According to Rubinstein, a person has three components. The first component is focus. The structure of orientation consists of needs, beliefs, interests, motives, behavior, and worldview. The orientation of a person expresses his self-concept and social essence, orients the activity and activity of a person regardless of the specific environmental conditions.
The second component consists of knowledge, skills and abilities, the main means of activity that a person acquires in the process of cognitive and objective activity. The presence of knowledge helps a person to navigate well in the outside world, skills ensure the execution of certain activities. Skills help to achieve results in new areas of subject activity, they can be transformed into skills.
Individually - typological properties make up the third component of the personality, they manifest themselves in the character, temperament and abilities that provide the individuality of the person, the uniqueness of his personality and determine the behavior.
The unity of all substructures ensures adequate functioning of a person in a society and his mental health.
Also in humans, it is possible to identify some levels of organization that exercise it as a subject of life. The standard of living - it includes the experience of a lived life, moral standards, worldview. The personal level consists of individual and characterological features. The mental level is made up of mental processes and their activity and specificity.
In Rubinstein, a personality is formed through interaction with the world and society. To the core of the personality, motives of conscious actions belong, but also the person has unconscious impulses.
Jung personality structure
Jung identifies three components: the consciousness, the individual unconscious and the collective unconscious. In turn, consciousness has two substructures: the persona, which expresses the human "I" for others and, in fact, I, which is the ego.
In the structure of consciousness, the person is the most superficial level (the archetype of conformity). This component of the personality structure includes social roles and statuses through which a person socializes in society. This is a kind of mask that a person puts on when interacting with people. With the help of a person, people draw attention to themselves and impress others. A person can conceal his true thoughts behind external signs, symbols of covering himself with clothes, accessories, he hides behind external properties. Symbols of social status, for example, a car, expensive clothes, a house, also have an important place. Such signs can appear in symbolic dreams of a person who is worried about his status, when he dreams, for example, of the object that he is afraid of losing in real life, he loses him in a dream. On the one hand, such dreams contribute to an increase in anxiety, fear, but on the other hand, they act in such a way that a person begins to think differently, he begins to take more seriously the thing lost in the dream in order to save it in life.
The ego is the core of the personality in its structure and combines all the information known to man, his thoughts and experiences, and is now aware of himself, all his actions and decisions. The ego provides a sense of connectedness, the integrity of what is happening, the persistence of mental activity and the continuity of the flow of feelings and thoughts. The ego is a product of the unconscious, but it is the most conscious component, because it acts on the basis of personal experience and is based on the knowledge gained.
The individual unconscious are the thoughts, experiences, beliefs, desires that were previously very relevant, but after experiencing them, a person erases them from his consciousness. Thus, they faded into the background and remained basically forgotten, but they cannot simply be ousted, therefore the unconscious is a repository for all experiences, unnecessary knowledge and transforms them into memories that will sometimes come out. The individual unconscious has several constituent archetypes: the shadow, the anima and the animus, the self.
Shadow is a dark bad twin of a person, it contains all the vicious desires, evil feelings and immoral ideas that the person considers very low and tries to look less at his shadow so as not to collide with his vices in the open. Although the shadow is the central element of the individual unconscious, Jung says that the shadow is not repressed, but is another human self. A person should not ignore the shadow, it should take its dark side and be able to assess its good features in accordance with those negative, hiding in the shadows.
The archetypes representing the beginnings of women and men are anima represented in men, the animus in women. Animus endows women with masculine traits, for example, stronger will, rationality, strong character, the anima allows men to sometimes show weakness, shakiness of character, irrationality. This idea is based on the fact that in both sexes there are hormones of opposite sexes. The presence of such archetypes allows men and women to more easily find a common language and understand each other.
Chief among all individual unconscious archetypes is the self. This is the core of the person around which all other components are assembled and the integrity of the individual is ensured.
Jung said that people confuse the meaning of the ego and the self and give more importance to the ego. But the self cannot take place until the harmony of all the components of the personality is reached. The self and the ego can exist together, but individuals need some experience to achieve a strong connection between the ego and the self. Having achieved this, the personality becomes truly holistic, harmonious and realized. If a person has disrupted the process of integrating his personality, this can lead to neuroses. And in this case, apply analytical psychotherapy, focused on optimizing the activities of the conscious and unconscious. The main goal of psychotherapy is to work with the "extraction" of the unconscious emotional complex and work with it so that people rethink it and look at things differently. When a person is aware of this unconscious complex - he is on the road to recovery.
Personality structure according to Leontiev
The concept and structure of personality in A.N. Leontiev goes beyond the boundaries of the plane of relations to the world. By his definition, personality is another individual reality. It is not a mixture of biological features, it is a highly organized, social unity of features. A person becomes a person in the process of vital activity, certain actions, due to which he gains experience and socializes. Personality is experience itself.
A person is not a person completely, as he is with all its biological and social factors. There are features that are not included in the personality, but it is difficult to say in advance so far. Personality appears in the process of relations with society. When a personality arises, then we can talk about its structure. The whole personality is a connected, integral unity, independent of the biological individual. An individual is a unity of biological, biochemical processes, organ systems, and their functions; they do not play a role in the socialization and achievements of the individual.
Personality as a non-biological unity arises in the course of life and a certain activity. Therefore, the structure of the individual and the personality structure independent of him are obtained.
The personality has a hierarchical structure of factors formed by the historical course of events. It manifests itself through the differentiation of different types of activities and their rebuilding, in the process there are secondary, higher connections.
Personality for A. N. Leontiev is characterized as a wide variety of real relations of the subject, which determine his life. This activity constitutes the foundation. But not all human activity determines his life and builds his personality. People do a lot of different actions and deeds that are not directly related to the development of the personal structure and can be just external, not affecting a truly human being and not contributing to its structure.
The second thing that characterizes a person is the level of development of connections between secondary actions among themselves, that is, the formation of motives and their hierarchy.
The third characterizing personality characteristic is a type of structure, it can be mono-top, poly-top. Not every motive for a person is the goal of his life, is not his peak and cannot withstand the entire load of the peak of personality. This structure is an inverted pyramid, where the summit, along with the leading life goal to be below, holds all the load that is associated with achieving this goal. Depending on the main goal of life, it will depend on whether it can withstand the whole structure and the actions connected with it and the experience gained.
The main motive of the personality must be defined so as to keep the whole structure on itself. The motive sets the activity, on the basis of this, the structure of the personality can be defined as a hierarchy of motives, a stable structure of the main motivational actions.
A.N. Leontyev identifies three more basic parameters in his personality structure: the breadth of a person’s relations with the world, their level of hierarchy and their joint structure. Also, the psychologist singled out one interesting aspect of the theory, as the rebirth of a personality, and an analysis of what is happening to it at that time. A person masters his behavior, new ways of solving motivational conflicts are formed, which are associated with consciousness and volitional properties.To resolve a conflict and act as a mediating mechanism in mastering behavior can such an ideal motive, which is independent and lying outside the vectors of the external field, which is able to subordinate to itself actions with antagonistically directed external motives. Only in imagination can a person create something that will help him master his own behavior.
Personality structure according to Platonov
In K. K. Platonov, a person has a hierarchical structure in which there are four substructures: biological conditionality, forms of mapping, social experience, and orientation. This structure is depicted in the form of a pyramid, the foundation in which form the biochemical, genetic and physiological characteristics of the individual, as an organism, in general, those properties that give life and support human life. These include such biological signs as gender, age, pathological changes, depending on the morphological changes in the brain.
The second substructure is forms of reflection, depending on mental cognitive processes - attention, thinking, memory, sensations and perceptions. Their development gives a person more opportunities to be more active, observant and better perceive the surrounding reality.
In the third substructure are the social characteristics of the person, his knowledge and skills, which he acquired in personal experience through communication with people.
The fourth substructure forms the direction of the person. It is defined through the beliefs, worldview, desires, aspirations, ideals and desires of a person, which he uses in a work, work or hobby.