Psychology and Psychiatry

Asthenic disorder

Asthenic personality disorder - it is a disease that is imperceptibly progressive and manifested by high exhaustion, complete loss or a decrease in the ability to perform certain physical loads, a decrease in the ability for long-term mental effort, increased fatigue. Severe asthenic personality disorder is associated with physical ailments and mental illnesses. This pathology is characterized by a painful condition, impotence or chronic fatigue, which manifests itself in an extreme degree of instability of mood, restlessness, impatience, sleep disturbance, partial lack of composure, intolerance to bright light, muscle pain, sharp odors and loud sounds.

Signs of asthenic disorder can occur in perfectly healthy individuals and in simple words they consist in a steady feeling of weakness. At the same time, fatigue always increases and there may be causelessly pain in the whole body.

In asthenic disorder, individuals experience fatigue almost immediately after awakening, they have irritable weakness, expressed in increased excitability and overtaking rapid exhaustion, low mood with tearfulness, displeasure with capriciousness.

The personality disorder of the asthenic type (asthenia) arises due to intoxication, diseases of internal organs, debilitating infections, emotional, mental and physical surges, with improperly organized rest, nutrition, work, and also neuropsychiatric ailments.

Asthenic personality disorder, which develops because of experiences, nervous overstrain, unrest, difficult, protracted conflicts, has been called neurasthenia. The correct classification of asthenic disorder helps the physician determine exactly the tactics of treatment.

Causes of Asthenic Disorder

Often pronounced organic asthenic disorder develops after past diseases or on their background, after past, prolonged stresses. Experts consider this condition to be psychopathological and relate it to the initial stage of development of mental and neurological diseases.

Emotionally asthenic disorder needs to be able to diagnose and differentiate from ordinary weakness, as well as fatigue after any disease. A distinctive criterion in the distinction is the fact that after fatigue or illness, the body can return to normal by itself, adhering to good rest, sleep and nutrition. And emotional labile asthenic disorder without complex therapy can last for months, and in some cases for years.

There are two main types of this condition: hypersthenic and hypostenic.

The first includes manifestations with predominant excitation processes. Individuals suffering from this species are very mobile, overly irritable and aggressive.

When hyposthenic species dominated by the processes of inhibition. Patients get tired quickly, thinking activity is marked by lethargy, and constant movements cause difficulties.

The main clinical symptoms for these varieties are weakness, irritability, apathy, exhaustion of cognitive processes, autonomic disorders with disability, hypersensitivity to weather changes, anxiety, insomnia, and disturbances of dreams.

The causes of these asthenic disorders:

- pathological disorder in the metabolic processes of the body;

- overstrain of higher nervous activity;

- partial intake of nutrients and essential trace elements.

This injury can be caused by various injuries and disorders in the nervous system, as well as somatic diseases. It is important to note that the signs of the disease are often noted both at the height of the disease and immediately before the disease itself or already during the recovery period.

At various age periods, all of the above factors arise in the life of almost every person, but they are not always able to lead to such a development.

Experts identify several groups of diseases leading to this state:

- diseases of the cardiovascular system - hypertension, arrhythmia, heart attack;

- neurological disorders;

- gastrointestinal diseases - dyspeptic disorders, enterocolitis, gastritis, ulcers, pancreatitis;

- Infectious diseases - SARS, tuberculosis, food poisoning, viral hepatitis;

- various renal pathologies - glomerulonephritis, chronic pyelonephritis;

- diseases of the bronchopulmonary system - chronic bronchitis, pneumonia;

- various injuries, the postoperative period.

Asthenic personality disorder, what is it? This condition often develops in patients who are workaholics and do not represent themselves without work. Because of this, they lack sleep and deny themselves complete rest.

Often, signs of asthenic personality disorder manifest themselves when changing jobs, moving and changing places of residence, as well as after prolonged experiences due to trouble.

In medical practice, this disease is classified according to numerous signs. This is required to determine the correct treatment regimen.

Organic emotionally labile asthenic disorder reveals itself after degenerative changes, infectious and somatic diseases, injuries in the brain. The duration of the course of this pathology is referred to as acute or chronic.

It is difficult to identify the main specific causes of asthenic disorder in children, but it is possible to determine the factors that will provoke its occurrence:

- it is heredity;

- suffered severe emotional distress;

- lack of proper rest;

- unfavorable psychological climate in the family;

- high load at school.

Symptoms of Asthenic Disorder

All symptoms and major manifestations are caused by the underlying disease. For example, when hypertension occurs in the region of the heart, discomfort, with atherosclerosis, impaired memory and tearfulness are noted.

In recognizing the characteristics of the underlying disease, clarification and questioning of the patient himself comes to the rescue.

Organic emotionally labile asthenic disorder has characteristic symptoms that fall into three main groups:

- manifestations of asthenic disorder (lability, pronounced nervousness, incontinence, manifestations of physical discomfort, pain of a different nature);

- psychological reaction of the patient to the asthenic disorder itself;

- collapse and fatigue caused by the condition of the underlying disease.

The main symptom of asthenic personality disorder is fatigue, absent-mindedness, not passing after appropriate rest, not allowing a person to concentrate on doing work and leading to laziness and lack of desire in any activities. Own efforts, as well as self-control, do not allow an individual to return to the former rhythm of life.

The development of an organic asthenic disorder of the autonomic nervous system leads to a decrease in appetite, a decrease / increase in pulse rate, changes in blood pressure, dizziness, interruptions in the heart, headaches, chills, or a feeling of fever throughout the body. There are also disorders of intimate function and sleep disturbances (inability to fall asleep, early awakening or nightly awakenings). Often the dream is restless and without feeling the desired rest.

A patient who is experiencing the effects of all asthenic symptoms begins to realize that he is unhealthy and reacts uneasily to all these changes. The patient has mood swings, there are flashes of anger and aggression, his composure is lost.

In addition to the general clinical symptoms that require compulsory treatment, secondary symptoms are noted: reduced hemoglobin level, pale skin, asymmetry of body temperature. Patients with this disease are sensitive to pronounced smells, sharp loud sounds, bright colors. Sometimes sexual function suffers, expressed in women with dysmenorrhea, and in men lower potency. Appetite, mainly also reduced and the food itself is not a pleasure.

Asthenic mental disorder with a chronic course leads to the development of depression and neurasthenia.

Treatment of asthenic disorders

With the correct diagnosis of this condition and proper treatment of the main disease, there is a weakening of the manifestations of the disease or their complete disappearance.

Primary diagnosis is the main task of doctors. It consists in the correct interpretation of information obtained from the patient and the information provided by the instrumental study.

The main methods of diagnosis: the definition of psychological portrait, anamnesis, laboratory tests, analysis of subjective complaints, measurement of blood pressure and pulse.

Additional instrumental methods for the described disease are: fibrogastroduodenoscopy, echocardiography, computed tomography, ultrasound examination of cerebral vessels.

It is believed that the treatment of asthenic disorder is a long process in which the doctor and the patient must move in the same direction and work together to achieve a positive end result.

Given the fact that the disease is associated with the expenditure of vital or mental strength, the patient is recommended to relax, switch their attention to another form of activity, change the situation. For obvious reasons, this is not always possible.

If this condition is provoked by chronic overload, then therapy should be combined with drug treatment and non-drug measures. In addition, an important component in therapy is nutrition. Moderate athletic exercises also benefit the sick. It will be better if you give preference to sports in the fresh air.

For self-symptomatic treatment of this ailment with sustained fatigue and decreased performance, experts recommend the use of adaptogens. These are drugs that have a tonic effect and a tonic effect on the entire human body. They are marked by the presence of unique properties: increasing the body's resistance to stress factors, lack of oxygen, cold, heat, increased efficiency (ergotropic action), radiation exposure, the body's ability to adapt to mental hard work, high emotional and excessive physical exertion.

The treatment of asthenic disorder includes the administration of plant adaptogens based on Chinese Schizandra, Eleutherococcus, Aralia, Ginseng and a number of other plants to sick patients.

Application in the treatment of recommended doses of these drugs will allow you to safely overcome asthenic illness and their consequences, will lead to increased efficiency, improved mood and well-being. It should be borne in mind that low doses of adaptogens can lead to severe inhibition, and excessively high provokes increased heart rate, persistent insomnia, and arousal of the nervous system.

It is not recommended to use herbal adaptogens with high nervous excitability, with hypertension, insomnia, fevers, cardiac disorders. From time to time adaptogens should be replaced because of their ability to cause addiction, which significantly reduces their effectiveness.

If insomnia, headaches, and irritability do not accompany a decrease in fatigue and performance, then plant adaptogens should be taken to overcome the symptoms.

If necessary, the psychiatrist will prescribe in addition to adaptogens nootropics, for example, Fenotropil, Piracetam, as well as antidepressants - serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which are necessary in the treatment of asthenic symptom complex in the structure with depression.

In vital and asthenic disorders of endogenous-procedural origin, stimulating neuroleptics are prescribed, which include modern atypical antipsychotics.

For their use of these drugs require special knowledge in the field of clinical psychiatry. In general medical practice, their use is limited.