Cynicism - this behavior manifests itself in a frankly negative, scornful, nihilistic and dismissive attitude to socially accepted foundations, cultural values, generally accepted standards of morality and ethics, perceptions of decency, official dogmas of the prevailing ideology. Cynical behavior is expressed in the demonstrative disregard of certain moral values. Cold cynicism is also a worldview, consisting in the perception of ethical norms as unnecessary for solving practical problems or redundant. The cynic denies such behavioral motives as shame, sympathy, pity, compassion, because they do not correspond to his personal interests.

Cynicism word meaning

The word cynicism originally came from the ancient Greek teachings "cynics" who sought to be freed from conventions and naturalness. In addition, they considered as a virtue contempt for limitations and conventions, the ultimate simplification of existence and way of life. Along with this, cynics sought to limit their own needs extremely, since they tend to follow their own nature. Exemption from conventions and restrictions for cynics was alienation from society (family, state), deliverance from religious dogma and cultural norms, even to the attitude of lack of manners, lack of education and illiteracy as benefits. At the same time, cynics revered as graciousness and gratitude. The ethical norms of cynics demanded "daring off evil," in other words, a break with well-established moral norms. Adherents of the Cynic philosophy were Cratet, Diogenes of Sinop. They preached disregard for generally accepted moral and ethical dogmas and values. Proponents of the teachings described the well-established moral and cultural norms and values ​​are not appropriate.

The cynicism of its meaning in our time implies behavior, expressed in a contemptuous, dismissive, often arrogant and shameless attitude towards something (for example, the norms of generally accepted morality).

The word cynicism also means a nihilistic attitude to culture, religious dogma and ethical norms.

Cynical behavior is expressed by the open demonstration by the individual of a scornful attitude towards the established rules of morality in order to achieve the goals set before him. A person practicing such behavior is called cynical or called "cynic."

For a cynical person, the main thing is to achieve their personal goals. Such a person does not stop at nothing to get what you want.

Cynicism in life is considered to be a destructive form of a behavioral model, at the same time it is a personal stance based on deliberate demonstrative contempt of moral tenets and behavioral norms established in society.

It is believed that cynicism is a product of despair, or a consequence of impunity. Expressing itself through frustration, heartache and dissatisfaction, cynicism is often a defense mechanism protecting a vulnerable and sensitive person from the rudeness of the outside world and the imperfection of society. Once again, experiencing heartache and experiencing a personal crisis as a result of lost illusory ideals, the individual, who does not have any other foundation under his feet, decides to completely renounce his feelings that bring pain.

The causative actions of cynical subjects are directed, for the most part, not against moral dogma as such, but against stereotypedness and conformism. Vandalism and excesses of cynics is a kind of protest against the standards imposed by them, the desire to express their own individuality. In some cases, hooliganism is the cause of selfishness, excessive pride and permissiveness, which are flaws in education.

In some cases, a positive definition of cynicism can be given. For example, when an extremely unpleasant event occurred for a person to whom it is unable to influence, also without the ability to control this event. In order to avoid frustration, as well as to preserve internal integrity in this case, the described method of behavioral response can be applied quite justifiably if such behavior does not affect the interests of other individuals.

In any case, cynicism in life is considered to be a passive way of solving problem situations, which is not recommended as a habit because it is not effective. In order to eradicate cold cynicism in personality, it is necessary to cultivate in this personality humanity, humanity, compassion for the environment.

Cynicism is overcome by the recognition of spiritual priorities more significant than the selfish goals of the individual.

Examples of cynicism

The definition of cynicism can be given the following - it is a disregard for the generally accepted culture in a certain territory or a particular community, to the spiritual and moral values ​​of a society or an individual. Simply put, cynicism in life is a demonstrative manifestation of a disrespectful attitude of one subject to another or a social environment. That is, cynicism can be called moral vandalism.

The following are examples of cynicism in the literature. Everyone knows that money does not smell, which implies an assumption - the goal justifies the means used to achieve it.

The initial expression about the lack of smell of money was used by the emperor Vespasian in relation to his son’s dissatisfaction with taxing public latrines. Saying "money does not smell" implies the irrelevance of the ways in which money is obtained. The main result, and the methods of obtaining them to be any. In other words, when an individual utters the phrase that money does not smell, he recognizes and deliberately justifies the immorality and even the illegality of the methods used to achieve the final result or goal. These are manifestations of cynicism.

For a cynical individual, there are no decent individuals a priori. The cynic denies the presence of decent subjects, not because they do not exist, but because she is a cynic.

A classic example of cynicism can be considered the inscription on the entrance gate, the concentration camp created by the fascists, "Auschwitz" - "To each - his own", since this camp was intended for the destruction of people of a certain nationality.

The most vivid examples of cynicism in literature are, first and foremost, the character Carlson, well known from childhood, whose entire behavior was imbued with egoism and cynicism about the sincerely attached to him Kid. The next no less famous literary hero is Ostap Bender, whose actions are simply imbued with the desire for personal gain. The tragedy of his life was precisely in excessive cynicism. After all, according to the description, Ostap is a pretty person. He is prudent and visionary, energetic, intelligent, intuitive. If Ostap had the wisdom of life to direct his virtues in the right direction, he would be able to make an excellent career. However, due to the excessively cynical attitude towards others, he preferred to wander, interrupting himself with petty scams and rare earnings, waiting for a big hit from fate. His life credo is in one phrase: "Get more cynicism, because people like it."

Another famous literary hero-cynic was Yevgeny Bazarov, burdened with a patient's self-esteem and addiction to nihilism, which sometimes reached as far as frank stupidity. His cynicism had two sides, according to the author: cynicism of feelings and thoughts, and cynicism of statements and manners. The independence and swagger of this hero sometimes even sickens. His cynicism is a blatant disregard for people, arrogance, behind which loneliness and a sense of uselessness lurk.

Problem of cynicism

Often, the cynicism of a person is his concept, the theory of life, which protects him from pain, suffering, risk. Often, intellectually developed people become cynics, using neglect-denying behavior as a kind of philosophical doctrine, by means of which one can survive, get rid of mental torments. This study can be any, even frankly stupid, for example, to classify the entire female gender by derogatory categories. The key meaning of such an invented theory lies in its ability to explain everything. In other words, the concept of cynicism for a cynic is the foundation on which his defense is based.

There are sociological studies showing that the modern youth generation is experiencing a huge shortage of supports, bases, and frameworks. As a result, young people embark on a painful search for such a framework.

So, the cynicism of significance, which for most people is high, precisely because of its illusory ability to protect, appears to the subjects against the background of torments of the soul, which they would like to avoid. These torments are closely connected with the loss of the semantic basis, when individuals begin to feel the senselessness or absurdity of everything that happens. People turn into cynics in order to avoid the worst case scenario that may occur. They want to avoid the so-called existential frustration, vacuum, crisis. That is, cynics by all means strive to avoid disappointment, apathy. With the help of a cynical model of behavior, a person tries to protect himself from life disappointments and sufferings.

However, one should not regard cynicism by analogy with other known mechanisms of psychological protection. The definition of cynicism is by no means positive. Many researchers compare this behavioral model with aggression, because the individual makes a lot of effort to overcome the threat. However, in reality nothing threatens him.

The paradox of cynical behavior is the devaluation of a number of values ​​that are important for other people, such as love, honesty, loyalty, sincerity. Devaluing the values ​​of the cynic, as if experiencing their strength.

A cynical person in reality will not necessarily be cruel, but all moral qualities, cultural norms, which she deprives of values, are a painful place for her. The individual turns into a cynic situationally, reacting unhealthily to the “damage” precisely in the area against which he demonstrates a bright negative attitude. For example, a man may speak negatively about the weak half of humanity, tell unfair things about young ladies, but in fact he harbored a grudge against one single representative of the female part of the population who had previously offended him. By such behavior, he himself involuntarily betrays himself, demonstrating that it was in the field of gender relations that something went wrong with him.

The problem of cynicism is as follows. In the first turn, he turns the human subject into a callous and insensible being. He becomes the cause of loneliness of man and his isolation.

Cynicism exposes human weakness, not hiding them. He cultivates insularity, lack of communication, limited feelings, one-sided interaction with society and the outside world. The cynical personality spiritually descends and morally degrades.

Studies by American scientists have proven that cynicism and heartlessness are harmful to health, as individuals suffering from prolonged depression and chronic overstrain are most susceptible to cynicism. In addition, laboratory tests of blood of the tested cynics confirmed their susceptibility to ailments of the cardiovascular system.

To overcome cynicism, sociologists recommend, in the first turn, to find support. After all, a cynic is a subject disillusioned with the world who has stepped on the "side of evil" because of the lack of values ​​on which he could rely. Therefore, cynics are encouraged to learn how to respond with good to all bad things, with hope for despair, with faith for doubts, to preserve humanity and the ability to empathize.