Insight - this is a polysemantic term, which literally can mean insight, insight, awareness, insight, insight. Widely used in psychology, psychoanalytic therapy and psychiatry, as well as in the field of zoopsychology. The concept of insight describes a complex intellectual phenomenon, the essence of which lies in a sudden breakthrough, partially intuitive, to an understanding of the task and the "unexpected" finding of its solution.

The phenomenon of insight has been discovered in the study of the behavioral response of chimpanzees in a variety of problem situations by V. Köhler. The results of his experiments questioned the concept of the adherents of behaviorism and the theory of "blind" learning, which occurs through random samples and blunders.

The concept of insight is one of the cores in Gestalt psychology. The founders of Gestalt psychology used the described concept to describe the type of human mental activity in which a decision is not a consequence of the perception of individual parts (analysis), but through mental cognition of the whole.

Insight what it is

In standard usage, the phenomenon of insight represents all self-knowledge, as well as the premonition or intuitive understanding of the internal structure or the nature of something. In addition to these, there are a number of more specialized definitions.

In psychotherapeutic practice, insight implies the patient's ability to clearly realize that the violations of his own intellect and feelings that exist in him are not only subjective, but also objective, and therefore indicate the fact of the disease. Insight is one of the diagnostic signs indicating the integrity of the individual. Thus, the loss of insight is inherent in psychosis, and its presence indicates more likely a neurosis.

Intellectual insight is considered as a kind of theoretical awareness of someone's condition or the basis of the psychodynamics of someone's actions that are still alienated from the individual, and emotional insight as a true deep understanding. For example, classical psychoanalysis, regards intellectual enlightenment as a protective mechanism, and emotional awareness as the main element of effective therapy.

Also, insight refers to a new, obsessive awareness of the loyalty of something that has arisen without openly referring to past experience.

Gestalt psychology considers the described concept as a process by which problems are resolved.

Insight, in this sense, characterizes an unexpected transformation of the model or the meaning of a situation, allowing an individual to realize the connections associated with the decision. It is a kind of learning and is based on the principle of all or nothing.

Creative insight is one of the key stages of individual creative thinking. The process of creativity itself consists of a stage of preparation, incubation, insight or insight and verification of the solution obtained. The presence of an insight stage in the structure of the creative process is regarded as one of the main evidence of the close connection between unconscious mental activity and creativity.

Creative insight and intuition are considered irrational concepts, as they are a supersensible way of knowing the truth. At the same time, rational reasoning cannot create new knowledge. In other words, insight occurs when the individual finds a solution, not realizing the process that led to this decision.

Thus, insight is the hit of an answer, found in the process of unconscious mental functioning, into the focus of consciousness, which is usually distracted from the problem being solved, its focus does not coincide with the orientation of the unconscious response, resulting in a found response response in the consciousness unexpectedly, accompanied by an intuitive conviction of its truth and emotional activation.

The most striking examples of the described phenomenon can be considered the discoveries of Archimedes and Newton.

Insight goes through four stages in the path of occurrence. Initially, the individual, trying to find a solution to produce intense mental work. So for a writer, it can be a search for a poetic image, for a composer to find a melody, for a mathematician to establish the right decision, for any individual to search for a way out of a complex everyday situation.

Then it becomes obvious to the person that it is impossible to obtain a result using logical analysis, intellectual tension, or by means of previously known techniques. Such a situation can be considered as a dead end, with mutually exclusive prerequisites or characterized by an infinite number of strategies. In the circumstances, the mind copes with the tasks to a certain limit, and then passes.

At the third stage, unexpected insight sets in. The person receives a ready-made answer, and the decision process itself cannot be traced. Quite often, the answer comes when the individual is in the stage of altered consciousness, at which there is a decrease in mental performance. For example, during sleep, half-sleep, rest and relaxation. Most of the great personalities believed that their inspiration illuminated during their walks, various sports games, driving and watching a movie. In other words, the epiphany comes at the moments when a person completely forgets about the problem and is distracted from the vital. Therefore, people who are interested in how to achieve insight can be advised not to get hung up on finding a solution immediately, postpone the search for answers and go for a walk or do house cleaning.

Sudden illumination is accompanied by unconscious conviction in the fidelity, truth and indisputability of the result, the incredible simplicity of the decision, the expressed feeling of satisfaction and relief.

Insight is in psychology

The described concept originates from Gestalt psychology. It means a sudden insight, an understanding of the nature of the problem situation, finding a completely new approach or solution.

Insight in psychiatry is an inseparable part of Gestalt psychology. It was first introduced by V. Köhler in 1925. Conducting experiments with apes, he noted that the animals, after several unsuccessful attempts to solve the task, stopped all active actions and began to examine the surrounding objects, after which they quickly found the right solution.

In the future, the concept of insight in psychology began to use K. Dunker and M. Wertheimer - the founders of gestalt therapy. They applied the described concept as a characteristic of human thinking. Scientists have argued that the solution is achieved through the speculative mastery of the whole, and not with the help of a thorough analysis.

In addition, the concept under consideration is used by psychologists to describe such a phenomenon in which a person experiences an insight, which is more of a kind of memory, and differs from them in that it forms not only a mental image, but also various sensations of various modalities inherent in a particular memory . Also, the term described can be understood outside the logical insight.

How to achieve insight? Many are interested in how to find the right and most optimal solution, to see the essence of the problem. To achieve insight, you need to learn how to get distracted and let go of thoughts revolving around a problematic issue. If you constantly think about the problem that needs to be solved, the insight is unlikely to come. Therefore, it is necessary to switch attention, for example, to read or watch an interesting movie.

Insight today is widely used in practical psychology. Most psychologists use a technique based on achieving insight. They accumulate information about the client by receiving answers to the questions posed, each of which follows from the previous one, gradually leading the person to the independent detection of the problem. This process usually takes a long period of time and a lot of effort, requires tremendous patience and consistency, both from the psychologist and from the client. But this method is considered quite effective. Since it is only when the client finds the problem on his own, understanding its essence, it is possible to continue further work to resolve it.

Also, this phenomenon is successfully used in psychological training. Only here it is used when working with a whole group. For example, a common task may be asked, the answer to which must be found by the team. During the discussion, usually someone voiced.

The term insight in psychoanalysis is considered as the ability of an individual to feel and fully comprehend the essence of the unconscious and its manifestations with the help of symbols. In addition, some psychoanalysts are also regarded as the goal of therapy.

In a more correct and broad sense of the concept being described, psychoanalysis under insight implies the ability of an individual to change the motivation of his behavior, promptly comprehend his own psychodynamics and comprehend the meanings of symbolic behavior.

Traditionally, followers of the psychoanalytic study distinguish two types of insight, namely, intellectual insight and emotional insight. The first is seen as the ability of the individual as a whole to correctly assess their behavioral responses and to recognize their own psychopathology from the perspective of their origin and developmental dynamics. More often, psychoanalysts attribute this kind of insight to the field of the obsessional defense mechanism of the personality, as it allows the individual to comprehend and successfully control those that disturb his sides of his own individuality, in relation to which he feels alienated.

Emotional insight is regarded by psychoanalysts as the ability to feel and adequately comprehend the essence of the unconscious and its manifestations. Emotional illumination, unlike intellectual insight, is more likely evidence of freedom from the alienation and staying of the individual in simple contact with his or her unconscious.

Insight in psychoanalysis is quite an essential tool for the practice of psychoanalysis. Often, analysts even define the task of psychoanalytic therapy itself as “getting the right insight”. At the same time, the founder of the psychoanalytic teaching itself did not exactly use such a formulation, preferring to another. Freud considered the task of psychoanalytic therapy to transform the unconscious into conscious.

Insight is the most powerful tension of mental forces of the personality. This tension can lead to modifications in the soul world of the subject and to the beginning of a positive transformation in the whole person. Insight-oriented theories help an individual to explore his own feelings in order to successfully and skillfully manage them in the future. Transforming their own behavioral model, beliefs, attitudes, attitudes towards the surrounding reality, the person gradually acquires the ability to respond non-standardly to various life events and the ability to be flexible in making decisions about problem situations that arise in the process of life activity.

Insight should not be viewed as a deduced insight derived from past experience.

Insight is a sudden, inexplicable understanding of a situation or a problem as a whole, which results in a conscious and correct solution to a problem. At the moment, the described phenomenon is one of the core concepts in modern psychological science. G. Wallace worked quite closely with this concept. It was he who brought forth the four stages of the process of illumination, namely, preparation, incubation, direct insight and verification. Modern scientific communities recognize the phenomenality of insight. However, they are not able to explain with absolute certainty the causes of insight in the consciousness. Today, only there are many assumptions.

The phenomenon of insight is a fact of an objectively existing reality, but the data on its true origin are a mystery to this day.