Psychology and Psychiatry

Forms of thinking

Forms of human thinking - this is a manifestation of intellectual activity, a consequence of the thinking process and the result of thinking operations. There are three key forms of mental activity, namely, concepts, conclusions and judgments. Many authors attribute theories, hypotheses, concepts, laws, arguments, evidence to the forms of mental activity. However, they are rather related to derived categories, although they have certain specific features.

The concept is called the integrity of significant qualities, relationships, properties and relationships of objects or phenomena reproduced in mental operations. It is also called the concept of thinking or thinking system that emphasizes and generalizes objects of a certain class on specific common and in aggregate specific features for them.

Judgment is a form of mental functioning in which something about an object is affirmed or denied, for example, its configuration, quality, or relationship between objects.

Inference is a summing up or conclusion.

The main forms of thinking

So, as already stated above, there are three fundamental logical forms of thinking, namely, the concept, judgment and inference. Any thought process is tied up with the formulation of a question that sets before an individual who does not have a ready answer to it.

The forms of thinking in psychology are nothing more than the formal structures of thought.

Forms of thinking in philosophy invariably cause controversy regarding their essence and meaning. So, for example, from a philosophical position, the “concept” is rather ambiguous, it does not allow building formal-logical schemes or drawing conclusions.

The concept displays general and significant properties of objects or phenomena. Each object or phenomenon possesses many different qualities, attributes and properties. Such qualities and omens are divided into two significant categories: significant and insignificant. For example, each triangle is characterized by the presence of three angles, specific sizes: a certain amount of angles, length of segments and area, shape. However, only the first feature of a geometric figure makes a triangle, which makes it possible to distinguish it from other figures, such as a rectangle, a circle, etc. Other signs are designed to differentiate one geometric figure from other similar shapes. When these signs change, the triangle will still remain a triangle.

The concept as a form of thinking in itself contains common signs and essential features for a huge number of objects characterized by homogeneity. The concept exists as the meaning of the word and is denoted by the word. A function of each word is a generalization (except for words that represent proper names). Knowledge about the objects and phenomena of reality are formed in the category of "concept" in a generalized and abstract form. This is precisely where the category of “concept” differs in principle from perception and perception, since they are characterized by concreteness, figurativeness and clarity.

The concept as a form of thinking has an abstract, generalized, and not visual orientation.

A representation is an image of a concrete object, and a concept is an abstract idea about a class of objects.

Representations and perceptions always represent a reflection of the concrete and the single. It is impossible to imagine an object devoid of absolutely any individual signs. For example, you can not imagine books in general, but you can think about them.

Therefore, the concept is a comprehensively developed form of knowledge. The category "concept" reproduces reality much deeper and more perfectly than a representation.

Judgment as a form of thinking reflects the relationship and relationships connecting objects or phenomena of the environment and their properties, signs.

Judgment is the form of thought processes, covering the denial or the statement of some position relating to objects, events or their qualities.
Examples of negative judgment are considerations in which the object displays the absence of certain properties. For example, this item is square, not round. The phrase "student knows a lesson" is an example of affirmative judgment. Allocate judgments of a single, general and private nature. A general proposition as a form of thinking can deny or assert something relating to all objects and events, combined by the concept. For example, "all metal objects conduct electricity." In a private judgment, a part of the objects and factors united by the concept are described (some children know how to play checkers). A single judgment is a thought in which some individual concept is found (Paris is the capital of France).

Judgments are designed to reveal the essence of concepts. Therefore, in order to express one judgment or another, the individual must have information about the content of the concepts that fit into the structure of judgment. For example, when the subject pronounces the proposition that “thinking is the cognitive process of the psyche,” it needs to have a corresponding understanding of thinking and the psyche. The truth of the judgments can be verified through the public practice of the subject.

Inference as a form of thinking is a comparison and analysis of various judgments, the result of which will be a new judgment. A typical example of inference is the proof of theorems in geometry. The individual mainly uses two categories of deductions, namely inductive and deductive.

The reasoning strategy, representing the transition from particular to general sentences, the definition of general norms and rules based on the study of individual conditions and events, is called induction. The method of deliberation, consisting in the transition from general reasoning to a particular assumption, the comprehension of individual facts and events based on knowledge of general norms and rules, is called deduction.

Inductive conclusions originate from the accumulation of knowledge about the maximum number of objects and phenomena in something similar, which provides an opportunity to find similarities and differences in them and exclude the secondary and insignificant. Summarizing similar signs of these objects and phenomena, a general result or a conclusion is derived and a general rule or rule is established.

Deductive reasoning as a form of thinking provides an individual with knowledge of certain properties and characteristics of an individual object based on the possession of a stock of knowledge about general laws and rules.

For the mental activity of the human individual, the connection is rather significant at first with activity and then with speech and the language system. Since, distinguishing classes of objects or events, their signs and features, the subject calls them, thereby summarizing and systematizing, which in the end result provides the opportunity to “bring” the general rules for them. Therefore, generalization is a fundamental feature of the thinking process. The relationship of mental activity and speech is most pronounced in concepts or definitions.

The highest form of thinking is verbal-logical mental operation, by means of which individuals are able to display the most complex interrelations and relationships, to derive concepts, to produce conclusions, to solve theoretical tasks.

Forms of thinking and their characteristics

Mental operations are a psychological-cognitive process of displaying in the consciousness of the subjects of the most complex interrelations and interactions between objects and events of the surrounding world. The tasks of the thinking process consist in the discovery of relationships between objects, the discovery of connections and the separation of them from unforeseen coincidences. The mental operation is the highest cognitive process, in which the totality of all other cognitive processes is traced.

Forms of abstract thinking function by means of concepts and perform functions of planning and generalization.

The mental function is distinguished from other processes arising in the psyche, its connection with active modifications of the circumstances in which the individual resides. Thinking operations are constantly aimed at finding solutions to various problems.

The form of thinking is the category "concept". It is divided into simple and composite. Simple are concepts that are characterized by only one unifying property, and composite or complex ones by several properties. In turn, complex concepts are: conjunctive, disjunctive and correlative.

Concepts defined by at least two signs are called conjunctive. The concepts defined by one or another property, or two at the same time, are called disjunctive. Relative correlations are concepts that encompass absolutely all the connections or relationships that exist between certain structures of a separate set.

In everyday existence, human individuals are least likely to use disjunctive notions.

It should be noted that all generalized concepts originate only on the foundation of unitary objects and phenomena. From here, the formation of any concept is accomplished not exclusively through the comprehension of some generalized features and specific features of a class of objects, but primarily through the acquisition of information about the features and properties of single objects. The natural direction of developing concepts is a movement through a generalization from particular to general signs.

The concept is assimilated in two ways. The first way is to teach the individual something, on the basis of which the concept is developed. The second way consists in independent formation of the concept by an individual in the process of activity, based on his own experience. The concept represents the singular and the specific, which is also universal. The category "concept" acts as a form of abstract thinking and at the same time functions as a specific mental action. Since behind every concept a special object action is hidden.

Judgment as a form of thinking in psychology is based on the understanding by individuals of the variety of interrelationships of a particular object or a specific phenomenon with other objects or phenomena. A variety of connections of objects is not always displayed in human judgments, so the depth of understanding of various objects and events can vary. In the initial phase of comprehension, individuals can only determine the object or event, by assigning them to the established most general class. The next, more complex stage of attainment is achieved under the condition that the general class of objects and events, to which we can classify what needs to be comprehended, is well known to individuals. Comprehension is more perfect when individuals comprehend not only the generalized, but also the subjective features of the object, which divide it with those similar to it.

Significantly allows you to deepen the understanding of the movement from the undifferentiated and generalized perception of an object to the realization of each of its elements and understanding the interrelationships of such parts. Also, the comprehension of the signs of objects and the properties of phenomena, their interactions among themselves, the causes of their origin contribute to the deepening of comprehension.

Judgments are divided into true (true) and false. Objectively correct judgments are called true, and reflections that are inconsistent with objective reality are called false.

In addition, judgments can be of a general focus, private and single. General judgments are intended to assert something or negation and apply to all subjects of a particular class or group. In judgments of a private nature, assertions or denials apply to individual objects. In judgments of a single character, affirmative or negative descriptions are used only for a single object or event.

Inference as a form of thinking in philosophy is often a rather complex operation of mental activity, which includes a number of actions subject to the requirements of a common goal. In reasoning, a special role belongs to mediation in mental functioning. In the conclusions based on existing knowledge, come to the acquisition of new knowledge. Thus, knowledge is acquired indirectly through other knowledge.

Inference becomes possible only due to the existence of objective relationships and interactions of the elements that are found in it. The key aspect for the conclusion as a mental function is the following: the relationships that are seen in the conclusion are found in the objective essence of the object. This is the main difference between the conclusions of the associative act. Thus, inference is the identification of the relationship between concepts and judgments, the result of which is the acquisition of a new judgment from one or several arguments. The new judgment is derived from the essence of the original considerations. Initial judgments or considerations from which another sentence is extracted are called premises of inferences. The link uniting objects or their signs can be expressed only by means of affirmation or negation. In the same type of inference, the conclusion is formulated in a similar way.

Thus, logical forms of thinking are a way of interconnecting the constructive elements of thoughts, their structure, thanks to which the essence of objects exists and reflects reality. They constitute a device for mental activity and separate it from other mental processes that occur every second in the human brain.

Thus, the mental operation of individuals, presented in the form of concepts, judgments, conclusions, provides an opportunity to more fully and thoroughly experience the objective reality, to reveal the most essential aspects, interrelations, interactions and laws of reality.

The formation of the thinking process is possible only through the communicative interaction of subjects with each other. The development of specifically human mental function in ontogenetic development is possible only in the processes of jointly directed activity of the adult environment and children.