbs.

The development of mental activity is found in the gradual expansion of the content of thoughts, in the sequential development of forms and techniques of mental operations and their transformation in the process of a general personal formation. In children, at the same time, there is an increase and impulse to mental operations.

Development of critical thinking

Conscious and productive development is impossible without the presence of one essential element - critical thinking. Without its presence it is impossible to fully develop the personality.

Critical thinking activity is a complex system of orientation, allowing the subject to find the so-called “gaps” in his own development and direct him to the right direction. The ability to analyze and the ability to make choices are considered an integral part of a comprehensively developed personality. Without them, the individual will be forced to constantly rely on the opinions of experts or other authorities. Hence the first condition for a comprehensively developed personality, which consists in the presence of critical thinking. Consequently, the critical nature of the mind is the ability of individuals to subject their own thoughts and other thoughts to an objective assessment, to thoroughly and thoroughly check all the proposals made and the conclusions advanced.

Critical thinking:

- helps subjects to establish priorities in their own personal life and professional self-determination;

- involves the adoption of personal responsibility for the perfect choice;

- multiplies the level of subjective culture of work with various information;

- forms the ability to analyze and produce independent conclusions;

- predict the consequences of their own decisions;

- allows in joint activities to develop a culture of dialogue.

Man’s critical thinking activity is finding common sense. In other words, how to reason and act logically, given their own position and the views of other actors. Thus, critical thinking is also called the ability to abandon their prejudices. Therefore, critical thinking, which is able to put forward fresh ideas and contemplate new opportunities, is very essential in resolving problems.

Technology development of critical thinking.

In the course of self-development, the acquisition of critical thinking is a powerful impetus that helps to approach the achievement of goals and move to a qualitatively new stage of consciousness. However, developing critical mental activity is not entirely easy. So, for this you need to revise your daily routine. Most people spend some time in the light of day, while not using it either for rest or for productive activities. Technology development of critical thinking is to use such time for the purpose of conducting self-analysis. For this, it is necessary in the evening instead of mindless switching of TV channels, to assess the past day, the positive aspects and negative qualities shown by the individual throughout the day. To this end, it is recommended to ask yourself the following questions: "when I used my own thinking as productively as possible", "what the situation that has happened today can be an example of the worst manifestation of thinking", "so that I would change today if I could survive this day "etc. An important role is played by giving yourself some time to think about the answer. It is in this way that the analytical mind develops, from which critical mental activity grows. In addition, you need to keep daily records. They will help to discover patterns of thinking, emphasizing repetitive reactions for a certain time interval.

The next step is to work out the problems. On the day you need to work on one problematic issue. Every morning, on the way to school or to work, you should work out the task chosen for today. It is necessary to identify the logic of the problem issue and its structural elements. In other words, the problem should be clearly defined, its attitude to the values ​​of the individual, his goals and needs should be revealed. It is necessary to work with a problematic issue according to a certain plan. The problem should be formulated as clearly and very clearly as possible. Then it needs to be studied in order to understand whether it is a controlled area for an individual or not. Determine the range of possible actions that the individual will face in the decision process. It is necessary to give preference to those problematic issues that can be resolved today, and those problems for the solution of which an additional arsenal of means is necessary should be postponed. It is necessary to take time to actively search for the information necessary to solve the problem, analyze it, interpret it, and make reasonable conclusions. In addition, it is recommended to identify your own capabilities that allow you to perform certain actions to resolve the problem in the short and long term? Based on the identified benefits and negatives, it is necessary to evaluate options for action. After that, you need to determine the overall strategy and outline ways to solve the problem. A well thought-out strategy should be followed before the work is completed. After starting work, you should monitor the situation. Observe what consequences of an individual’s actions will manifest and how. You need to be ready to change the strategy in a timely manner in accordance with the new information that has appeared.

In addition, time should be devoted to the development of intelligence. You should regularly work on the development of one of the sides of the intellect, for example, clarity of thinking or concentration of attention.

Critical intelligence is characterized by the avoidance of superficial generalizations and frivolous conclusions, the desire to look deeper, and the deviation from categorical approach. To learn to think critically is to follow the norms of logic, to show curiosity, to have your own opinion, the ability to use research and creative means to defend your position.

In connection with the intensively progressing society in the field of obtaining and analyzing information, the requirements of the environment have developed techniques for developing critical thinking, which is a single system that is focused on the formation of abilities to work with information during writing and reading.

Thinking critically means naturally interacting with ideas and data. After all, individuals need skills not only mastering the data, but also the ability to subject them to a critical assessment, to comprehend and apply.

Critical mental activity is one of the forms of intellectual functions of subjects, which is characterized by a significant level of perception, awareness, and objectivity of approaches to the information field surrounding it. Critical thinking combines a set of skills and abilities, developed in stages as a result of development and in the processes of learning activities. Thus, the techniques for the development of critical thinking develop independent mental activity, equipping them with methods and means of independent work. Critical mind has its own signs.

Critical thinking, in the first turn, is an independent operation, and information is the starting, and absolutely not the final destination of critical mental activity. Knowledge creates motivation, without which the individual is not able to think critically.

Critical thinking originates from the formulation of a range of issues and the identification of problems that need to be solved. The critical mental operation is driven by a convincing argument. Critical thinking activity of a person is social thinking.

The development of creative thinking

Only due to the emergence of fresh ideas, human civilization has the opportunity to develop. It has practically been proven that creativity can be developed in almost all individuals with a normal level of intellectual formation. However, this requires the jointly focused efforts of parents and teachers. Often, an adult environment requires children to instantly complete a task. At the same time, they do not completely leave them time to think and experiment. As a result, babies often try to remember the variation of the solution they know, or they will thoughtlessly copy the actions of adults.

Creative thinking of children and adults requires maximum independence and greater independence from familiar decisions. That is why the development of creative abilities requires time-consuming and patience from toddlers and adults.

The ways of developing creative thinking are inextricably linked with the training of the following operational functions of the psyche: perception and imagination, memory and speech.

At the preschool age stage, the development of the skills of recognizing and naming sensual impressions acquires a special meaning. A kid, getting acquainted with the qualities of objects or objects, such as shape, color, size, smell, can find solutions to creative tasks to search for an object according to certain characteristics. By the age of six, crumbs already know how to create puzzles about various objects or objects on their own, depicting their sensual characteristics and properties. A seven-year-old child is already capable of comparing and comparing the properties and characteristics of various objects. Such structures of speech as metaphor and allegory become accessible to babies at this age period.

Прямое обучение творческой мыслительной деятельности невозможно, однако вполне реальным является косвенное воздействие на нее посредством сотворения условий, стимулирующих или замедляющих творческую активность индивидов. Такие условия бывают ситуативными и личностными. Personality conditions encompass character traits, personality traits that can affect conditions triggered by various events.

Situational factors that negatively affect the creative potential of the subject include: lack of time, being in a stressful state, increased anxiety, excessively strong or too weak motivation, etc.

Personal factors that negatively affect the work of creative operations include self-doubt or hyper-confidence, conformism, emotional depression, and a number of others.

For the purpose of perfect disclosure of creative potential it is recommended to use the following methods for the development of creative thinking. In the first turn, it is necessary to minimize the negative impact of established moral taboos and cultural prohibitions, and to remove the influence of attitudes that have developed in activities. This will help such methods as expanding the sphere of interests of the individual, self-identification with another individual, switching attention or changing activities.

Since for the manifestation of creativity it is necessary to have a high level of self-esteem, it would be advisable to influence it by minimizing external negative and increasing positive motivation.

Most researchers of biographies of famous personalities have noticed that creative thinking is expressed more weakly when a rather long constancy is established in the emotional zone.

Ways to develop creative thinking. Many such methods have been developed. Of these, the most straightforward are the ones below. After a certain period of time, you can pick up associations to unfinished drawings. It does not need to be shy flight of fancy. After all, the individual is engaged in the development of their own abilities, and not in order to obtain an assessment from the environment. Therefore, the presence of outsiders is not desirable during this exercise.

You can also find various uses for well-known objects. This task is not only interesting, but can also pass for the game among friends. In addition, fantasy and creative thinking is excellently developed by inventing a story from a limited set of words for a certain amount of time.

Methods of developing a person’s creative thinking, in the first turn, are aimed at removing barriers or weakening the barriers between conscious and unconscious.

For the effective development of creative activity, it is necessary to observe the following conditions: criticality of the mind, the ability to subject information to qualitative analysis, the ability to find causal relationships, an understanding of the likely development of further events, the ability to build a logical series, the ability to fantasize with ideas, template solutions and traditional actions, instant resolution of problematic issues, the choice of an adequate solution, poise and spox The approach to the problems.

The ability to wonder and the ability to be creative are the main components of the development of creative thinking.