Psychology of a teenager is a term that is ambiguous. Since, on the one hand, it implies a science that studies the peculiarities of the behavioral patterns of children who have entered the pubertal stage of formation. On the other hand, it means directly the essence of the concept under consideration - age specificity of behavior, features of mental processes.
Teenage psychology is considered the most controversial phenomenon, characterized by inconstancy and the appearance of rebelliousness. The teenage stage is marked by the release of the crumbs from childhood. Here yesterday's baby begins to look into his own inner world, comprehends new things about his personality. At the described stage, critical thinking is formed against the background of rebellion and denial of the usual behavioral patterns.
Features of adolescent development
The puberty period is the most difficult of all stages of child development. This stage is also called transitional, since the so-called "transformation" of the child into an adult person, the transition from childhood to maturity occurs. Such a transformation affects all aspects of being a teenager, his anatomical and physiological formation, intellectual and moral ripening, as well as all subspecies of activity, namely: play, training and labor.
At the puberty stage, the circumstances of the child’s life and his activities change significantly, which leads to the need to transform mental processes, breaking old, previously established forms of interaction with cohorts and adults. Learning activities are complicated by increased demands, an increase in workload, and the emergence of new sciences that need to be systematically studied. All this requires a deeper level of mental processes: solid generalizations and reasoned evidence, an understanding of abstract connections between objects, the development of abstract concepts.
In addition, a teenager significantly transformed his principles, ideology, social position, position among classmates. The child begins to play a more significant role in the school environment, family. In this regard, he begins to face more demands from society and parents, who are becoming more serious and substantial in content.
In the process of sophisticated learning activities, the teenagers' intelligence is noticeably improving. The content comprehended in the school of sciences, the modification of the nature and content of educational activities develop in them the ability to independently think, summarize, reason, analyze, compare and summarize.
In addition, the described stage in the maturation of the child's personality is also marked by puberty, which seriously complicates the passage of the considered stage of development.
13 years old
It is believed that on average, at the age of thirteen, adolescents begin to resemble a picture of deep contrasts. They have only white and black tones in their judgments and attitudes towards being, which is revealed in adolescent maximalism and the spirit of rebellion.
Physical features of not already toddlers, but also far from adult individuals, are characterized by a greater development of young ladies in comparison with their younger cavaliers. This is especially pronounced in growth, since girls have a slower formation of the muscular corset against the background of intensive growth of the bone skeleton.
It is believed that, on average, boys are two years behind girls in formation. However, regardless of gender, all maturing children become more suspicious, they begin to pay attention to their own appearance, most of them have increased appetite.
The psychology of adolescents 13 years old undergoes a dramatic transformation, as marked by hormonal changes. In addition, yesterday's children begin to identify with adult individuals who have their own desires, thoughts and attitudes.
The peculiarities of the emotional nature include:
- increased emotionality of girls;
- quick temper;
- the uncertainty that children are trying with all their strength to learn to overcome;
- emotional outburst (adolescents experience a brighter spectrum of emotions, they are more likely than adults to feel happy or immensely unhappy);
- the existence of simultaneously opposing emotions (adolescents can simultaneously hate someone and love);
- there is an enthusiasm for something new.
Among the features of social orientation are:
- the desire for independence from parental care;
- the value of friendship appears;
- there is a negativism and demanding attitude towards teachers, surrounding adults and parents;
- may appear idols (children often fall in love with film, pop stars).
Intellectual development has the following specifics:
- Idealists' views are made closer to children;
- they need evidence of any opinions expressed by parents or other adults, otherwise adolescents reject them without any regrets;
- deny conventional wisdom (they will rather accept a strikingly different view);
- the ability to think logically is intensely manifested;
- the logic is formed along with the development of abstract thinking, therefore, adults often see contradictions in the arguments of adolescents;
- Here yesterday's children are already beginning to make independent decisions, relying solely on the individual value system.
14 years old
The significance of this stage in the formation of a child is explained by the laying of the foundations of moral and ethical principles and social attitudes during this period.
There are numerous shifts that have the character of breaking up previously vaccinated: interests, peculiarities, relationships. The transformations that mark the stage in question are accompanied by the subjective problems of the adolescent (emotional distress, internal confusion, difficulties of a physiological nature) and
complications for teachers and parents of maturing children (stubbornness, rudeness, aggressiveness, negativism, irritability).
Psychologists described the age referred to as the time of five "no", because adolescents:
- do not wish to learn, as their abilities allow;
- do not want to listen to advice;
- do not do household chores;
- they don't clean up after themselves;
- do not come in time.
At the considered stage, the following biological changes are also noted: increase in growth, endocrine changes, transformation of the motor apparatus, inconsistency in the growth of the myocardium and capillaries (the myocardium grows faster than the circulatory system, which sometimes can cause dysfunction of the cardiovascular apparatus).
The consequence of biological transformations is:
- the formation of sexual desire;
- sharp changes of states, moods and reactions (imbalance, agitation, periodic apathy, lethargy, weakness);
- clumsiness, angularity, fussiness, bright and easy expression of emotions.
The main need of this age stage is considered the need for communicative interaction with comrades. Communication for them is a kind of means of self-knowledge through others, self-assertion of the individual, finding oneself.
In connection with the prevalence of communication, academic performance drops sharply, as the motivation for learning activity decreases. Boys are less sociable than girls who are drawn to older boys.
The psychology of a teenager of 14 years is complicated by the growing influence of the emotional sphere on various activities. His own attitude towards teachers, adults, peers, learning activities teenager builds on the basis of emotions. The mind here fades into the background.
At the described stage, the so-called split appears in the sensual field and consciousness. There is a counterbalance to the hormonal surge, sexual desire, covering the mind and body, and the sudden emergence of interest in associates of the opposite sex. There is an intense "maturing" of consciousness, which gives rise to a new outlook.
Psychology of a teenager 15 years old is marked by changes in the cognitive sphere. The most dramatic changes occur in intellectual activity. At this stage, the development of skills of logical mental activity, then theoretical thinking, the logical memory is formed. The creative abilities of yesterday’s child are also actively ripening, and an individual manner of activity is developed, which finds its reflection in the style of mental activity.
The described period is marked by secondary socialization, which implies a greater involvement of cognitive mechanisms. Here a worldview is formed, a value base is developed, an idea of one’s own purpose, meaning of being.
Yesterday's children are included in a completely new relationship structure. Their actual position among peers and in the family also changes. In adolescents, the field of activity expands significantly, and its variations are seriously complicated. They have their own position. Teens begin to consider themselves adults. There is a desire that teachers, parents and other adult surroundings perceive them as equal. At the same time, teenagers do not think that they require more rights than they are able to assume responsibilities.
Here, the main neoplasms of the period are considered to be the emergence of a conscious regulation of one’s own actions, the ability to take into account the interests and feelings of others and to orient oneself in one’s own behavioral response to them.
The psychology of a teenager of 15 years is such that here the nature of the relationship system that has developed with the surrounding society becomes decisive in development.
A sixteen year old teenager is the most difficult test for parents. It was this period that marked the concept of "difficult" as applied in general to adolescents.
At the same time, as many psychologists believe, the complexity of the stage in question is due, as a rule, to the difficulty of “fitting in” the adolescent himself on Wednesday.
It is quite difficult for sixteen-year-olds to try on a qualitatively new self - after all, they have already ceased to be children, but have not become adults yet.
The following are characteristic features that mark the stage in question:
- adolescents at a conscious level actively develop a world view, against the background of full maturity of the “self-concept”, as a result of which the surrounding 16-year-olds are of little interest to assessments;
- professional interests are formed, the skills of managing others are often found bordering on overt provocations;
- there is a growing need for a cohesive group of individuals, which are united by common interests, it is this age that is inherent in cases of mass protests;
- the authority of parents is sharply reduced, and often the reason is not covered in adults, it is due to the processes occurring with sixteen-year-old children;
- there is a formation of attractiveness and individual positions, showing attitude to this issue;
- at this stage of maturation, adolescents are made more emotionally balanced, and their actions become more consistent and almost devoid of impulsivity;
- sixteen years old begin to strive for a serious relationship, both in friendship and in a romantic relationship;
- personal relationships here come to the fore, the intimacy of these relations increases;
- teenagers begin to strive for independent earnings.
- the negativism decreases.
The considered stage is marked by the formation of value-semantic self-regulation of behavioral response. When an individual learns to interpret and accordingly regulate his own actions, the need to clarify his behavior inevitably leads to the subordination of his own acts to legislative norms. Adolescents have the so-called philosophical "poisoning" of consciousness. They are plunged into doubts, endless meditations that impede an active initiative position.
Seventeen-year-old individuals are already considered as a society of adults, which puts pressure on a child who has not yet matured. A turning point comes when the school is left behind, and the society and parents require children to make a decision about further actions - either they continue to learn, or find work. This is where adolescents begin to fear that they will not overpower the load that has arisen, fear of the opportunities that have opened up and possible failures.
The core activity of seventeen years of age is social interaction. Girls pay more attention to their appearance. Sometimes contrived flaws lead to their stiffness and unwillingness to appear in society.
In the period under review, the formation of the skull is completed. Also at this stage of maturation ends the formation of the female body. All major dimensional signs of the body almost reach the final size. At girls the ossification of tubular (long) bones comes to the end.
Youth is considered the beginning of adulthood. Therefore, the feeling that there is still a lot of time ahead, provides a wide platform for experimentation, trial, error and the search for oneself. At this stage, basically all functions of the psyche have been formed. The stage of stabilization of personality has begun. The analyzed stage is marked by a crisis of seventeen years of age.
Psychology of adolescent boys
Adolescence in the sons of Adam is the transformation of boys into adult husbands. At this stage, biological maturation occurs, which coincides with the emergence of new interests, disillusionment with past hobbies.
Young adolescents part with childhood, there is no understanding of what will happen to them, therefore they feel discomfort.
In the pubertal period, an active growth of boys is observed: the hormonal background changes, the voice "breaks", the skeleton grows.
This stage is manifested by the extreme intolerance of young men, unwillingness to provide assistance to someone who is different. Adolescent boys become important to their appearance, so if there are problems with the appearance, there will be trouble. Since there will definitely be boys ready to laugh, and others ready to support them in this fun.
Such teenage problems are not uncommon. They are an important psychological basis of the period under consideration. Due to high-speed hormonal adjustment in adolescents, acne often appears, and weight increases. Boys suffer an uncontrollable erection.
In addition to physical transformations, sexual and hormonal metamorphoses, other changes also occur with the child. His views on being are modified, questions start to start that are of no interest at all before. The danger of the stage in question is the exaggeration of one’s own abilities, since for children of yesterday everything seems more rosy, accessible and simple.
This age is characterized by the emergence of a "gap" between common sense and emotions. The underdevelopment of the prefrontal zone in the pubertal period explains the emergence of the main problems in the behavioral response. Therefore, teenagers are often unable to correctly analyze the situation only in connection with the immaturity of the nervous processes.
Psychology of adolescent girls
In the period of puberty, an intensive growth of the organism and hormonal changes take place. Therefore, many girls begin to gain weight, the body is rounded, becoming more feminine.
Since the body does not have time to quickly adapt to the ongoing metamorphosis, it has to work hard for wear. Hence, girls have increased fatigue, drowsiness and apathy. It can also aggravate the ailments of the chronic course or appear new.
The skin condition may deteriorate due to the increased production of estrogen and progesterone, which also adversely affects the emotional state of the child. Also, this stage is marked by the appearance of the first menses, which are often accompanied by pain and weakness.
All processes occurring in the body, inevitably affect the children's nervous system. In addition, the contrived shortcomings such as: overweight, problem skin, the appearance of the smell of sweat, negatively affect the self-esteem of a teenage girl. This is fertile ground for the birth of various complexes in a teenage girl.
Due to the increased production of sex hormones, the emotional background of the girls is unstable, its various forms can be replaced every second - from apathy to joyless unreasonable arousal, from tearfulness to obvious aggression.
Teen girls are often prone to despondency. They are convinced that everything is bad. Girls are often prone to crying. Often they feel hatred and irritation towards the closest persons.
Their memory deteriorates, their concentration decreases, their ability to express their thoughts is impaired.
Girls who are in the described stage of maturation often resemble three-year-olds with their own actions and words. Often you can hear from them: "I myself," "do not meddle with me," "leave me alone."
Проблемы подросткового возраста
The increasing complexity of the real trends of social advancement, the acceleration of the rhythm of existence, the preference for the hedonistic way of being have an impact on the formation of modern adolescents. These circumstances cause passivity in children, aggression, depressive moods, moral indifference and create barriers to identifying their own moral values and understanding the meaning of their own existence.
That is why the psychology of modern adolescents in comparison with the psychology of the early periods of formation is characterized by specificity. After all, the dynamism of being and its relation to pleasure as the highest value is reflected in the hearts and minds of new generations.
The main problems of adolescence include:
- the anger of children (the problem lies not in the very presence of this feeling, but in the inability to control it), manifested in passive-aggressive behavioral reactions in order to bring the adult environment or parents off balance, and is characterized by unconsciousness, being the result of silenced anger;
- emotional instability;
- suicidal tendencies, which generates low self-esteem, parental indifference, feeling of loneliness, depressive moods;
- homosexuality, consisting in an intimate attraction to the subjects of their gender;
- adolescent depression, expressed by melancholy, depressed mood, pessimism, a sense of personal worthlessness, inhibition of movements, monotony of ideas, a decrease in impulses, various somatic deviations;
- personal self-determination, which includes social self-determination, family, professional, moral, religious and life.
Advice to parents in the education of adolescents
The puberty stage is considered the most difficult period for the adolescent himself and his parents. Therefore, mutual understanding should be central to the relationship with the maturing child. To do this, parents need to be proactive and not be offended by yesterday’s children. You should not poke momentary "I want" teenagers, but also constantly oppose them, too, is not recommended. If the parent does not want, or for objective reasons, cannot satisfy the “want” of the adolescent, then it is necessary to explain the reasons to him.
It is necessary to try more communicatively to interact with children, talk about their own work, discuss pressing situations, life problems, and be interested in their hobbies. At the considered stage of personality formation, it is very important for teenagers to feel parental love. They should understand that parents are their friends who will always support, and not show, neglect or ridicule.
The strategy of parents in the described period should be to form a position of confidence in adolescents. The child must learn that he is responsible for his own successes and failures.
It is impossible to build an educational process on confrontation, confrontation. You need to be based on cooperation, arm yourself with patience and compassion.
Parents need to comprehend the main thing that it is their life, habits, manner of communication, and relationships in the family that have the greatest influence on the formation of a teenage personality. If quarrels prevail in the family, disrespect of the spouses to each other, reproaches, lies, then the benefits of moralizing how to live correctly will be zero.
It is necessary to try not to deceive a teenager, not to neglect his opinion, to respect his position, not to impose his own world view as the only true one. It is necessary to achieve trust from the child. When the child completely trusts his own parents, believes them and knows that in any situation his house will have understanding and support, then this minimizes the negative impact of the environment and reduces the risks of falling into the so-called "bad" company.