Valid criterion is of several types, depending on what it is directed.
Internal validity determines how experimentally determined effects caused changes in this experiment.
Internal validity is determined by the relationship between independent and dependent variables, and passes through specific procedures, which result in determining the reliability of the findings in this study. An internal criterion is stated when it is reliably known that a cause-effect type is dependent between independent and dependent variables.
The validity of the study is determined by the influence of uncontrolled situational factors on the phenomenon being studied. If it is high, this criterion will be low. High internal validity of the research is a sign of qualitative research.
External validity summarizes the findings of the population, the situation and other independent variables. The ability to transfer the results obtained in the study to real life depends on how high and good external validity is.
Very often, external and internal validation contradict each other, because if one validity increases, this value may affect the performance of another. The best option is considered to be the choice of experimental plans that would provide two types of this criterion. This is especially important in the case of studies in which the distribution of results in certain practical situations is important.
Content validity is applicable to those tests in which a certain activity is fully modeled, in the first place, the aspect related to the subject. It turns out that the main aspects of the psychological construct are reflected in the very content of the methodology. If this characteristic has a complex structure, then all the elements included in it must be present in the method itself. Such a valid criterion is determined with the help of a systematic control over the content, it should show the completeness of the coverage of the entire sample beyond the measured parameters. On this basis, an empirical verification of the methodology should be carried out in accordance with its hypotheses. Each task or question in the assigned area should have an equal chance of including it in the test assignments.
Empirical validity is determined through a statistical correlation, that is, the correlation of the test scores and the indicators of an external parameter chosen as a criterion of validity is considered.
Constructive validity refers to a theoretical construct as a separate one and is included in the search for factors that explain a person’s behavior when performing a test or procedure.
The prognostic type of validity is determined by the presence of a very reliable external criterion, although information about it is collected some time after the end of the test. Such an external criterion may be the ability of the individual to a particular type of activity for which he was selected for the results of psychodiagnostic measurements. The accuracy of prediction in this valid criterion is in the opposite dependence on the time that was given for prediction. And the more time passes after the study, the more factors will be taken into account for evaluating the prognostic significance of the test. Хотя учесть абсолютно все имеющиеся факторы практически невозможно.
Ретроспективная валидность определяется за критерием, который отражает события или сстояние свойства в прошлом времени. It can be used to gain knowledge about the predictive aspects of the methodology. Very often, in such tests, assessments of the development of ability in their past meaning are compared, and at the moment, it is computed how effectively the results have become.
Ecological validity shows that a certain organism, due to hereditary, genetically determined or acquired features, is prepared to demonstrate various forms of behavior in various contexts or in different habitats. The actions of the organism may be successful in one time and place, but not so successful or not at all successful in another time and another place.
Environmental validity is confirmed if the study results are confirmed or properly applied in field studies. The problem of laboratory research is adequate tolerance of the results obtained to the conditions of real life, to the daily activities of the individual, which lasts naturally. But this, too, is not the final confirmation of the results, as ecologically valid, because it also implies generalization for other conditions and circumstances. Often, studies are accused of a low, environmental valid criteria, but the whole reason is the inability to repeat the study in real life.