Conflictology - This is a branch of science that studies the causes of the origin, development, escalation, and resolution of conflicts at all levels, followed by their completion. The solution of a certain number of problems that give rise to the appearance of confrontation often helps to overcome the difficulties that were previously identified in connection with the determination of the essence of the confrontation and the object of conflictology. The subject of conflictology is conflicts, which are considered by her as a contradiction between subjects, confrontation, and also confrontation as processes, characterized by a certain structure and flow conditions.

Conflictology as a science

One of the most important phenomena of today's existence and political life are confrontations, which are expressed by a clash of sides, contradiction, and confrontation. Since the life of an individual in society is filled with duality, differences of opinion, this often leads to a clash of positions, both of individuals and large groups, as well as groups of minor subjects.

Formation of conflictology

In the history of the civilization of mankind existed and there are still many various confrontations. Some clashes occurred between individual subjects, for example, as a result of the struggle for resources, others covered at the same time several peoples and powers. Often even whole continents were involved in confrontations. People have long sought to resolve the contradictions that ensued, dreaming of a utopian society in which there is no confrontation. The emergence of statehood also testifies to the attempt of mankind to create a multifunctional mechanism aimed not only at prevention, prevention, but also at resolving contradictions.

Conflicts are considered the main cause of death in the twentieth century. In the last century, as a result of two world wars, local military conflicts, constant armed struggle for the possession of resources and power, numerous suicides, murders, discrepancies between individuals, about three hundred million people died.

The globalization of the world as a whole, the increase in the dynamism of life and the speed of the resulting changes, the complication of the existence and interrelationships of subjects, the increase in stress levels, tension - all this can be attributed to the factors that influenced the emergence of conflictology as a separate scientific direction.

The emergence of conflictology as a separate scientific branch occurred in the last century.

Conflictology today is a separate branch of science that studies the laws of the origin, development, resolution of various kinds of confrontations, as well as the principles and methods of constructive resolution of contradictions.

The object of this branch of science is all the diversity of contradictions that flood man’s being in the process of its interaction with society.

The subject of conflictology is all that characterizes the emergence, development and termination of any social confrontation. The fundamental goal of conflictology is the study, the study of all types of confrontations, the intensive development of the theoretical framework.

Conflictology is a branch of knowledge, which is objectively forced to use methods used in other scientific fields to study conflicts. And in the first turn, psychological methods, such as the study of products of activity, experiment, survey, observation, expert method, sociometric analysis, game method, testing. To study the confrontations observed between large groups and states, the method of mathematical modeling is often used, since the experimental analysis of these confrontations is complex and time consuming.

Conflictology is characterized by a close relationship with related branches of science: it takes a lot from various areas and at the same time enriches them. First of all, conflict management has a maximum in common with sociological science and social psychology, since these areas of knowledge explore the interaction of people. It is also closely interconnected with history explaining the causes of human behavior. In addition, conflict management is characterized by dependence on political science, etiology, economics, and a number of other social sciences that specify the nature, mechanisms, patterns of development, and the consequences of conflicts of various types. In addition to the listed areas of knowledge, this series of sciences can be supplemented with jurisprudence that studies legal models of interaction between individuals.

Problems of conflictology as a separate field of knowledge associated with the enormous influence on her psychological science. Psychology is increasingly having an impact on modern conflictology because of the significant role of psychological causes in the origin and escalation of conflicts.

Social conflictology

The emergence of conflictology as a separate branch of knowledge is due to the endless contradictions that occur within the individual, between separate individuals and groups of subjects, caused by social heterogeneity of society, differences in the level of material security and income, social inequality, the divergence of goals and expectations. Due to the uniqueness and uniqueness of each individual, the individuality of any social community, conflicts become an integral part of social existence.

Social conflictology is a branch of knowledge that examines intrapersonal contradictions, interpersonal confrontations and confrontations from the standpoint of their social determinism, since in a society any conflict is predetermined not only by psychological factors, but also to some extent by social factors. For example, inter-role contradiction within a person is born due to the existence of the need to fulfill several social roles that are either not consistent or contradict each other. These roles can make mutually exclusive requirements, which inevitably leads to the emergence of a tough internal conflict. Contrary to the fact that the cases described arouse the interest of psychological science due to the presence of connection with deep unrest, personal experiences and provoke psychological trauma, they are also considered the subject of study of social conflictology, which is most characteristic of the social component of the conflict. Individuals entering into confrontation are also analyzed from a socio-typical position, in other words, as carriers of specific social qualities and characteristics, holders of roles, representatives of certain social groups.

Social Conflictology specializes in the analysis of group and personal interests involved in interpersonal confrontation, needs, manifested in the conflict of value orientations and behavioral motivations, explores various types of social deprivation (deprivation of necessary values, spiritual and material benefits). It is believed that social deprivation, ultimately, is the underlying cause and source of opposition.

The subject of social conflict management is the conflict, considered as "the maximum allowable case of exacerbation of social opposition, expressed in the variety of forms of confrontation between individuals and different teams, aimed at achieving socio-economic, spiritual, political interests and objectives, neutralizing or eliminating the real or imaginary enemy and not allowing a rival to realize their own interests. "

The origin, distribution and attenuation of social conflict due to the presence, nature and level of formation of social contradictions. Society at all times is full of contradictions. They are found in the political and economic sphere, ideology, cultural and moral orientations and spiritual norms. A classic example of economic divergences is the contradiction that arises between the social nature of labor and the private form of appropriation of the product being produced. In political life, an example is the opposition of interests in the battle for power. In the sphere of culture, there is a contradiction between customary values, the foundations of society and innovative ideas, new normative ideas.

Heterogeneity and multiplicity of contradictions cause a variety of social confrontations, which differ in the reasons that provoked them, in the subjects involved, in the subject and object, in the origin, in the mode of distribution, in the resolution mechanism, in the degree and severity of the flow.

The specific moment of the sociological analysis of the conflict is its analysis as a subject-object relation. Since, conflict, on the one hand, is a subjective state or action, because social actors take part in it and are the driving forces of its escalation, namely individuals, groups, groups of individuals, communities, whole states. But on the other hand, objective contradictions that exist regardless of the will or will of the participants of the confrontation, manifested through their feelings, thoughts and actions, are involved in any confrontation. Every conflict flares up around a certain object, for example, status, property, power, cultural ideals, spiritual values.

Thus, social conflictology examines confrontation in such a way as to find out the reason for the development of objective contradictions to the level of open confrontation between the subjects of interaction in certain social conditions.

Discipline conflictology, as a separate sociological direction, studies all varieties of confrontations, but above all social opposition, from the standpoint of studying its subject-object components in their interaction, discovers the causes of the formation, development and extinction of the conflict, uses sociological methods of analyzing the nature of the emergence of confrontations as a social pattern .

Basics of conflictology

Social sciences are designed to reflect the state of society. Let it not always happen adequately, but they reflect the needs of society. Modern society is most prone to various kinds of confrontations, but at the same time it seeks for cooperation and agreement. The current society is experiencing a need for civilized methods of resolving emerging confrontations and tensions. All this necessitated the emergence of a new branch of knowledge - conflictology.

The formation and development of conflictology fell in the mid-sixties of the last century. Its subject was the interpretation of the processes of vital activity, functioning and formation of social systems with the help of the category of conflict, meaning collision, opposition of subjects pursuing dissimilar, often even opposing tasks, aspirations, interests and goals.

Modern conflictology is a theoretical and applied science, that is, its content consists of such levels of knowledge as the theoretical interpretation of the conflict as a social phenomenon, the study of its functions and place the system of social interactions, analysis of its essence, dynamics, social relations, the study of specific types of conflicts originating in various aspects of social life (family relations, team), the technology of their resolution.

The key specific feature of this discipline is its complexity. After all, conflicts are an integral part of human interaction.

Contradictions exist in all areas of social life, as well as absolutely at all organizational levels of society. As a result, followers of various social branches of science are interested in conflicts. Political scientists, sociologists, economists, psychologists, lawyers, managers, managers, as well as scientists studying the exact sciences, explore various aspects of social conflicts, their development and ways to prevent. The goal of uniting all related areas of knowledge is to discover and explain the mechanisms that govern social processes that are associated with contradictions and their dynamics, proof of the possibility of predicting the behavioral acts of subjects in confrontational situations.

Modern conflictology is rich in a variety of methods, which are conventionally divided into:

- methods of analysis and assessment of personality (testing, observation, survey);

- methods of studying and evaluating social and psychological phenomena in communities (sociometric method, observation, survey);

- methods of diagnosis and analysis of contradictions (analysis of the results of activities, observation, survey);

- methods of confrontation management (cartography method, structural methods).

In addition, methods of conflictology are divided into subjective methods and objective methods. Subjective methods involve the understanding of conflict as a completely natural social phenomenon. Objective - consider the conflict, taking into account its assessment by the testing individual and opposing agents. Both methods are only in unity capable of providing accurate knowledge of the reality of conflict. Their combined use makes it possible to realize the subjective aspect and the objective side of the confrontation, as well as the behavioral response associated with it.

Tasks of conflictology

The development of conflictology as a separate field of knowledge has necessitated the development of its main tasks, which are formed within the goals pursued by conflictology. The tasks of the science of conflict involve the development of a system of measures aimed at achieving its goals.

Discipline conflictology is characterized by the presence of the following key objectives:

The main goals of conflictology are:

- the study of all confrontations acting as a scientific object, the intensive development of a theoretical base;

- creation of an education system, promotion of conflictological knowledge in society;

- organization of practical work on forecasting, preventing and settling conflicts.

The tasks of the conflictology are the problem issues that are meaningful and expressed by the conflictologists, the consistent solution of which will contribute to the achievement of the fundamental goals of the conflict science.

The analysis of confrontations involves, first of all, the creation of a theoretical base of conflicts, which will make it possible to establish the nature of contradictions, single out the classification and systematize them.

The tasks of conflict management should also include prevention and measures to prevent confrontations, as well as methods for resolving and managing contradictions.

Prevent confrontation is to work with potential conflicts. It is based on the prediction of confrontation.

Prevention of confrontation is ensured by any activity oriented towards the development of an intellectual and communicative culture of a community of people, towards the formation of certain norms in collectives.

Often prevention is called the process of preventing conflict escalation, but these are different processes. Preventing conflict is avoiding it at its inception. For this purpose, a manipulation method is used, which gives a temporary effect and does not essentially solve the conflict, it only temporarily dulls it. If confrontation prevention is used, it may arise later.

The settlement of the collision is the prevention of violent acts, the achievement of agreements, the implementation of which is more advantageous to the participants, rather than the continuation of the conflict confrontation. Therefore, resolving confrontations involves managing them. Conflict management involves providing maximum opportunity for self-regulation of confrontation.

Thus, the tasks of conflictology lie not only in the cognitive-theoretical plane, but also in the utilitarian-practical one. That is, the fundamental task of the science of conflict is to help human subjects to understand what needs to be done with conflicts. This is the main problem of conflictology.

Conflictology methods

Methods aimed at studying various conflicts are a way of acquiring, proving and constructing conflictological knowledge, containing a set of techniques, principles and categories, as well as the possibility of using this knowledge in the practice of prediction, prevention, diagnosis, prevention and resolution of contradictions, in other words It is a system of analysis mechanisms and ways to resolve conflicts. Такие механизмы существенно разнятся при исследовании социальных конфликтов, конфронтаций, возникающих внутри личности и между отдельными индивидами.

The main methods of conflictology are considered to be: experiment, survey, research of documents, complex research and observation.

The experiment is an empirical research and is based on the theoretical basis and methods of other scientific fields (sociology, psychology). During the experiment, real life situations are recreated to test theoretical hypotheses in practice.

A survey is a collection of judgments, answers of different individuals on the studied questions with the help of questioning or testing. Survey participants can be polled, observers and experts.

The study of documents involves the study of data recorded on a special medium (information about the confrontation between countries, the collision of individual subjects). Comprehensive research involves the use of methods.

Observation consists in a process in which the experimenter is either a participant in the observed situation or an observer. This method is the most popular and simple among all the methods used. Its main advantage is that it is used under natural conditions of confrontation.