Cynicism - this behavior manifests itself in a frankly negative, scornful, nihilistic and dismissive attitude to socially accepted foundations, cultural values, generally accepted standards of morality and ethics, perceptions of decency, official dogmas of the prevailing ideology. Cynical behavior is expressed in the demonstrative disregard of certain moral values. Cold cynicism is also a worldview, consisting in the perception of ethical norms as unnecessary for solving practical problems or redundant. The cynic denies such behavioral motives as shame, sympathy, pity, compassion, because they do not correspond to his personal interests.
The word cynicism originally came from the ancient Greek teachings "cynics" who sought to be freed from conventions and naturalness. In addition, they considered as a virtue contempt for limitations and conventions, the ultimate simplification of existence and way of life. Along with this, cynics sought to limit their own needs extremely, since they tend to follow their own nature. Exemption from conventions and restrictions for cynics was alienation from society (family, state), deliverance from religious dogma and cultural norms, even to the attitude of lack of manners, lack of education and illiteracy as benefits. At the same time, cynics revered as graciousness and gratitude. The ethical norms of cynics demanded "daring off evil," in other words, a break with well-established moral norms. Adherents of the Cynic philosophy were Cratet, Diogenes of Sinop. They preached disregard for generally accepted moral and ethical dogmas and values. Proponents of the teachings described the well-established moral and cultural norms and values are not appropriate.
The cynicism of its meaning in our time implies behavior, expressed in a contemptuous, dismissive, often arrogant and shameless attitude towards something (for example, the norms of generally accepted morality).
The word cynicism also means a nihilistic attitude to culture, religious dogma and ethical norms.
Cynical behavior is expressed by the open demonstration by the individual of a scornful attitude towards the established rules of morality in order to achieve the goals set before him. A person practicing such behavior is called cynical or called "cynic."
For a cynical person, the main thing is to achieve their personal goals. Such a person does not stop at nothing to get what you want.
Cynicism in life is considered to be a destructive form of a behavioral model, at the same time it is a personal stance based on deliberate demonstrative contempt of moral tenets and behavioral norms established in society.
It is believed that cynicism is a product of despair, or a consequence of impunity. Expressing itself through frustration, heartache and dissatisfaction, cynicism is often a defense mechanism protecting a vulnerable and sensitive person from the rudeness of the outside world and the imperfection of society. Once again, experiencing heartache and experiencing a personal crisis as a result of lost illusory ideals, the individual, who does not have any other foundation under his feet, decides to completely renounce his feelings that bring pain.
The causative actions of cynical subjects are directed, for the most part, not against moral dogma as such, but against stereotypedness and conformism. Vandalism and excesses of cynics is a kind of protest against the standards imposed by them, the desire to express their own individuality. In some cases, hooliganism is the cause of selfishness, excessive pride and permissiveness, which are flaws in education.
In some cases, a positive definition of cynicism can be given. For example, when an extremely unpleasant event occurred for a person to whom it is unable to influence, also without the ability to control this event. In order to avoid frustration, as well as to preserve internal integrity in this case, the described method of behavioral response can be applied quite justifiably if such behavior does not affect the interests of other individuals.
In any case, cynicism in life is considered to be a passive way of solving problem situations, which is not recommended as a habit because it is not effective. In order to eradicate cold cynicism in personality, it is necessary to cultivate in this personality humanity, humanity, compassion for the environment.
Cynicism is overcome by the recognition of spiritual priorities more significant than the selfish goals of the individual.
Examples of cynicism
The definition of cynicism can be given the following - it is a disregard for the generally accepted culture in a certain territory or a particular community, to the spiritual and moral values of a society or an individual. Simply put, cynicism in life is a demonstrative manifestation of a disrespectful attitude of one subject to another or a social environment. That is, cynicism can be called moral vandalism.
The following are examples of cynicism in the literature. Everyone knows that money does not smell, which implies an assumption - the goal justifies the means used to achieve it.
The initial expression about the lack of smell of money was used by the emperor Vespasian in relation to his son’s dissatisfaction with taxing public latrines. Saying "money does not smell" implies the irrelevance of the ways in which money is obtained. The main result, and the methods of obtaining them to be any. In other words, when an individual utters the phrase that money does not smell, he recognizes and deliberately justifies the immorality and even the illegality of the methods used to achieve the final result or goal. These are manifestations of cynicism.
For a cynical individual, there are no decent individuals a priori. The cynic denies the presence of decent subjects, not because they do not exist, but because she is a cynic.
A classic example of cynicism can be considered the inscription on the entrance gate, the concentration camp created by the fascists, "Auschwitz" - "To each - his own", since this camp was intended for the destruction of people of a certain nationality.
The most vivid examples of cynicism in literature are, first and foremost, the character Carlson, well known from childhood, whose entire behavior was imbued with egoism and cynicism about the sincerely attached to him Kid. The next no less famous literary hero is Ostap Bender, whose actions are simply imbued with the desire for personal gain. The tragedy of his life was precisely in excessive cynicism. After all, according to the description, Ostap is a pretty person. He is prudent and visionary, energetic, intelligent, intuitive. If Ostap had the wisdom of life to direct his virtues in the right direction, he would be able to make an excellent career. However, due to the excessively cynical attitude towards others, he preferred to wander, interrupting himself with petty scams and rare earnings, waiting for a big hit from fate. His life credo is in one phrase: "Get more cynicism, because people like it."
Another famous literary hero-cynic was Yevgeny Bazarov, burdened with a patient's self-esteem and addiction to nihilism, which sometimes reached as far as frank stupidity. His cynicism had two sides, according to the author: cynicism of feelings and thoughts, and cynicism of statements and manners. The independence and swagger of this hero sometimes even sickens. His cynicism is a blatant disregard for people, arrogance, behind which loneliness and a sense of uselessness lurk.