Conflictology - This is a branch of science that studies the causes of the origin, development, escalation, and resolution of conflicts at all levels, followed by their completion. The solution of a certain number of problems that give rise to the appearance of confrontation often helps to overcome the difficulties that were previously identified in connection with the determination of the essence of the confrontation and the object of conflictology. The subject of conflictology is conflicts, which are considered by her as a contradiction between subjects, confrontation, and also confrontation as processes, characterized by a certain structure and flow conditions.
One of the most important phenomena of today's existence and political life are confrontations, which are expressed by a clash of sides, contradiction, and confrontation. Since the life of an individual in society is filled with duality, differences of opinion, this often leads to a clash of positions, both of individuals and large groups, as well as groups of minor subjects.
Formation of conflictology
In the history of the civilization of mankind existed and there are still many various confrontations. Some clashes occurred between individual subjects, for example, as a result of the struggle for resources, others covered at the same time several peoples and powers. Often even whole continents were involved in confrontations. People have long sought to resolve the contradictions that ensued, dreaming of a utopian society in which there is no confrontation. The emergence of statehood also testifies to the attempt of mankind to create a multifunctional mechanism aimed not only at prevention, prevention, but also at resolving contradictions.
Conflicts are considered the main cause of death in the twentieth century. In the last century, as a result of two world wars, local military conflicts, constant armed struggle for the possession of resources and power, numerous suicides, murders, discrepancies between individuals, about three hundred million people died.
The globalization of the world as a whole, the increase in the dynamism of life and the speed of the resulting changes, the complication of the existence and interrelationships of subjects, the increase in stress levels, tension - all this can be attributed to the factors that influenced the emergence of conflictology as a separate scientific direction.
The emergence of conflictology as a separate scientific branch occurred in the last century.
Conflictology today is a separate branch of science that studies the laws of the origin, development, resolution of various kinds of confrontations, as well as the principles and methods of constructive resolution of contradictions.
The object of this branch of science is all the diversity of contradictions that flood man’s being in the process of its interaction with society.
The subject of conflictology is all that characterizes the emergence, development and termination of any social confrontation. The fundamental goal of conflictology is the study, the study of all types of confrontations, the intensive development of the theoretical framework.
Conflictology is a branch of knowledge, which is objectively forced to use methods used in other scientific fields to study conflicts. And in the first turn, psychological methods, such as the study of products of activity, experiment, survey, observation, expert method, sociometric analysis, game method, testing. To study the confrontations observed between large groups and states, the method of mathematical modeling is often used, since the experimental analysis of these confrontations is complex and time consuming.
Conflictology is characterized by a close relationship with related branches of science: it takes a lot from various areas and at the same time enriches them. First of all, conflict management has a maximum in common with sociological science and social psychology, since these areas of knowledge explore the interaction of people. It is also closely interconnected with history explaining the causes of human behavior. In addition, conflict management is characterized by dependence on political science, etiology, economics, and a number of other social sciences that specify the nature, mechanisms, patterns of development, and the consequences of conflicts of various types. In addition to the listed areas of knowledge, this series of sciences can be supplemented with jurisprudence that studies legal models of interaction between individuals.
Problems of conflictology as a separate field of knowledge associated with the enormous influence on her psychological science. Psychology is increasingly having an impact on modern conflictology because of the significant role of psychological causes in the origin and escalation of conflicts.
The emergence of conflictology as a separate branch of knowledge is due to the endless contradictions that occur within the individual, between separate individuals and groups of subjects, caused by social heterogeneity of society, differences in the level of material security and income, social inequality, the divergence of goals and expectations. Due to the uniqueness and uniqueness of each individual, the individuality of any social community, conflicts become an integral part of social existence.
Social conflictology is a branch of knowledge that examines intrapersonal contradictions, interpersonal confrontations and confrontations from the standpoint of their social determinism, since in a society any conflict is predetermined not only by psychological factors, but also to some extent by social factors. For example, inter-role contradiction within a person is born due to the existence of the need to fulfill several social roles that are either not consistent or contradict each other. These roles can make mutually exclusive requirements, which inevitably leads to the emergence of a tough internal conflict. Contrary to the fact that the cases described arouse the interest of psychological science due to the presence of connection with deep unrest, personal experiences and provoke psychological trauma, they are also considered the subject of study of social conflictology, which is most characteristic of the social component of the conflict. Individuals entering into confrontation are also analyzed from a socio-typical position, in other words, as carriers of specific social qualities and characteristics, holders of roles, representatives of certain social groups.
Social Conflictology specializes in the analysis of group and personal interests involved in interpersonal confrontation, needs, manifested in the conflict of value orientations and behavioral motivations, explores various types of social deprivation (deprivation of necessary values, spiritual and material benefits). It is believed that social deprivation, ultimately, is the underlying cause and source of opposition.
The subject of social conflict management is the conflict, considered as "the maximum allowable case of exacerbation of social opposition, expressed in the variety of forms of confrontation between individuals and different teams, aimed at achieving socio-economic, spiritual, political interests and objectives, neutralizing or eliminating the real or imaginary enemy and not allowing a rival to realize their own interests. "
The origin, distribution and attenuation of social conflict due to the presence, nature and level of formation of social contradictions. Society at all times is full of contradictions. They are found in the political and economic sphere, ideology, cultural and moral orientations and spiritual norms. A classic example of economic divergences is the contradiction that arises between the social nature of labor and the private form of appropriation of the product being produced. In political life, an example is the opposition of interests in the battle for power. In the sphere of culture, there is a contradiction between customary values, the foundations of society and innovative ideas, new normative ideas.
Heterogeneity and multiplicity of contradictions cause a variety of social confrontations, which differ in the reasons that provoked them, in the subjects involved, in the subject and object, in the origin, in the mode of distribution, in the resolution mechanism, in the degree and severity of the flow.
The specific moment of the sociological analysis of the conflict is its analysis as a subject-object relation. Since, conflict, on the one hand, is a subjective state or action, because social actors take part in it and are the driving forces of its escalation, namely individuals, groups, groups of individuals, communities, whole states. But on the other hand, objective contradictions that exist regardless of the will or will of the participants of the confrontation, manifested through their feelings, thoughts and actions, are involved in any confrontation. Every conflict flares up around a certain object, for example, status, property, power, cultural ideals, spiritual values.
Thus, social conflictology examines confrontation in such a way as to find out the reason for the development of objective contradictions to the level of open confrontation between the subjects of interaction in certain social conditions.
Discipline conflictology, as a separate sociological direction, studies all varieties of confrontations, but above all social opposition, from the standpoint of studying its subject-object components in their interaction, discovers the causes of the formation, development and extinction of the conflict, uses sociological methods of analyzing the nature of the emergence of confrontations as a social pattern .