Psychology and Psychiatry

Nervous breakdown

Nervous breakdown often referred to as a nervous breakdown, which can be caused by psychological overstrain, prolonged stress or some kind of psychological trauma. For example, this condition often develops in people as a result of a strong experience, overwork, not pleasing everyday life, resentment, and unfulfilled desires. The reasons may be different, but the main criterion for a nervous breakdown is a prolonged stay in a certain situation that does not please the individual, depletes his energy and strength.

The term "nervous breakdown" was not officially recognized in diagnostic systems like the DSM-IV, as well as the ICD-10, and in fact is absent in modern scientific literature. And although nervous breakdown does not have a precise definition, non-professional studies show that this term specifically means a temporary, reactive, acute disorder with symptoms of depression and neurosis, which is often often promoted by external stimuli.

Sometimes the cases described as a nervous breakdown relate to an individual after he loses his temper in everyday life for some reason.

Causes of nervous breakdowns

Psychologists say that the common causes of a nervous breakdown are:

- divorce or separation of spouses;

- problems at work;

- financial difficulties;

- health problems;

- stress and long-term psychological stress;

- heavy adaptation in the new team;

- parting with a loved one;

- immense concern for someone or your health;

- conflict situations and competition;

- the need to deal with or work with emotionally unstable colleagues, clients, and managers.

Factors provoking the development of this state:

- depression;

- the use of alcohol, drugs;

- genetic predisposition;

- lack of vitamins;

- Diseases associated with thyroid dysfunction;

- movement disorders;

- Schizophrenia in history.

Symptoms of a nervous breakdown

The symptomatology of this disorder can be behavioral, physical and emotional in its manifestation.

Physical symptoms:

- reduced libido;

- migraines, frequent headaches;

- depletion of the body;

- pronounced changes in appetite, digestive problems;

- constant fatigue;

- diarrhea, constipation;

- sleep disorders characterized by long periods of insomnia as well as long periods of sleep;

- memory loss;

- violations of the menstrual cycle;

- steady panic attacks, anxiety state;

- symptoms associated with problematic breathing in various manifestations.

Behavioral symptoms:

- stupor;

- hysterical;

- autonomic disorders and disturbances in the work of the cardiovascular system;

- pronounced mood swings;

- strange behavior for others;

- desire to commit violence;

- sudden anger.

Emotional symptoms as harbingers of a future breakdown:

- depression;

- the emergence of thoughts about death,

- anxiety;

- anxiety and indecision;

- tearfulness;

- an increase in dependence on narcotic drugs and alcohol;

- thoughts of paranoid content;

- guilt;

- loss of interest in work and public life;

- lowering self-esteem;

- the emergence of thoughts about their own greatness and invincibility.

Signs of a nervous breakdown

This disorder is found in both women and men, but femin are more prone to emotional problems. Women are much more likely to face stressful situations and are not able to effectively cope with these negative experiences. Often prone to severe nervous breakdowns of femins aged 30-40 years.

Psychologists distinguish three stages of a nervous breakdown. At first, the individual is enthusiastic. He devotes himself completely to some kind of activity and is full of energy. A person does not listen to the signals of the body that excessively expend their nerve forces.

In the second stage, fatigue is felt, a depletion of a neurotic character is noted, irritability and anger arise.

In the third stage, pessimism and apathy appear. A person becomes angry, not decisive, lethargic.

The main signs of a nervous breakdown:

- internal stress, which is constantly present in humans;

- lack of interest in various activities, entertainment and a desire to enjoy life;

- people's requests provoke aggressive behavior;

- frequent insomnia;

- loss or weight gain;

- state of fatigue, depression;

- anxiety, hypochondriacal thoughts, suspiciousness;

- irritability and resentment;

- hostile attitude towards others;

- the emergence of pessimism, depression, apathy;

- absent-mindedness, inattention;

- obsession with an unpleasant situation or person; difficulty in switching to something else.

Consequences of a nervous breakdown

There may be many consequences for this condition. These include:

- deterioration of physical health (pressure jumps, heart rhythm disturbances, the occurrence of ulcers, headaches, phobias, depression, mental disorders or anxiety disorders);

- some people have conflicts and deteriorate relations with society, addictions arise - alcohol, nicotine, narcotic, food (bulimia);

- a person is able to commit rash acts, to be more touchy and angry, suicidal attempts are possible.

Treatment of nervous breakdown

Nervous breakdown, what to do? Often people do not understand how to get out of such a state and continue to live, if, for example, they were fired from their job, a difficult life situation arose, changed (a) a loved one, and suddenly fell ill.

In case of a nervous breakdown, it will be advisable to turn to a good specialist to solve your problems: a psychotherapist, a psychologist or a neuropathologist (neurologist).

How to cope with a nervous breakdown?

Treatment of a nervous breakdown is carried out based on the specific reasons that provoked it, as well as the severity of current manifestations. You can not carelessly treat your state, because the edges of the psyche are rather fragile, and there is a possibility of serious consequences from a nervous breakdown for the patient’s later life.

You should also pay attention to preventive measures, since it would be better not to allow such situations than to deal with them later. Each person will be able to avoid emotional illness if he learns to follow certain recommendations.

Preventing a nervous breakdown includes:

- observance of the daily regimen and a balanced diet;

- alternation of physical and mental stress with rest;

- it is not recommended to work for wear and because of all nervous;

- Avoid professional activities with conflicting customers or employees;

- you need to constantly improve your self-esteem.

Few people think that when choosing a profession, some areas of activity will be associated with constant stress, which means it will be quite difficult to avoid a nervous breakdown. Of course, no one will guarantee that some work can do without stressful situations that negatively affect the human psyche, but still there are areas where you can choose a comfortable activity.

Such professions include: mathematician, archivist, travel agent, a specialist in the field of environmental protection, forester and others. The level of stress in these areas of activity is minimal, and the advantages of these professions are the lack of a constant need to contact other people who like to create stressful and conflict situations. Especially required is the activity of a travel agent. Despite the fact that this sphere of activity includes communication with a large number of people, the existence of the probability of development of conflict situations in this industry is relatively low. An important advantage of this profession is also a quiet pace of work.

Summarizing the data obtained in the studies, psychologists recommend choosing the duration of the working week, choosing the likelihood of competition and the possibility of developing conflict situations, as well as the need to deal with emotionally unstable clients (managers or employees).