Psychology and Psychiatry

Impaired thinking

Impaired thinking in humans - this is a disorder of information processing processes, identifying relationships that link various phenomena or objects of the surrounding reality, deviations in the reflection of the essential properties of objects and in determining the connections that unite them, which gives rise to false notions and imaginary judgments about an objectively existing reality. There are several types of violations of the process of thinking, namely the disorder of the dynamics of thought processes, the pathology of the operational functioning of thinking and disorders of the motivational and personal component of mental activity. In most cases, the features of the mental operation of each patient, to qualify in the framework of one type of violation of the process of thinking is almost impossible. Often in the structure of the pathologically changed mental activity of patients there are combinations of various types of deviations that are in unequal severity. So, for example, the disorder of the process of generalization in a number of clinical cases is combined with the pathologies of purposeful thinking operations.

Impaired thinking is one of the most frequently encountered symptoms of mental illness.

Types of impaired thinking

Disruption of the operational function of mental activity. Among the main operations of thinking, there are: abstraction, analysis and synthesis, generalization.
Generalization is the result of analysis, which reveals the main relations connecting phenomena and objects. There are several stages of generalization:
- categorical stage, is to be attributed to the form, based on the essential features;
- functional - is to be attributed to the form, based on functional characteristics;
- specific - is to be attributed to the form, based on specific characteristics;
- zero, that is, there is no operation - is to enumerate objects or their functions without intentions to generalize.

The pathologies of the operational side of mental functioning are quite diverse, but two extreme options can be distinguished, namely, lowering the level of generalization and the deformation of the generalization process.

In the reasoning of patients with a decrease in the level of generalization direct ideas about objects and events prevail. Instead of emphasizing the generalized properties, patients use concrete-situational compounds, they have difficulty in abstracting from specific elements. Such disorders can occur in a mild form, moderately severe and strongly pronounced degree. Such disorders are usually marked with mental retardation, severe course of encephalitis, with organic brain pathology with dementia.

You can talk about lowering the level of generalization only in the case when this level of the individual was previously, and then dropped.

When distorting the operational processes of generalization, patients are guided by overly generalized properties that are inadequate to the actual connections between objects. There is a prevalence of formal, imaginary associations, as well as a departure from the substantive aspect of the task. Such patients establish only formal, verbal connections, the true difference and similarity are not for them a test of their judgments. Such mental disorders are found in individuals with schizophrenia.

Psychiatry identifies the two most common disorders of the dynamics of mental functioning: lability and inertia of mental operations.
Lability is the variability of the tactics of the task. In patients, the level of generalization corresponds to their education and life experience gained. Studies show that the subjects, along with the truly generalized conclusions can be concluded conclusions based on the actualization of random relationships or based on a specific-situational combination of objects, events in a group of a certain class. In individuals with manifestations of mental lability, increased "response". They have marked reactions to any random stimuli, they intertwine any passing stimulus from the external environment into their own judgments, while violating the established instruction, losing the focus of actions and the sequence of associations.
Inertness of thinking activity calls the expressed “tight” mobility of switching from one activity to another, the difficulty in changing the chosen way of one’s own work. The inertness of relations of past experience, the complexity of switching leads to a decrease in the ability of generalization and the level of distraction. Patients cannot cope with mediation exercises. This pathology occurs in individuals suffering from epilepsy or the consequences of severe brain injury.

With the pathology of the motivational and personal component of mental activity, such manifestations as the diversity of mental operations, reasoning, uncriticality, nonsense are observed.

The diversity of mental operations is manifested by a lack of focused action. The individual can not classify objects and events, highlight common signs. Along with this, they have kept such operations as generalization, juxtaposition, and discrimination. Also, patients perceive the instructions, but do not follow them. Ideas about objects and judgments about phenomena take place in different planes, as a result of which they are distinguished by inconsistency. Systematization and selection of objects can be made on the basis of individual characteristics of perception, tastes of individuals and their habits. Therefore, the objectivity of ideas is absent.

Reasoning can be represented as a violation of logical thinking, which manifests itself in meaningless and empty verbiage.

The individual strikes in long endless reasonings, which have no definite goal and are not supported by any concrete ideas. The speech of an individual suffering from resonance is characterized by a discontinuity, replete with complex logical constructions and abstract concepts. Often, patients operate on terms without understanding their meaning. Such individuals tend to constantly lose the thread of reasoning, and individual phrases in lengthy reasoning are often completely unrelated and do not carry a semantic load. In most cases, patients also lack an object of thought. Philosophizing of individuals suffering from resonance, are rhetorical. "Speakers" with such a violation do not require a response or attention of the interlocutor. This pathology is characteristic of schizophrenia.

It is the signs that indicate a violation of logical thinking, have great importance in the diagnosis of mental illnesses.

Uncritical thinking activity is characterized by its superficiality and incompleteness. The thought process ceases to regulate the behavior and actions of individuals and ceases to be focused.

The nonsense manifests itself as a conclusion, judgment or presentation, not related to the information that comes from the surrounding reality. For a patient, the correspondence of his delusional ideas to reality does not matter. The individual is guided by his conclusions, as a result of which he is removed from reality, leaving her in a delusional state. Such patients cannot be assured of the falsity of their delusional ideas, they are strongly confident in their correspondence to reality. In terms of their content, delusional reasoning is very diverse.

These types of impaired thinking are mainly characteristic of mental retardation, dementia, and schizophrenia.

Impaired thinking in schizophrenia

Mental illness, which is characterized by a gross disorder of interaction with the surrounding reality, is called schizophrenia. Inadequate behavior, various hallucinations and delusional judgments can accompany the state of schizophrenic patients. For this disease is characterized by the disintegration of the internal unity of feelings and will, in addition there is a violation of memory and thinking, as a result of which the sick individual cannot adequately adapt to the social environment.

Schizophrenia is characterized by a chronic progressive course and has a hereditary nature.

The described mental illness has a devastating effect on the personality of the subjects, changing it beyond recognition. Most people associate schizophrenia with hallucinations and delusional judgments, but in reality this symptom is completely reversible, but there are no changes in thought processes and the emotional sphere.

Psychology regards mental disorder as the most common symptom of mental illness, in particular schizophrenia. When diagnosing a mental illness, psychiatrists are often guided by the presence of one or several types of mental activity pathology.

The main violations of thinking are of a formal nature and consist in the loss of associative links. In individuals suffering from schizophrenia, it is not the sense of judgment that changes, but the logical internal connections of judgment. In other words, there is not a decomposition of concepts, but a violation of the process of generalization, in which patients appear a lot of fleeting, undirected associations, reflecting very general connections. With the progression of the disease in patients it changes, it becomes torn.

For schizophrenics is characterized by the so-called "slipping", which consists in a sharp inconsistent transition from one idea to another judgment. Patients are not able to notice such a "slippage" on their own.

In the thoughts of patients, “neologisms” often appear, that is, they come up with new ornate words. Thus, atactic (non-concrete) thinking manifests itself.

Also, schizophrenics show fruitless wisdom, lost their concreteness and generalization of speech, coordination between phrases is lost. Patients give phenomena, strangers statements their own secret meaning.

According to the data of the conducted experiments in comparison with the results of healthy individuals, schizophrenics better recognize the stimuli that are less expected, and worse - the stimuli that are more expected. As a result, there is a marked nebula, vagueness, intricacy of the mental activity of patients, which provokes disorders of mental processes in schizophrenia. Such individuals cannot determine the meaningful connections that exist between objects, do not reveal the secondary concrete situational properties, but actualize rather general, not reflecting the actual situation, often superficial, facile, formal signs.

In schizophrenia, basic thinking disorders cannot be considered without taking into account the whole life of a person. Mental disorders and personality disorders are interrelated.

In schizophrenia, impaired memory and thinking, attention disorders, can also be detected. But in the absence of changes in the organic nature of the brain, these pathologies are the consequences of mental disorder.

Impaired thinking in children

By the end of the early age period, small individuals develop an intellectual activity, including the ability to generalize, transfer acquired experience from initial conditions to new ones, establish relationships that exist between objects by conducting peculiar experiments (manipulations), memorize connections and apply them when solving problems.

Psychology is a violation of thinking in the form of mental disorders that occur during various ailments or anomalies of the development of the psyche, as well as local brain lesions.

The thought processes that take place in the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres of babies' brain cause their interaction with society.

There are the following types of mental impairment in children: slippage, rupture and diversity, relying on hidden signs.

Due to the fact that mental manipulation is a process of displaying specific signs of objects, as well as the relations connecting them, it leads to the emergence of judgments and views on objective reality. When the disorder of such representations begins, acceleration of thought processes can replace. The result is that the crumbs spontaneous and rapid speech, representations quickly change each other.

Inertness of mental activity is manifested in the slowing down of processes occurring in the cortex of the hemispheres. The child’s speech is characterized by monosyllabic responses. There is an impression about such children, their word “without thoughts” is completely empty. A similar disorder of mental functioning can be observed in manic-depressive syndrome, epilepsy or psychopathy.

Inertness of thinking processes with inhibition of comprehension, comparative paucity of associations, slow and laconic impoverished speech has a much greater clinical significance.

Inertness of mental activity leads to the difficulty of assimilation by the sick children of the school curriculum, since they are not able to learn at the same pace with healthy kids.

The discontinuity of mental functioning is found in the absence of purposefulness of mental activity, relationships that are established between objects or ideas are disrupted. The order of mental manipulation is distorted, while sometimes the grammatical structure of phrases can be preserved, which transforms meaningless speech into an externally ordered sentence. In cases where grammatical connections are lost, mental activity and speech are transformed into meaningless verbal typing.

The illogicality (inconsistency) of reasoning is manifested in the alternation of correct and incorrect methods of performing the exercises. This form of mental disturbance is easily corrected through accented attention.

The responsiveness of mental functioning in children is manifested in the variability of the ways of doing the exercises.