Psychology and Psychiatry

Domestic Abuse

Domestic Abuse - this is a phenomenon quite often encountered in almost all corners of the globe. Family tyranny and despotism are observed everywhere, in various social strata and are not due to belonging to a certain age group of family members, their financial well-being or religion. In addition, domestic violence is not determined by dependence on the gender of individuals prone to despotism and violence, and is equally often common in both same-sex couples and in heterogeneous marriages.

Violence in the family is a recurring process, characterized by an increase in the frequency of manifestations, consisting in physical tyranny, verbal abuse, economic and spiritual mockery of one person over other members, connected by family universities, in order to gain total control over them or to instill fear and intimidation. According to certain statistics, the gender nature of domestic violence is significantly biased towards violence by the sons of Adam over Eve’s daughters, while for others, there is no such bias, but there is a significant difference in the severity of the harm.

Domestic violence is characterized by subdivision into specific categories: violence against a partner in matrimony, over children, over elderly members of family relations.

Children experience domestic violence especially difficult, since it predetermines their whole future life.

Causes of Domestic Abuse

It is believed that the causes of domestic violence, mockery of one of the partners, are often due to the person and his life story. Below are the most typical factors:

- parental behavior (either the father beat the mother or the mother scoffed at the father);

- an individual prone to domestic violence, often in childhood parents beat or mocked them;

- matriarchal or patriarchal family lifestyle;

- absolute conviction that the abused partner craves to be a victim and is unable to end the relationship;

- high anxiety or anxiety caused by the possibility of losing their dominant position;

- systematic excessive use of alcohol-containing beverages or alcoholism;

- relatively weak level of self-awareness and self-control;

- inability to take responsibility for their own actions on themselves;

- high level of stress caused by economic instability or domestic turmoil;

- the indispensable desire to harm the partner (sadism in the "light" form);

- the presence of psychopathic personality disorder, characterized by the rejection of established social norms, impulsivity, increased aggressiveness, inability to form their attachments.

In addition, on the part of state bodies, the help to victims of domestic violence is rather scanty, which also contributes to the emergence of domestic tyranny aimed at women or children.

Among theories explaining domestic violence against children, there are two main ones.

The first theory includes the features of society in which violence is found:

- the specifics of the socio-economic organization;

- unemployment rate;

- poverty of the population;

- the presence of civil wars or local military actions;

- high crime rate;

- the weakness of the legislative base of the state;

- the lack of a unified and effective concept of child protection;

- attitudes of society in terms of tolerance of violence and the existence of the belief that physical punishment is an effective educational method.

According to many experts, a specific feature of the Slavic mentality is a tolerant attitude towards ill-treatment and domestic violence.

K. Abulkhanova, noted that the proper Christian acceptance of torment and suffering is fundamental to the character of the Slavic people. Sacrifice is recognized in today's society as one of the dominant social attitudes. In addition, coercion is often perceived as a sign of attention. As a result, there is resistance to the awareness of the problem of violent measures against children at the level of attitudes, both broad social and narrow common among specialists. The community as a whole, as well as the majority of social professionals, do not consider abuse and violent acts against a child a serious problem that requires urgent action. Because of this, no decisive attempts are being made to overcome such behavior.

Children domestic violence provokes suicidal attempts, often successful, alcohol abuse, deviant behavior, communication with youth groups, vagrancy, etc.

The developed and unified system of protection of the child population from ill-treatment contributes to the leveling of many of the listed negative effects. And, on the contrary, the weakness of this system, the insufficiency of some of its elements, the indifference of society can not only act as a specific cause of cruelty towards children, but also further leads to the degeneration of the nation as a whole. In addition, the indifference of society to the existing problem provokes the emergence of a cult of violence among the child population. Today, ill-treatment is the dominant trend in relations between children and in the interaction of children with an adult environment.

The second theory is related to the specifics of the family and the peculiarities of the family relationships in which the child grows.

The modern family today has lost the original functions of love, support and care. Relationships in most families of today's society have come down to economic modality. Distortion of family relationships caused a rapidly spreading phenomenon called “social orphanhood”, in other words, the lack of help and care from children with live mothers and fathers.

The “small” victims of domestic violence are not able to assimilate the norms of socially positive relationships in communicative interaction with individuals. In the future, they are not able to properly adapt to life, to build a family. Children raised in families where tyranny and despotism prevailed, often cruelly treat their own children. They are easily resolved to use violence against other individuals. Such babies, brought to an extreme degree of despair and humiliation, are transformed from a sacrificial lamb into a criminal.

All violence leads to a steady sense of expectation of danger, danger, and constant anxiety. Children who have experienced violence feel fear, powerlessness, pain, confusion, shame. Often, they blame themselves for what happened, feel themselves accomplices or perpetrators.

If in a family relationship the father is the tyrant, then many children feel guilty about their mother, because, as a result of fear, they could not trust her. Deep in their souls, some little ones understand that what is happening is not their fault, but most of them still believe that forcible treatment is due to their behavior or their character. As a result, they are forced to hide everything and keep silent. This, in turn, exacerbates the consequences of violence.

The sources of violence are often families:

- with the presence of an inadequate, inadequate style of educational activities and intrafamily relations with psychophysical characteristics or personal capabilities of the child (for example, emotional rejection of the child, inconsistent conflict relations of parents);

- an unstable family in which a divorce is planned;

- disorganized, asocial family with regular alcoholism or anesthesia, criminal behavior of senior family members, immoral way of life.

Domestic violence against women

Coercion or violence against the weaker sex refers to individual or collective violent acts committed against women. The main motive of this crime is the sex of the victim.

In accordance with the definition adopted in the UN, violence against women is considered to be any violent act committed because of a sexual trait that causes or can cause sexual, physical or psychological harm, suffering for women, and besides this threat of doing such acts, forcing or imprisonment of life.

Women are most at risk of violence from the closest people, and mainly from intimate partners. Women subjected to violent acts undergo profound, often, and irreversible changes affected by physiology, behavior, cognitive functions, and emotional sphere. In the first turn, self-esteem is significantly reduced in women, a chronic feeling of shame, a feeling of guilt appears, the fear becomes its constant companions, the perception of reality is distorted. The victim is characterized by a critically high level of anxiety, the presence of neurotic states, depression.

Also, victims who have experienced violent acts, there are a number of clinical manifestations of personal deformation - signs of post-traumatic stress. Therefore, in the first turn, help to victims of domestic violence lies in the positive transformation of the environment in which the victim exists.

Domestic violence can take the form of physical impact, but in addition, often takes the form of verbal and psychological. Often, the representatives of the weaker sex, who suffered from violent acts on the part of the partner, do not tell anyone about the incident, including law enforcement agencies. Therefore, most experts believe that the true scale of the picture is almost impossible to establish. The risk of death due to acts of violence by a partner for women is several times higher than for men.

In addition, violence can also occur between women in a kinship relationship, in particular between a daughter and a mother, in lesbian couples, or in relations between girls adjacent to an apartment or room.

There are a number of signs that make it possible to recognize signs of family violence against women and not to appear as victims of domestic violence:

- direct verbal aggression (for example, insults to the partner, her humiliation);

- showing contempt, obvious disrespect of the opinion of the spouse;

- a man does not respect the work of his wife and any of her work;

- there are constant rude mockery and mockery of the woman;

- in dealing with his wife, a man often uses an arrogant tone in the form of an order;

- the spouse constantly criticizes the woman;

- there are facts of direct intimidation, blackmail by children;

- the facts of pathological unfounded jealousy are noted;

- disregard for the feelings of the partner;

- a man abuses a ban;

- husband forbids to use the phone;

- the spouse accuses the woman of own mistakes.

Domestic violence help is divided into several stages. In the first turn, it is necessary to identify the signs of the incident of violence. It often happens that the doctor suspects domestic violence against the patient, but due to certain circumstances she does not want to admit it. Therefore, it is necessary with the help of a confidential conversation, asking direct questions, to cause her frankness. If a woman confirms the facts of violence, then it is necessary to assure her that she does not deserve such treatment, that the problem of domestic despotism is quite common, that a person responsible for such actions is considered to be responsible for such behavior.

How to deal with domestic violence? In the first turn, you need not to be afraid to fight with him. It is necessary to understand that to confront violent acts is not only possible, but also extremely necessary, so as not to lose yourself as an individual and personality. Do not be afraid, and even more ashamed to go to law enforcement agencies. For the spouse-despot there are three options for liability (administrative, criminal and civil law). If there are injuries caused by a tyrant spouse, they should be recorded in a medical institution. In addition to law enforcement agencies, there are also various centers aimed at helping women with domestic violence. In such centers, competent specialists and experienced psychologists work, specializing specifically in providing support to survivors of domestic violence, to help restore the psychological state of the victim.

Domestic violence - how to deal with a tyrant

In the world every day thousands of women are subjected to domestic violence. Husbands can often do much more harm to the physical health and psychological state of a woman than ordinary street gangsters. After all, the attack of criminals is a one-time action, and partners mock the spouses methodically, daily bringing them to a sad mental state. However, they do not follow entirely to lay the blame for the daily mockery of men, because the victim is to blame for what is happening. Women have an enormous amount of patience, they are aimed at preserving the family. At the same time, wives suffering bullying do not understand that with each passing day the level of danger of being under the same roof with a tyrant for them increases.

How to deal with domestic violence? What to do if the husband beats? It is necessary to understand that absolutely all domestic tyrants fear publicity, which may entail the intervention of others and government employees. Often, sadistic husbands in public appear as such "goodies" to themselves, and alone come off to the fullest. That is why one should not hide his misfortune, much less cover the tyrant. It is necessary to inform parents of the spouse, his other close persons, friends about violent acts in the address. You also need to talk about the behavior of the spouse to their relatives. The centers of psychological support and legal assistance provide assistance to women with domestic violence. In addition, it is recommended to write an application for a home tyrant to law enforcement. They have enough leverage and intimidation of home sadists. The most important thing in confronting a man who is prone to domestic violence is the demonstration of what awaits him when he tries to repeat his actions of a violent nature.

Unfortunately, in our country, assistance to victims of domestic violence is developed to a much lesser extent than abroad. Therefore, in order to increase the effectiveness of the aid system, eradicate the problem of domestic violence, it is advisable to learn from the experience of foreign countries, as well as to develop effective programs aimed at creating a system of psychological, legal, medical and social assistance to victims of domestic violence.

Today it becomes obvious that effective social work in the direction of providing assistance and support to those affected by domestic tyrants should be based on the close intertwining of all public services related to solving social problems of the population.

Domestic violence is dangerous because over time it acquires a generalized focus, when cases of ill-treatment and violent acts are regular and cover different areas of the relationship of the tyrant and the victim. Domestic violence is characterized by a cyclical process.

Rehabilitation assistance to victims of domestic violence is characterized by the presence of certain prescriptions. Their common feature is their focus on overcoming psychological transformations caused by prolonged exposure to stress, as well as related to the destruction of the victim’s personality caused by cruelty.

Studies have proven that the following strategies to overcome the post-traumatic stress state are most effective:

- for the purpose of analyzing the memories of the traumatic situation and deeply comprehending all the circumstances of the injury, a directed return to the memories is used;

- understanding of the meaning of the traumatic situation in life, awareness of the style of behavior, decisions made by the person, and, as a consequence, the quality of life.

Most experts believe that the tried and tested violence must be considered as a traumatic crisis, the consequences of which affect the attitude of women, their motivational and emotional spheres, cognitive processes and behavior. Hence, the basis of the concepts aimed at studying the effects of domestic violence as a traumatic crisis is the theory that an individual who has survived a crisis situation cannot remain the same. As a result of the events in his personality, changes must occur. As from a crisis situation to be "returning" can not. Вследствие травматического кризиса представительницы слабого пола переходят от одного состояния самоощущения к иному, от одного суждения о реальности к другому.Such a transformation should be considered as transferring new experience, acquiring knowledge about one’s own personality and about the world, which ultimately can be considered as overcoming a stage in personal development, subject to successful exit from a traumatic crisis.

In short, a positive overcoming of the crisis provoked by domestic violence is the way to gain a new I-concept and a new concept of reality. This way is rather complicated and, often, causes natural fear, concluded in the fear of losing oneself, fear of not enduring anxiety and losing one's mind. Most women who choose this path need an assistant or guide. Psychologists or social workers can act as guides. A positive approach contributes to a fruitful overcoming the state of crisis provoked by violence. It consists in the woman’s understanding of her own reactions to circumstances, with their further acceptance, in experiencing and formulating her own state, which leads to the integration of experience gained as a result of experiencing violence.