Psychology and Psychiatry


Interpretation - This is the process of explaining, rephrasing, interpreting the meaning of a phenomenon for a better understanding. Interpretation is a synonym - interpretation, and from this it turns out that it is a method of exegesis, the science of the interpretation of various life manifestations. It is also a method in the study of various sciences: mathematics, linguistics, psychology, philosophy, logic, literature.

The definition of interpretation from all sciences can be reduced to a single one — this is a technique by which hypotheses become true, endowed with meaning. Interpretation is the process of deciphering a complex system (text, data, variables, phenomena) and making a more understandable, concrete and simple definition.

Interpretation is a synonym - explanation and explanation, on the basis of this, it can be interpreted as the key to understanding certain formulas, signs that have their meaning, but as long as it is not interpreted, remains unknown and incomprehensible.

Interpretation of research results

At the final stage of any research, analysis and interpretation of research results takes place. The data obtained must be correctly interpreted. The task of interpretation is to identify the values ​​of the results obtained and their application in theory and practice, to determine the level of their novelty and practical significance, as well as efficiency in use.

The most difficult are the interpretation of results that do not meet the conditions and expectations of the hypothesis. To avoid misinterpretation, you can do a double-check of the results, revise the conceptual beginning, after which the analysis and interpretation of the research results is carried out again for any of the methods. There are several of them.

The genetic method of interpretation is a way of explaining phenomena through the prism of their ontogenetic and phylogenetic development. The genetic method helps to identify the relationship between the phenomena studied and time, to trace the development process from the lowest level to the highest form of development. Most often used in longitudinal studies.

Structural method of interpretation - focused on the definition and description of the structure of the investigated phenomena. In the course of the study, the current state of the object is first described, its constant depth properties are studied, and the connections between the objects are studied. Thus, an object structure is created with all possible interrelationships at different levels of the organization. This method very well shows the state of the object, you can easily understand its structure at all levels of the organization and its individual elements.

The functional interpretation method describes the connections between an object and its environment, studies the functions of these phenomena and their meaning, endows each individual element with a function. From this it expires that the object consists of functional units and acts as a full-fledged mechanism.

Comprehensive interpretation method - describes the object of research using different methods, to study it from all sides, all its components and to give each component significance. Often, when describing a subject, methods are used that are used not only in the studied field of science, but also in other various sciences.

The system method considers each individual component of the phenomenon being studied as a system and explains the connections between these systems in a single organism. Thus, the phenomenon under study becomes a large and complex system that interacts with the environment. Integrity and coherence of the system is determined by the complexity of the processes of all structures and subsystems that form the object's system. But the whole system does not act as the sum of the influences of the elements, it synthesizes them, so as to achieve a harmonious action in which all subsystems interact, and in the process of these connections functions will be performed. The system method helps to see the system as a combination of subsystems, or on the other hand, a subsystem of a complex system.

Interpretation is in psychology

Interpretation in psychology is a procedure by which a psychologist (in psychological counseling) explains to the client the meaning of his actions.

Examples of interpretation in psychoanalysis: the interpretation of dreams, associations and deep instincts of man. A dream definitely makes sense, it can be explained if we follow the current activity, experiences and feelings of a person. All these relationships can be displayed in a symbolic image in a dream and only, due to the correct interpretation, one can understand their deep meaning. Associations that are caused by sleep are also interpreted. It is possible to verify the correctness of the interpretation of the dream by the analyst if a certain reaction occurred in response corresponding to the interpretation of the words of the psychologist.

Interpretation is especially relevant in the psychological study, where there is the complexity of the phenomenon. It is based on value-exchange and information exchange between the sciences, concepts and theories, the use of different types of knowledge, different forms of ideas about the phenomenon under study and its development.

When using empirical data, provisions, patterns, knowledge taken from other sciences, it is necessary to clarify their meaning, and also to reveal the psychological meaning of this position. Comparison of these two senses obtained allows us to correctly use the findings in psychology and also other sciences. Sometimes, it happens that the process of exchanging conclusions and positions between the sciences is very complex, since there are categories that are called the same, but each science gives them a different meaning, because of this, the true meaning of the concept is lost. The interpreted object also has its primary meaning, and the imposition of one or more meanings on it greatly complicates its perception.

In psychological and pedagogical research, knowledge acquired from other sciences and used in the interpretation of phenomena should be more humanitarian in nature for its better perception, and the interpretation of their true meaning, which is of immediate significance.

In psychological interpretation it is necessary to constantly compare the scientific knowledge and empirical experience of each person. Scientific laws cannot fully uncover the whole meaning of the phenomenon being studied without taking into account the subjective influence of a person.

The use of tests by psychologists in individual counseling is amenable to criticism, precisely because the interpretation, which is in the only test, can not fully express all the features of a person.

Interpretation of test results should be understandable to the client; one of the interpretation methods can be used for this.

Descriptive interpretation of test results describes information regarding the current state of the subject.

Genetic interpretation explains how the subject reached the current level of development.

Predictive interpretation focuses on predicting the future.

Evaluation interpretation contains interpreter recommendations.

In psychology, the interpretation of the picture is often applicable technique, the picture tells about the deep, hidden feelings of a person. The drawing is a projection of the person’s world outwards, in this case onto paper. He can tell about the character of a person, his current experiences, personal characteristics. The application of the picture in psychology is called the projective method and has a special meaning between other methods, since with its use the features of a person are better disclosed.

Interpretation of the picture has two types of indicators, which the psychologist draws attention to in the description. The first is what exactly is drawn, the overall composition, the second is how it is drawn, the structural elements of the drawing, the way of drawing. Studying the drawings of one person, then by the way of his drawing, by the style, you can learn between other drawings.

Interpretation of the picture attaches great importance to such indicators that do not depend on the overall plot of the picture. Such structural elements are: pattern location, proportions, colorization style, pressure, line severity, erasure rate, detailing, and other components of the pattern that are depicted.

Interpretation is in literature

In the literature, the interpretation of the text is needed in order to interpret its meaning, which the author laid down, to explain the hidden connections and describe their meaning.

The same text can be interpreted many, many times in different ways, therefore objectivity in interpretation is not very significant. The interpretation of the work has an enormous influence on the personality of the interpreter; the whole significance of the interpretation may depend on his prejudices and attitudes. It also matters the era to which it belongs.

The interpretation of the text because of this is always relative.

Examples of text interpretation: a person who interpreted a text lived in the old century, and was influenced by social, historical events that left their imprint on the very understanding of the text; Contemporaries look at the same work in a completely different way, they interpret it through their understanding in the modern sense. They could see in the text such a meaning, about which their predecessor did not guess, but at the same time they could not fully understand his thoughts. In what historical epoch, under whatever influence the personality of the interpreter is, the true meaning, which was laid by the author, cannot be comprehended by anyone and never.

Interpretation of literature has its own characteristics in different historical periods.

In antiquity, interpretation was used to uncover the meanings of allegories, metaphors with which literary works are saturated. It was interpreted not only the text in general, but also the relationship between elements in the text.

In the Middle Ages, interpretation, as a fundamental method for understanding the text, was mainly applied to the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures and biblical texts.

In the era of the New Age, the meaning of interpretation became even wider, it acquired a more philosophical direction and it began to be applied in different directions.

Interpretation, as the awareness of the inherent meaning in the work of the author, where he is the main source of the idea of ​​this text. And in order to better understand what the author meant, it is necessary to know his personality. The study of the author’s biography will make it possible to feel how he was influenced, which could have bothered him at the time, such a transfer contributes to a high-quality interpretation.

The interpretation also began to be understood as deciphering the text code, which is represented by the structural components of the text. In this case, the meaning does not come from the identity of the author and his attitudes. The text is sufficiently self-sufficient and has an objectively structural nature, these characteristics contain a real meaning.

Interpretation in the postmodern approach was understood as a technique by which a literary text is filled with meaning. In this approach, the work itself is not laid down by the author, its meaning is not determined by any structural components and characteristics of the text. The meaning of the work is understood in the process of reading, that is, the reader himself fills the text with such a value that he personally understands through the prism of his personal characteristics and life experience, which affect the understanding and awareness of the meaning. But this meaning is true only at the moment when the reading process takes place, because, in essence, there is no single meaning in the work if it changes from one reader to another. Coming out of all such different meanings of interpretation, it is difficult to reduce it to a single scientific meaning and create a definition.

Interpretation is an individual perception of a literary work, giving it meaning, thanks to the intellectual possibilities of what is being read. Sometimes one text is so often diversified interpreted that it, on the one hand, interferes with its perception, because some thoughts of previous interpreters betrayed their influence, but on the other hand, it means the richness of the text, its interestingness and meaning.

Based on the foregoing, in the literature the concept of interpretation as a scientific method is not defined. It is simply understood as a way by which interpretation of the meaning takes place through the interpreter’s own value system, which itself picks up the field of interpretation.