Psychology and Psychiatry

The development of thinking in children

The development of thinking in children inextricably linked with the practical activities of the crumbs. Mental activity is considered a specific structure of human knowledge. That is why any peanut, after birth, proceeds to learn about what is happening around, its surroundings, its environment, the essence of things and the nature of phenomena, to look for interrelations between them. In a slightly older age period, the kid learns to reason, imagine, fantasize, invent and correctly express personal thoughts. Therefore, the task of the adult environment of the crumbs is to educate, promote their formation and independent mental activity. To make such a task a reality, adults should understand that there are specific features of the development of thinking in children.

In the first turn, this is a three-stage development of thinking in children of school age. The first is produced visual thinking, which is gradually transformed from the effective into the figurative. At the third stage, verbal thinking is organized. In other words, at the initial stage the parachute performs only primitive tasks (twist, turn). The next stage is marked by the emergence of concrete object thinking, in which the child does not need to use the knobs for a figurative image of actions. In the final phase, the ability to think logically and abstractly is developed, that is, using words.

The development of thinking in children of preschool age

In preschoolers, the thinking function is based on ideas. Their mental activity becomes extra-creative, extending beyond the boundaries of perceived events and significantly expanding the limits of knowledge thanks to the ability to perform various operations through representations and images.

The transformations that occur in the mental activity of the crumbs are associated primarily with the establishment of increasingly dense interconnections of mental operations with the development of speech. Such relationships lead to the emergence of a thorough thinking process, to the transformation of the relationship between practical and intellectual functioning, when the planning function begins to perform speech and to the frantic formation of mental operations.

Features of the development of thinking in children.

Operations of thinking are called a kind of theoretical activity and practical manipulations, which cover the actions and techniques of research-oriented, transformative nature and cognitive orientation.

Mental activity is the highest degree of perception of reality by a person. Sensual basis of thinking are sensations and representations. Thanks to the senses, which are the only channels of interrelation of the body of the individual with the environment, information flows into the brain. Its content is processed by the brain. Thinking is formed based on perceptions and sensations.

Mental activity is inextricably interconnected with speech elements, especially speech-hearing mechanisms and speech-speaking mechanisms. In addition, mental operations are strongly associated with the practical manipulation of people. Since any manipulation requires individuals to think, to take account of the conditions of operations, planning and observation. Through the activity, the individual has defined tasks. Therefore, the main condition for the emergence of thinking is the presence of practical activity.

Thus, the processes of thinking are a specific function of the brain, the result of its analytical and synthetic operations. Thinking is provided by the functioning of both signaling systems, however, the key role is played by the second signaling system.

A specific feature of the function of thinking is its mediation, which consists in knowing indirectly that it is impossible to understand directly. That is, the subjects perceive some properties through others, the unknown - through a friend. Thinking functions are always based on information obtained through sensory experience, and on previously obtained theoretical information. Indirect knowledge is mediated understanding. The next characteristic quality of mental activity will be generalization. Generalization as an apprehension of the general and the main in events and objects of reality is possible due to the interrelation of all the properties of such events or objects. The general exists and is expressed exclusively in the particular and the concrete.

In preschoolers, the formation of an effective form of mental function continues. It does not disappear, but improves and jumps to a higher step. At the senior preschool age stage, the effective finding of a solution to a task is preceded by its mental resolution, presented in verbal form. As a result, the essence of the actions produced by the baby is modified. Three-year-old peanuts understand only the ultimate goal that must be achieved. At the same time, children do not notice the conditions for resolving the assigned task. As a result, their actions are erratic. Refinement of the task makes their manipulation more problematic and search.

Older preschoolers already perform activities of an executive nature, since the assigned task is solved by the child mentally, that is, before the start of the actions they decide verbally. According to the modifications that are taking place, the essence of the process of mental activity also changes. From effective thinking is transformed into verbal, planning, critical. But at the same time, an effective form of mental operations does not recline and does not freeze, it remains in stock and in the course of a collision with fresh mental tasks, the kid again turns to an effective method of solving them.

Such transformations in the process of mental operations are due to:

- the expanding number of operations performed by the crumbs, assimilating the deeper and more diversified experience of adults;

- the growing needs of adequate opportunities for the child, which encourage him to search for and solve more diverse tasks and perform complex tasks;

- the increasing value of speech.

Since the game is the predominant activity of a preschooler, it is in it that one can find resources that help non-violently carry out the correct age development of thinking in children of preschool age.

By the end of the preschool period, the formation of a visual-figurative operation of thinking reaches a higher degree and logical thinking begins to develop, contributing to the formation of the ability of the crumbs to distinguish significant features and essential properties of objects of reality, the birth of the ability to compare, generalize and classify. The formation of the described type of thinking occurs actively in the age period from one and a half to five years.

When solving tasks with an indirect result, five-four-year-old children begin to make the transition from external operations with objects to operations with images of these objects produced in the mind. Thus, a visual-figurative thinking function is developed, based on images, or the development of figurative thinking takes place in children. During visual-figurative operation, visual images are compared, as a result of which the task is solved.

The ability to solve problems mentally arises due to the fact that the perceptions that the crumb uses acquire a generalized character.

Five-year-old preschoolers begin to form logical-abstract thinking, which consists in performing operations through abstractions - categories that are not found in nature. Abstract logical thinking activity is the most difficult. It performs operations not using specific images, but through complex abstract concepts that are expressed in words. In preschool children appear only the prerequisites for the development of this form of mental activity.

The psychophysiological features of five to six year olds allow them to be actively incorporated into all sorts of forms of work organized and managed by adults, which ensures the most efficient and comprehensive education and development of thinking in children of preschool age.

In addition, the logical-verbal thinking activity of children is born, suggesting the presence of the ability to perform operations with words and understand the logic of reasoning.

The development of logical thinking in preschool children gives rise to at least two periods. The child masters verbal meanings related to objects or explaining actions with them, learning to use them for solving tasks in the first period. In the second period, the child comprehends the system of concepts denoting the rules of reasoning logic and relationships.

The development of thinking in children with CRA is characterized by specific features. ZPR mainly concerns the late development of all spheres of the psyche, and not some processes. Characteristic features of children lagging behind in development is the unevenness of deviations of various functions of the psyche. Therefore, the most significant task will be the development of thinking in children of school age suffering from CRA, taking into account the leading activities of the age level.

The development of logical thinking in children

The basis of human intelligence is logical thought processes. With its help, people are guided in the surrounding reality, acquire the necessary life experience, can express their thoughts. The logical thinking process is a form of thinking activity, the essence of which is the operation, on the basis of the principles of logic, judgments, concepts, conclusions, their comparison and comparison with actions.

The development of logical thinking in preschool children can begin at the age of three. Exactly, being at this age level, the little tot shows special interest to surrounding objects. He learns to recognize colors, to distinguish objects by configuration and size.

The development of the logical style of the thinking process depends on the development of the key operations of the thinking activity and their formation. Such key operations include classification, analysis and synthesis, comparison and synthesis, and abstraction and specification. All listed operations are interrelated. The development of some provokes the production of others. A synthesis and analysis are considered the basic basis of all logical actions.

It should be borne in mind that very little kids do not know how to think abstractly. Initially, a visual-effective thinking process is developed, and a little later, the development of figurative thinking takes place in children. The basis for the development of the verbal-logical form of thinking processes is developed, respectively, with the age potential, visual-figurative thinking activity. Therefore, the lack of ability to reflect in the abstract does not prevent the development of logic among the smallest crumbs. For each stage of mental functioning there are certain tasks. Therefore, you should not jump over the steps, even if the tasks seem to be rather primitive. Also, one should not separate logical thinking from creative.

The development of creative thinking in children encourages them to fantasies and imagination, and without them the harmonious development of thinking skills is impossible. Only complex classes are able to form a fully intellectual personality. There is an opinion that the creative form of thinking is the primary and natural form of brain functioning. The result is that creative abilities are present in all, but are expressed in different ways. The pattern of thinking is due to the influence of social factors, first of all, the existing concept of training and the educational system, which significantly slows down the development of logic. The creative stage of mental activity must find its end in the next stage - a logical one consisting of standards and templates.

Numerous studies and searches show that the development of thinking in children with CRA quite significantly lags behind the age norm, and especially the verbal and logical. Kids, performing almost true tasks, are often unable to substantiate their own manipulations. The most important factor that directly contributes to the formation of children's thought processes is the formation of logical techniques.

The development of creative thinking in children contributes to the formation of a logical style of mental activity. After all, the problem-solving strategy begins with the definition of the most problematic issue, and then a creative act takes place, which represents the birth of a new, more effective or simple idea, then a test follows, then an approbation and at the final stage an introduction.

Creative thinking is the highest manifestation of professionalism.