Psychology and Psychiatry

Thinking process

Thinking process - It is a mental process that helps subjects find new knowledge and find solutions to various problems. The human thinking process has specific characteristics, such as mediation, the flow occurs solely due to reliance on knowledge, thought processes are repelled from the contemplation of the living, but are not reduced to it, they display the interaction of objects and events in a verbal form, there is a connection with the practical activities of the subjects . The mental process is a generalized and indirect display of the main and regular interrelationships of reality. Mental activity is socially conditioned. Because mental operations can be found only in the circumstances of the existence of human individuals in a social environment. The basis of the processes of thinking are acquired knowledge, that is, the historical and social experience of people.

The process of human thinking is a perfect reflection of the real world, but is also characterized by the materiality of the forms of its own manifestation. Internal hidden speech serves as a tool for people's mental activity.

Thinking as a mental process

Mental activity is an indirect representation and a generalized reflection of reality. This is a kind of intellectual process consisting in comprehending the essence of things and the essence of events, natural interactions and connections that are between them. In this process, essential meaning belongs to the word and speech.

The biggest phenomenon is the brain's ability to make generalizations, taking as a basis the general signs of objects and events, revealing interactions between them.

Features of the process of thinking. The first specific feature of mental processes is their mediation, which consists in the impossibility of direct cognition by the individual. Such is the nature of people, that comprehension of something happens indirectly. For example, the understanding of some properties of objects occurs through the study of others.

Thinking processes are always based on information extracted from the sensory experience of individuals (sensations, ideas) and obtained from previously acquired theoretical information, which is transformed into knowledge. Indirect comprehension is knowledge mediated. Mediation of thinking provides mankind with enormous advantages in acquiring reliable knowledge about objects that cannot be perceived. The next feature of mental operation is generalization. Actually, through generalization, the personality comprehends the inner essence of the events and interactions that are observed between them. It is a generalized comprehension of the world with the help of thinking that enables individuals to use human knowledge of the general laws and interrelations of objects and events of the surrounding reality, established on the foundation of previous development practices. Thought processes allow us to foresee the direction of events and the fruits of our own actions based on this knowledge.

The process of human thinking is inextricably linked with perception and sensations. From the standpoint of physiology, thought processes are a complex analytical activity of the cerebral cortex.

Pavlov believed that the peculiarities of the process of thinking of individuals consist in the appearance of associations, initially elementary, in connection with the surrounding objects, and then the chain of associations, that is, the first association is the moment of birth of thought. Initially, associations are characterized by generalization and reflect the real connections in their unseparated and most general form, often even incorrectly, according to the first available, non-essential features. And only due to repeated irritations, the delimitation of transient connections occurs, they are amenable to clarification, consolidation and become the physiological basis of relatively accurate and accurate information about the external world.

Such associations are born, mainly under the influence of the first-signal stimuli, provoking the emergence of corresponding sensations and ideas about the external environment that surrounds it. True interactions and these stimuli cause the appearance of corresponding transient nervous connections occurring in the first signal system.

The mental operation relies not only on the connection of the first signal system. They inevitably imply the uninterrupted functioning of the first signal system in conjunction with the second signal system. The incentives in this case are not certain environmental objects and their quality, but words.

Thinking processes are operations such as analysis and synthesis, comparison and generalization, concretization and abstraction. The product of these operations then leads to the development of concepts.

Analysis is the process of mental separation of the whole into its component parts, the definition and selection of individual parts, properties and features.

Synthesis is called mental combination into one integral parts.

Despite the apparent opposite of operations analysis and synthesis, they are still inextricably interconnected. Since at certain stages of mental operation, analysis or synthesis comes to the fore. For example, to make a diagnosis, it is necessary to produce an analysis with subsequent synthesis.

Comparison is the establishment of similarity or finding differences between objects of mental activity. During the comparison, various significant signs of objects and events are detected. Generalization is the mental union with each other of objects and phenomena through the selection of the main.

Abstraction is the abstraction from certain specific, sensual and figurative properties of an object. It is associated with a generalization. In the process of abstraction, everything insignificant and accidental in a subject or event is excluded.

Concretization is a demonstration, the detection of an object on the example of a subject or phenomenon that actually exists.

Thus, the processes of thinking are certain mental operations that are produced in the process of accumulating information. The entire thought process may suffer in violation of one of the operations.

Thinking as a cognitive process

The personality perceives the world that surrounds it, through sensations and with the help of perception. That is, in the course of cognition, a direct sensual reflection of it occurs. At the same time, internal laws, the essence of objects cannot be displayed directly in the human consciousness. A person, looking out the window, determines by the presence of puddles, whether it has rained, that is, performs a mental act or, in other words, there is an indirect reflection of essential connections between objects by comparing facts. Cognition is based on the discovery of connections and relationships between objects.

Comprehending the environment, the human individual summarizes the results obtained from sensory experience, displays the general signs of things. To comprehend the environment, it is not enough to find the connection between objects; it is necessary to determine that the connection found is the general quality of objects. The solution of specific cognitive tasks by an individual is based on this generalized foundation.

Thinking activity solves questions that cannot be resolved through direct, sensual reflection. It is precisely because of the presence of thinking that an individual can correctly find landmarks in the environment, while applying previously obtained generalized information in a new environment. Human activities are reasonable due to the knowledge of laws, norms, interactions of objective reality.

Thinking as a reflection of the existing connections and relationships between things, found in the subjects in the first months after birth, but in a rudimentary configuration. Thinking in the learning process becomes conscious.

The essence of the human thought process is the definition of common relationships, a generalization of the signs of a homogeneous class of phenomena, and an understanding of the essence of a certain phenomenon as a type of a specific class of phenomena.

However, mental operations, going beyond the boundaries of perception, still always remain inseparably connected with the sensual reflection of reality. Generalizations are developed based on the perception of single objects, and their fidelity is verified through practical experience.

The key specifics of the thinking processes are their generalized and indirect reflection of reality, interrelation with practical experience, close connection with speech, the obligatory presence of a problematic question and the absence of a ready answer to it.

In addition, thought processes, as well as all other cognitive processes of individuals, are characterized by the presence of a number of specific qualities that are present in different degrees in human subjects, as well as in different degrees, are important for solving various problematic issues. These qualities include: speed, flexibility and depth of thinking. The ability to find the right solutions in the conditions of lack of time is the speed of thinking. Flexibility of thinking refers to the ability to modify the planned strategy of action in the event of a change in conditions or criteria for the correctness of the decision. Depth of thinking represents the level of penetration of the object under study, the ability to detect important logical chains between the elements of a task.

Mental activity in the process of the formation of the psyche of the individual and in the process of personal socialization goes through four phases in stages.

In the age period from one year to three years, children have object-effective thinking, in other words, thinking through practical manipulations.

The next step is visual-figurative mental functioning, which consists in visual images and representations. This type of mental operations is based on practical reality, but is already capable of creating and preserving images that have no direct analogue in representations (for example, fairy-tale characters). The key value has visual-figurative thinking in the process of teaching children.

In figurative thinking, tools for solving problems are images extracted from memory or recreated by imagination, not concepts. The difference from the previous type is the widespread use of verbal elements in the formation and transformation of images and the use of abstract concepts.

The process of creative thinking is just based more on figurative mental activity. Creative thinking is one of the forms of the individual's mental activity, which is characterized by the creation of a subjectively new object and the appearance of new growths directly in the cognitive activity related to its creation. Such neoplasms occur in the motivational sphere and relate to goals, evaluation, meanings.

The process of creative thinking varies with other operations on the use of ready-made knowledge and skills, called reproductive thinking. Thus, the main characteristic of creative thinking activity must be the presence of a result, that is, a subjectively new product created by an individual.

Abstract-logical operation operates in the form of abstract representations, symbols and numbers. The individual operates with concepts that are not obtained experimentally through the senses.

Thought processes are a cognitive process, which acts in the form of a creative mapping by the subject of reality, generating such a result, which does not exist directly in reality or at the subject now.