Intrapersonal conflict - this is a difficultly resolved contradiction that occurs within a person. The intrapersonal psychological conflict is experienced by the individual as a serious problem of psychological content that requires quick resolution. This kind of confrontation can simultaneously accelerate the process of self-development, forcing the person to mobilize their own potential, and harm the individual, slowing down the process of self-knowledge and driving self-affirmation into a dead end. Intra-personal conflict arises in conditions when equally important and opposite interests, impulses and needs collide with each other in the human mind.
The internal confrontation of the individual is called confrontation, which originates within the psyche of the personality, which is a clash of contradictory, often oppositely directed motives.
This type of confrontation is peculiar to a number of specific features. Features of intrapersonal conflict:
- the unusual structure of the conflict (intrapersonal confrontation has no subjects of interaction, represented by individuals or groups of people);
- latency, concluded in the difficulty of identifying internal contradictions, because often the individual does not realize that he is in a state of confrontation, he can also hide his own state under the guise of euphoria or vigorous activity;
- specificity of the forms of manifestation and occurrence, since the internal confrontation proceeds in the form of complex experiences and is accompanied by: fear, depressive states, stress.
The most active problem of intrapersonal conflict was developed in the Western psychological science. His scientific substantiation is inextricably linked with the founder of psychoanalytic theory, Z. Freud.
All approaches and concepts of intrapersonal conflict are determined by the specifics of understanding the content and essence of the personality. Therefore, starting from the understanding of the personality that has taken shape in different psychological schools, one can single out several basic approaches to the consideration of internal confrontation.
Freud cited evidence of the biopsychological and biosocial contents of the intrapersonal confrontation. In essence, the human psyche is contradictory. Her work is associated with constant tension and overcoming the conflict that arises between an individual's biological desires and sociocultural attitudes, between unconscious content and consciousness. It is precisely in contradiction and unchanging confrontation that the whole essence of the intrapersonal confrontation lies, according to Freud's concept.
The concept described was further developed in the writings of its followers: C. Jung and C. Horney.
The German psychologist K. Levin put forward his own concept of intrapersonal conflict called "field theory", according to which the inner world of an individual simultaneously falls under the influence of polar forces. Man has to choose from them. Both such forces can be positive or negative, one of them can also be negative, and the other positive. K. Levin considered the main conditions for the origin of the conflict to be parity and equal importance of such forces for the individual.
K. Rogers believed that the emergence of an internal conflict was due to the discrepancy between the ideas of the subject and his understanding of the ideal “I”. He was convinced that such a mismatch could trigger serious mental disorders.
The concept of intrapersonal confrontation developed by A. Maslow is very popular. He argued that the structure of personal motivation is based on a hierarchy of needs, the highest of which is the need for self-realization. Hence the main reason for the emergence of intrapersonal conflicts is the gap between the desire for self-realization and the result achieved.
The concepts of intrapersonal conflict between A. Luria, V. Merlin, F. Vasilyuk and A. Leontiev can be distinguished among Soviet psychologists who have made a significant contribution to the development of theories of confrontations.
Luria considered intrapersonal confrontation as a collision of two oppositely directed, but equal in strength, tendencies. V. Merlin - as a consequence of dissatisfaction with deep current personal motives and relationships. F. Vasilyuk - as a confrontation between two internal motives that are displayed in the consciousness of the personality of the individual as independent opposed values.
The problem of intrapersonal conflict was considered by Leontiev as a completely normal phenomenon. He believed that internal opposition is peculiar to the structure of personality. Every person is contradictory in its structure. Often the resolution of such contradictions is made in the simplest variations and does not lead to the emergence of intrapersonal conflict. Sometimes the resolution of the conflict goes beyond the borders of the simplest forms, becoming the main one. The consequence of this and becomes intrapersonal confrontation. He believed that internal conflict is the result of the struggle of the individual's motivational courses ranked by hierarchy.
A. Adler considered the inferiority complex to be the basis for the emergence of internal conflicts, which occurs in childhood under the pressure of an unfavorable social environment. In addition, Adler also highlighted the main methods of resolving internal confrontation.
E. Fromm, explaining intrapersonal confrontation, proposed the theory of "existential dichotomy." His concept stated that the causes of internal conflicts lie in the dichotomous nature of the individual, which is found in the problems of being: the problem of limited human life, life and death, etc.
E. Erickson in his own concept of the stages of psychosocial personality formation, having put forward the idea that each age stage is marked by a favorable overcoming of a crisis event or an unfavorable one.
With a successful exit, there is a positive personal development, its transition to the next life period with useful prerequisites for its favorable overcoming. In case of unsuccessful exit from a crisis situation, an individual moves into a new period of his own life with the complexes of the previous stage. Erikson believed that it was almost impossible to safely go through all the stages of development, therefore each individual develops prerequisites for the emergence of intrapersonal confrontation.
Causes of intrapersonal conflict
Intra-personal psychological conflict has three types of causes, provoking its occurrence:
- internal, that is, the reasons hidden in the contradictions of the individual;
- external factors due to the status of the individual in society;
- external factors due to the status of the individual in a particular social group.
All the listed types of causes are interrelated, and their differentiation is considered to be rather conditional. So, for example, internal factors causing confrontation are the result of the interaction of an individual with a group and society, and do not appear from nowhere.
Internal conditions for the emergence of intrapersonal confrontation are rooted in the opposition of various personal motives, in the inconsistency of its internal structure. A person is more prone to internal conflicts when her inner world is complex, feelings of value and the ability to self-analyze are developed.
Intra-personal conflict occurs when there are contradictions below:
- between social norm and need;
- disagreement of needs, motives, interests;
- confrontation of social roles (intrapersonal conflict example: it is necessary to fulfill an urgent order at work and at the same time the child should be taken to training);
- contradiction of sociocultural values and principles, for example, it is necessary to unite the duty of protecting the Motherland during the war and the Christian commandment "Thou shalt not kill."
For the origin of the conflict within the individual, these contradictions must have a deep meaning for the individual, otherwise he will not attach importance to them. In addition, different aspects of the contradictions in the intensity of their own impact on the individual should be equal. Otherwise, an individual from two goods will choose more and less - from "two evils." In this case, internal confrontation will not arise.
External factors provoking the emergence of intrapersonal confrontation, due to: personal status in the group, organization and society.
The reasons for the position of the individual in a particular group are quite diverse, but they are united by the impossibility of satisfying various important motives and needs that have meaning and deep meaning for the individual in a particular situation. From this we can distinguish four variations of situations that provoke the emergence of intrapersonal conflict:
- physical obstacles preventing the satisfaction of basic needs (intrapersonal conflict is an example: a prisoner to whom his cell does not allow free movement);
- the lack of an object that is needed to satisfy a perceived need (for example, a person dreams in a foreign city about a cup of coffee, but it is too early and all cafeterias are closed);
- biological barriers (individuals with physical impairments or oligophrenia, in which the obstacle nests in the human body itself);
- social circumstances are the main root cause of most intrapersonal collisions.
At the level of organization, the causes provoking the manifestation of intrapersonal conflict can be represented by the following types of contradictions:
- between excessive responsibility and limited rights for its implementation (the person was transferred to a managerial position, expanded functions, but the rights remained old);
- between poor working conditions and stringent job requirements;
- between two incompatible tasks or tasks;
- between the rigidly established framework of the task and the vaguely prescribed mechanism for its implementation;
- between the requirements of the profession, traditions, norms established in the company and individual needs or values;
- between the desire for creative self-realization, self-affirmation, career and the potential for doing this within the organization;
- confrontation caused by contradictory social roles;
- between the pursuit of profit and moral values.
External factors due to personal status in society are associated with discrepancies that originate at the level of the public macrosystem and consist in the nature of the social system, the structure of society, and the political and economic life.