Psychology and Psychiatry

Personality structure

Personality structure. Personality is a stable system of completely individual, psychological, social characteristics. Psychology, as science considers only the psychological characteristics that form the structure of personality. The concept and structure of the personality is a controversial issue between many psychologists, some consider that it cannot be structured and rationalized at all, while others, on the contrary, put forward new theories of the personal structure. But still, there are certain characteristics that one way or another, but they exist, and they should be described.

Character is the most important component of personality; it demonstrates all the relationships of a person in the world. Attitude to other personalities, to some object, situation, and in general to the whole reality that surrounds it.

Temperament is a manifestation of the dynamic properties of human mental processes.

Abilities are a set of individually-typological features that contribute to the success of a particular activity.

The orientation of the individual determines its inclinations and interests to any subject of activity. The willful qualities reflect the readiness to prohibit yourself at some point, but to allow something.

Emotionality is an important component of a personal structure; with its help, a person expresses his attitude towards something determined by a reaction.

A person’s motivation is a set of motives that determine a person’s behavior. A large role in the personality have its social attitudes and values. It is these that society perceives in the first place and determines its attitude towards the individual. This list of characteristics is not exhaustive, in different theories of personality one can find additional properties, highlighted by different authors.

Psychological personality structure

Personal structure in psychology is characterized through certain psychological properties, without affecting in a special way its relations with society and the whole world around.

Personality structure in psychology is brief. In personality psychology, several components are distinguished.

The first component of the structure is orientation. The focus structure covers attitudes, needs, and interests. Any one component of orientation determines human activity, that is, it plays the leading role, and all other components rely on it, adjust it. For example, a person may have a need for something, but in fact he has no interest in a particular subject.

The second component of the structure is abilities. They give a person the opportunity to be realized in a certain activity, to achieve success and new discoveries in it. It is the abilities that make up the orientation of a person, which determines his main activity.

Character, as a manifestation of the behavior of the individual, is the third component of the structure. Character is such a property that is most easily observed; therefore, a person is sometimes judged simply by her character, without taking into account abilities, motivation and other qualities. Character is a complex system that includes the emotional sphere, intellectual abilities, volitional qualities, moral qualities, which mainly determine actions.

Another component is the system of self-regulation. Self-control of a person ensures proper planning of behavior, correction of actions.

Mental processes are also included in the structure of personality, they reflect the level of mental activity, which is expressed in activity.

Social structure of personality

In determining personality in sociology, it should not be reduced solely to the subjective side, the main thing in the structure is social quality. Therefore, a person should determine the objective and subjective social properties that form his functionality in activities dependent on the influence of society.

The structure of personality in sociology is brief. It constitutes a system of individual properties that are formed on the basis of its diverse activities, which are influenced by society and those social institutions in which the individual is included.

Personality structure in sociology has three approaches to designation.

In the framework of the first approach, a person has the following substructures: activity - purposeful actions of a person regarding a certain object or person; culture - social norms and rules by which a person is guided in their actions; memory is the totality of all the knowledge acquired by it in life experience.

The second approach reveals the personal structure in such components: value orientations, culture, social statuses and roles.

If we combine these approaches, then we can say that a person in sociology reflects certain properties of character, which she acquires in the process of interaction with society.

The structure of personality according to Freud

The structure of personality in Freudian psychology has three components: Ono, Ego and Super Ego.

The first component It is the oldest, unconscious substance that carries the energy of a person, responsible for the instincts, desires and libido. This is a primitive aspect, acting on the principles of biological desire and pleasure, when the tension of sustained desire is discharged, it is carried out through fantasies or reflex actions. It knows no boundaries, so its desires can become a problem in a person’s social life.

The ego is the consciousness that controls It. The ego satisfies It’s desires, but only after analyzing the circumstances and conditions, so that these desires, having freed themselves, do not contradict the rules of society.

The Super Ego is the reservoir of moral and ethical principles, rules and taboos of a person, which he guides in behavior. They are formed in childhood, about 3 - 5 years, when parents are most actively involved in raising a child. Certain rules were fixed in the ideological orientation of the child, and he complements it with his own norms, which he acquires in life experience.

For harmonious development, all three components are important: It, the Ego and the Super Ego must be tantamount to interacting. If one of the substances is too active, then the balance will be broken, which can lead to psychological deviations.

Thanks to the interaction of the three components, protective mechanisms are developed. The main ones are: denial, projection, substitution, rationalization, formation of reactions.

Negation suppresses the inner impulses of the individual.

Projection - attributing to others own vices.

Replacement means replacing an unavailable, but desired object with another, more acceptable one.

Through rationalization, an individual can give a reasonable explanation for his actions. Reaction formation is an action applied by a personality, thanks to which it makes an action opposite to its forbidden impulses.

Freud singled out two complexes in the personality structure: Oedipus and Electra. According to them, children view their parents as sexual partners and are jealous of the other parent. Girls perceive the mother as a threat, because she spends a lot of time with her dad, and the boys are jealous of their mother to their father.

Personality structure according to Rubinstein

According to Rubinstein, a person has three components. The first component is focus. The structure of orientation consists of needs, beliefs, interests, motives, behavior, and worldview. The orientation of a person expresses his self-concept and social essence, orients the activity and activity of a person regardless of the specific environmental conditions.

The second component consists of knowledge, skills and abilities, the main means of activity that a person acquires in the process of cognitive and objective activity. The presence of knowledge helps a person to navigate well in the outside world, skills ensure the execution of certain activities. Skills help to achieve results in new areas of subject activity, they can be transformed into skills.

Individually - typological properties make up the third component of the personality, they manifest themselves in the character, temperament and abilities that provide the individuality of the person, the uniqueness of his personality and determine the behavior.

The unity of all substructures ensures adequate functioning of a person in a society and his mental health.

Also in humans, it is possible to identify some levels of organization that exercise it as a subject of life. The standard of living - it includes the experience of a lived life, moral standards, worldview. The personal level consists of individual and characterological features. The mental level is made up of mental processes and their activity and specificity.

In Rubinstein, a personality is formed through interaction with the world and society. To the core of the personality, motives of conscious actions belong, but also the person has unconscious impulses.

Jung personality structure

Jung identifies three components: the consciousness, the individual unconscious and the collective unconscious. In turn, consciousness has two substructures: the persona, which expresses the human "I" for others and, in fact, I, which is the ego.

In the structure of consciousness, the person is the most superficial level (the archetype of conformity). This component of the personality structure includes social roles and statuses through which a person socializes in society. This is a kind of mask that a person puts on when interacting with people. With the help of a person, people draw attention to themselves and impress others. A person can conceal his true thoughts behind external signs, symbols of covering himself with clothes, accessories, he hides behind external properties. Symbols of social status, for example, a car, expensive clothes, a house, also have an important place. Such signs can appear in symbolic dreams of a person who is worried about his status, when he dreams, for example, of the object that he is afraid of losing in real life, he loses him in a dream. On the one hand, such dreams contribute to an increase in anxiety, fear, but on the other hand, they act in such a way that a person begins to think differently, he begins to take more seriously the thing lost in the dream in order to save it in life.

The ego is the core of the personality in its structure and combines all the information known to man, his thoughts and experiences, and is now aware of himself, all his actions and decisions. The ego provides a sense of connectedness, the integrity of what is happening, the persistence of mental activity and the continuity of the flow of feelings and thoughts. The ego is a product of the unconscious, but it is the most conscious component, because it acts on the basis of personal experience and is based on the knowledge gained.

The individual unconscious are the thoughts, experiences, beliefs, desires that were previously very relevant, but after experiencing them, a person erases them from his consciousness. Thus, they faded into the background and remained basically forgotten, but they cannot simply be ousted, therefore the unconscious is a repository for all experiences, unnecessary knowledge and transforms them into memories that will sometimes come out. The individual unconscious has several constituent archetypes: the shadow, the anima and the animus, the self.

Shadow is a dark bad twin of a person, it contains all the vicious desires, evil feelings and immoral ideas that the person considers very low and tries to look less at his shadow so as not to collide with his vices in the open. Although the shadow is the central element of the individual unconscious, Jung says that the shadow is not repressed, but is another human self. A person should not ignore the shadow, it should take its dark side and be able to assess its good features in accordance with those negative, hiding in the shadows.

The archetypes representing the beginnings of women and men are anima represented in men, the animus in women. Animus endows women with masculine traits, for example, stronger will, rationality, strong character, the anima allows men to sometimes show weakness, shakiness of character, irrationality. This idea is based on the fact that in both sexes there are hormones of opposite sexes. The presence of such archetypes allows men and women to more easily find a common language and understand each other.

Chief among all individual unconscious archetypes is the self. This is the core of the person around which all other components are assembled and the integrity of the individual is ensured.

Jung said that people confuse the meaning of the ego and the self and give more importance to the ego. But the self cannot take place until the harmony of all the components of the personality is reached. The self and the ego can exist together, but individuals need some experience to achieve a strong connection between the ego and the self. Having achieved this, the personality becomes truly holistic, harmonious and realized. If a person has disrupted the process of integrating his personality, this can lead to neuroses. And in this case, apply analytical psychotherapy, focused on optimizing the activities of the conscious and unconscious. The main goal of psychotherapy is to work with the "extraction" of the unconscious emotional complex and work with it so that people rethink it and look at things differently. When a person is aware of this unconscious complex - he is on the road to recovery.

Personality structure according to Leontiev

The concept and structure of personality in A.N. Leontiev goes beyond the boundaries of the plane of relations to the world. By his definition, personality is another individual reality. It is not a mixture of biological features, it is a highly organized, social unity of features. A person becomes a person in the process of vital activity, certain actions, due to which he gains experience and socializes. Personality is experience itself.

A person is not a person completely, as he is with all its biological and social factors. There are features that are not included in the personality, but it is difficult to say in advance so far. Personality appears in the process of relations with society. When a personality arises, then we can talk about its structure. The whole personality is a connected, integral unity, independent of the biological individual. An individual is a unity of biological, biochemical processes, organ systems, and their functions; they do not play a role in the socialization and achievements of the individual.

Personality as a non-biological unity arises in the course of life and a certain activity. Therefore, the structure of the individual and the personality structure independent of him are obtained.

The personality has a hierarchical structure of factors formed by the historical course of events. It manifests itself through the differentiation of different types of activities and their rebuilding, in the process there are secondary, higher connections.

Personality for A. N. Leontiev is characterized as a wide variety of real relations of the subject, which determine his life. This activity constitutes the foundation. But not all human activity determines his life and builds his personality. People do a lot of different actions and deeds that are not directly related to the development of the personal structure and can be just external, not affecting a truly human being and not contributing to its structure.

The second thing that characterizes a person is the level of development of connections between secondary actions among themselves, that is, the formation of motives and their hierarchy.

The third characterizing personality characteristic is a type of structure, it can be mono-top, poly-top. Not every motive for a person is the goal of his life, is not his peak and cannot withstand the entire load of the peak of personality. This structure is an inverted pyramid, where the summit, along with the leading life goal to be below, holds all the load that is associated with achieving this goal. Depending on the main goal of life, it will depend on whether it can withstand the whole structure and the actions connected with it and the experience gained.

The main motive of the personality must be defined so as to keep the whole structure on itself. The motive sets the activity, on the basis of this, the structure of the personality can be defined as a hierarchy of motives, a stable structure of the main motivational actions.

A.N. Leontyev identifies three more basic parameters in his personality structure: the breadth of a person’s relations with the world, their level of hierarchy and their joint structure. Also, the psychologist singled out one interesting aspect of the theory, as the rebirth of a personality, and an analysis of what is happening to it at that time. A person masters his behavior, new ways of solving motivational conflicts are formed, which are associated with consciousness and volitional properties.To resolve a conflict and act as a mediating mechanism in mastering behavior can such an ideal motive, which is independent and lying outside the vectors of the external field, which is able to subordinate to itself actions with antagonistically directed external motives. Only in imagination can a person create something that will help him master his own behavior.

Personality structure according to Platonov

In K. K. Platonov, a person has a hierarchical structure in which there are four substructures: biological conditionality, forms of mapping, social experience, and orientation. This structure is depicted in the form of a pyramid, the foundation in which form the biochemical, genetic and physiological characteristics of the individual, as an organism, in general, those properties that give life and support human life. These include such biological signs as gender, age, pathological changes, depending on the morphological changes in the brain.

The second substructure is forms of reflection, depending on mental cognitive processes - attention, thinking, memory, sensations and perceptions. Their development gives a person more opportunities to be more active, observant and better perceive the surrounding reality.

In the third substructure are the social characteristics of the person, his knowledge and skills, which he acquired in personal experience through communication with people.

The fourth substructure forms the direction of the person. It is defined through the beliefs, worldview, desires, aspirations, ideals and desires of a person, which he uses in a work, work or hobby.