Psychology and Psychiatry

Delinquent behavior

Delinquent behavior - this antisocial, illegal behavior, which is manifested in such actions that are harmful to society, threaten the lives of other people and the general social order, is a criminal offense. It comes from the Latin "delictum", which translates as "misdemeanor." This concept defines the meaning of this behavior, that is, delinquent behavior is the behavior denoting misconduct against society, against social norms and rules. The study of this behavior is carried out by various sciences, mainly social ones, because, first of all, it is expressed in misdemeanors that affect the human environment, and, in general, it negatively beats itself off on public order, and the state is built from each person, therefore it is important that the order is respected, methods of crime prevention are applied for this.

Delinquent and criminal behavior are connected with each other, more precisely, criminal behavior is a form of delinquent behavior, and in most cases a criminal case is opened against such an offender.

Delinquent behavior directing the violation of state norms and laws. In most cases, a delinquent juvenile is considered a delinquent, and when he comes of age, he is called an asocial personality. Delinquent behavior can be in the form of minor violations, then it is called antisocial. When violations reach the level of a criminal offense, it is considered criminal. Not every deviating behavior is delinquent, but all manifestations of delinquent behavior are deviating. The older generation believes that in the modern world, all adolescents and young people are criminals, and are often attributed to them all sorts of offenses. But they do not understand that there is a big difference between young people who just walk for a long time, loudly listen to music, dress extravagantly, have screaming make-up, hairstyle and those who spend joint leisure for alcohol, hooliganism, delinquency, indiscriminate sexual relations and communicate with using obscene language.

Delinquent behavior is a behavior that has a number of features. It is special in that there is no clear boundary where the offense begins. For example, an adult who evades paying taxes, lying to state employees, also acts illegally, but nobody calls him a delinquent. The second peculiarity of delinquency behavior is the strictest regulation by laws, legal norms, and disciplinary rules. The third feature is that of all types of deviations, it is the wrongful that is considered the most serious because it becomes a threat to public order. And another feature of delinquent behavior is that it always means a conflict between one person or a group of offenders and the rest of society, if more specifically, between individual interests and aspirations, and the direction of society.

Delinquent and deviant behavior

Delinquent and deviant behaviors describe behavior contrary to the rules of society, and there are differences between them. Deviant is relative, refers to the cultural norms of only one group, and delinquent behavior is absolute with respect to state norms.

For example, a robbery on the street is considered a type of income and according to the law, such an act is considered a crime, even if it had a noble meaning, and this does not mean a deviation. Deviant behavior is deviating; it characterizes actions that contradict expectations, formally established rules, and prevailing in the social group in which the person is located.

Delinquent behavior is behavior that is considered socially deviating; it refers to illegal acts that threaten the life and social well-being of individuals. Such unlawful misdemeanors are called delicts, and the offender himself is a delinquent. His behavior may be regulated, through laws, disciplinary rules and social norms. Often, such control provokes even more against. Therefore, no matter how much society tries to punish the delinquent, he will always do what he wants to the last. His actions are explained by the presence of an internal conflict between personal desires and aspirations and demands of society.

In delinquent behavior, the measure of the permissible is the law, in the deviant - the standards and norms of society, and in order to achieve the desired, they can use all sorts of means. In the future, criminals or offenders who constantly have problems with criminals will grow out of such personalities.

Delinquent behavior of adolescents

Delinquent behavior of minors occurs under the influence of one experienced friend or group of adolescents who are not even anti-social, but have bad habits. A company in which teenagers are not engaged in any serious business, sports, art, or diligent teaching lessons are busy only watching films, discussing them, going to stores, shopping centers, and it happens that they get bored and they are looking for more an interesting occupation that united their company, but they cannot assume that it could be, for example, sport. From boredom and idleness, they begin to see a way out in alcohol, drugs, which, in general, gives rise to delinquent behavior. But, naturally, not all adolescents are delinquents. There are those who are not interested at all and are not fond of such studies. Much depends on the temperament, accentuation, individual character traits, which may be a prerequisite for the emergence of delinquency. Basically, adventurism and aggressiveness, choleric temperament, specificity of moral consciousness, contribute to the development of delinquency. Such adolescents have special mechanisms for the functioning of the psyche and they can be divided into three groups. Some of them, who can be called repentant, have primitive antisocial needs and certain moral rules. These needs are very strong, and under their pressure, internal conflict is positively resolved in their direction, and the moral level decreases. But after what they have done, their conscience will torment them.

Another group of adolescents, those who do not have internal conflict, do not repent of their deeds and they are not tormented by conscience. They have no inner moral restraint, therefore, whenever possible, they embody their desires and asocial needs in life, and often the actions they have done cross the line of socially acceptable norms, because of which they are already becoming rejected from society. Often, these adolescents act in a group and they have a leader who often does not commit atrocity, but only directs what others should do.

Delinquent behavior of minors from the third group is the most dangerous. They oppose the moral norms of society absolutely consciously. Their views are cynical, and their needs are very strong. They easily go beyond the limits of what is allowed, they simply do not see them, and commit a crime.

It is believed that the socio-economic causes of delinquent behavior of adolescents are very significant. Destruction of public culture and exclusion of spiritual values, ethical and aesthetic standards into the background, problems of economics and finance in the country, development of the shadow economy, illegal business, population migration, distribution by the mass media of materials containing violence, cruelty, pornography, luxury. Adolescents are very much influenced by any factors and information, but if they are still given this information in such a light that stirs their mind and psyche, they delve into everything, and with great interest absorb these irritants. They also see a kind of illusory ideology of society, and consider it true, and borrow it into their livelihoods. Such a specific ideology encourages and even justifies the criminal way of life. Therefore, having committed a crime, the teenager feels protected, he thinks that he has an excuse and denies his responsibility for what he did, because he has no psychological or moral barriers left, he felt freedom of action when he saw in some film or program that crime justified.

Causes delinquent behavior of adolescents are also rooted in family relationships. Such behavior may be caused by relationships with parents, or rather, inadequate, bad relationships. A teenager because of a quarrel in the house can run away from him, skip school, fight, do a hooligan act. And it is precisely the most serious actions that are caused not by the gang into which the individual enters and by their values, but precisely because of the lack of understanding of his home. Sometimes not so open conflict precedes the escape, as, on the contrary, the indifferent and indifferent behavior of parents in the life of a teenager.

Teenagers are very fond of attention, they are dependent on him, and the manifestation of indifference towards them from their close relatives becomes very painful and unbearable for them. If there are two generations under one roof, and they pretend that they don’t notice each other, but only coexist together, either supporting and helping each other, or giving emotional warmth and love, then sooner or later we should expect a conflict in this house. This is like a time bomb, one way or another, someone must break down, and if there is a child in this family, then most likely it will be responsible for it, as on the most sensitive and impressionable of all living together. Then the child begins to seek refuge where he will be accepted, often falling into those groups that should have been bypassed, but they offer this, why he is simply not able to refuse, and this is what allows him to forget about everything bad, all that was at home and it turns out, just what you need. Of course, this refers to drugs or alcohol. And a teenager since that moment tears up all family relationships, spiritual bonds and considers his family new friends, with which he is so fun, and with which he can do such bold actions, which he never dared and feels satisfied about it (vandalism, hooliganism) . According to some sociologists, it is in affluent families that similar problems are observed. In families, where people concentrate on making money, and the child was born, so that when they can no longer, he continued to earn. In such families there is no relationship, they do not communicate and perceive it in such a way that it should be, that it was and will be. Such a modern trend, and it is observed more in Western countries. If family conditions are unfavorable, and adolescents deny the generally accepted norms of communication and behavior, they are subject to criminal influence.

One of the most important reasons for delinquency is insufficiently developed or distorted moral consciousness. Having felt once the need for alcohol or sex, and having satisfied their desire, they begin to desire it very often and in unlimited quantities. And the wretchedness of these needs, and the indiscretion in the ways of their satisfaction also cause the circle of acquaintances and friends with whom they had previously communicated, is greatly narrowed, even those who were close and neighbors do not want to have any more connections with them. But there are new friends, which unites the general pastime in a get-together. They do not have socially approved interests, occupations, do not attend circles and sections on sports. Even their classmates do not communicate with each of such companies, and they must form into gangs of the dregs of society.

Often the tendency to offense is born when neither at home nor in the school of a teenager is accepted. Although adolescents never show, but in fact, the opinion of teachers is very important for them, they perceive them as significant relatives, especially those who like it very much and when they do not receive feedback and support, they become sad at first, but then the reaction follows anger and this anger leads to aggressive actions.

The reason for delinquency can be a large amount of free time. Since most potential delinquents do not like to study, do not engage in hobbies, their leisure is primitive and monotonous. They can take a new information, light, which does not need to intellectually process, and the transfer of this information to peers. Empty talk about anything, walking around shopping centers without a goal, watching TV - these are the first steps to the degradation of the individual, then alcohol, gambling, drugs, toxic substances and others that give you the opportunity to experience a new impression.

There is an opinion that only extroverts become delinquents and are focused on the external environment and people, because it is easier for them to join groups. But introverts are also encountered, they act on their own, thus resolving their internal conflicts.

Adolescent development occurs very intensively and quickly, and prevention of delinquent behavior should be carried out in time to prevent the formation of asocial personal inclinations of the individual. In the conduct of preventive work, it is important to teach adolescents to the psychological requirements of behavior, the ability to make the right choice, to achieve a state of socially competent person. Uncontrolled deviant behavior delinquent, available in the person is not capable of self-regulation. It is very important to begin the formation of personal and social maturity in adolescents with the development of positive self-esteem, accepting oneself in a positive light, developing the ability for critical thinking, the ability to set socially important goals and be responsible for one's words and actions. In order for a teenager to learn to make adequate decisions and make the right choice, he must learn how to control emotions, stress, aggression, his own condition, and anxiety. Learn how to resolve conflicts in cultural ways, without insulting the enemy and causing him harm. To learn how to behave, with negative criticism, to know adequate ways of self-defense. Be able to say no to yourself, resist bad habits and learn to respect your body and lead a healthy lifestyle.

Generally speaking, prevention is a system of public, state, social, medical, psychological and educational activities focused on preventing, neutralizing the main reasons and circumstances that act defiantly on the manifestation of social deviations in a teenager.

Prevention of delinquent behavior will be really effective if it is applied on the basis of: good school performance, emotionally positive and satisfying pupils' system of relationships with others, mainly those closest to them, and an important component of psychological protection. Observance of all necessary conditions will ensure the harmonious development of the personality and minimize the occurrence of delinquent propensities.

Prevention of delinquent behavior also has three approaches. According to the first, the formation of deviations in psychophysical development is prevented. After the second, the transition of developmental deviations to more chronic forms is warned. The third approach is the social-labor adaptation of deviant personalities.

Social pedagogy and prevention sees how scientifically based and timely actions are taken that are aimed at: preventing all possible (biological, psychological, social) circumstances and conditions of minors who are at risk; protecting, maintaining and maintaining an adolescent’s acceptable standard of living and good health; assisting the adolescent in his own achievements of socially significant goals and uncovering his potential, abilities, and talents. There is also a list of preventive measures: eliminating, reimbursing, controlling preventive work and the prevention of circumstances that can cause social deviations. The effectiveness of such activities will be high if several components are included with them: focus on eradicating the causes of internal conflicts in the adolescent and in the public and natural environment, while creating conditions for the adolescent to gain the experience he needs to solve individual problems; skills training that contributed to the achievement of goals; Preventing the emergence of problems and solving existing ones; teaching conflict resolution strategies.

В общем, в профилактике делинквентного поведения можно выделить два главных подхода, которые лучшим образом и своевременно могут воспитать из подростка благородного человека - это воспитание и обучение.

Формы делинквентного поведения

Delinquent behavior exists in many forms, but crime, drug addiction and prostitution are the most common and severe.

When studying crime, researchers consider many factors that have an impact on its dynamics. Among them: occupation, social status, level of education, degree of involvement of a person in public life. Crime has in itself a factor of declassing, it means the weakening or complete destruction of the relationship of the individual and the social group. The question of the relationship between social and biological factors that have an impact on the formation of preconditions in a person to criminal behavior is also being studied. Crime always exists and, perhaps, unfortunately, will be in society, it cannot be eradicated, at least for now. A person is born with genes in which he has a predisposition to commit crimes, and it can develop and manifest itself under the influence of certain factors, or the conditions of society and the circumstances of a person’s life, push him to commit crimes. Therefore, crime is a kind of reflection of human vices. It may be necessary for society to forget about utopian ideas, the eradication of crime, as a social pathology and keeping it at a socially tolerable acceptable level.

Drug addiction is a very terrible phenomenon, because this trouble has destroyed a huge number of human lives and every day mows new victims. Drug addiction brings great sacrifices to society, and most of all the severity of its consequences is reflected in the personality itself, the quality of its life and its relatives. And all the time, people hope that they will find an effective way to combat it and, especially, prevention.

Sociological studies show results that show the main motives for using drugs - the desire to experience special feelings and a thirst for euphoria. As the statistics show, the majority of young drug addicts are young people, even teenagers, and due to the peculiarities of their maturation, hormonal system restructuring, they have vague sensations, and in order to appease raging feelings, they start looking for different ways of relaxation, among popular - smoking, alcohol and drug addiction. The immaturity, levity, influence of the company and carelessness were decisive factors in the emergence of dependence. In general, drug use among young people occurs in a group, sometimes the only thing that unites these people is drugs, and not other common interests that are socially acceptable. Many drug addicts use drugs in crowded places, for example, on the streets, in the cinema, on the beach, in the courtyard, sometimes they are so eager to take a dose that it makes no difference to where they are. Social, economic and cultural measures can be used against drug addiction, but medical, psychological and legal measures have the greatest influence.

Prostitution is also a form of delinquent behavior, but in some countries of the world, they don’t talk about it that way, they equate it to regular work. Prostitution is understood as the process of having sex with a person with whom they are not married and have no love feelings or sympathies, and receive payment for them. It is important to distinguish that prostitution is neither extramarital sexual relations nor self-serving marital relations, if individuals sympathize with each other. The emergence of prostitution is associated with the distribution of labor, the development of megacities and monogamy. In our society, the fact of the presence of prostitution has been hiding for a very long time, and such a long concealment, and then exposure, has led many people to a state of horror. But always that which is forbidden, causes unhealthy interest. It is known from history that there were three forms of prostitution policy. Prohibitionism - prohibition, abolitionism - advocacy and educational work for preventive purposes, with the absence of prohibitions and registration and regulation, that is, registration and medical supervision. Then they evaluated all three methods, and came to the conclusion that the prohibitions had no effect, and the repressions were ineffective, and neither the legal nor medical regulations could affect the eradication of the problem of prostitution.

Delinquent behavior examples

Examples of delinquent behavior are best described, according to its types.

Types of delinquent behavior: administrative violations, disciplinary offense, crime.

Administrative crimes are manifested in petty hooliganism - obscene language in crowded places, an abusive attitude towards others, also includes traffic offenses and other actions that disrupt public order and people’s tranquility.

An example of delinquent behavior is the use of alcohol in public places, transportation and actions committed in a drunken state that offend the honor of citizens and destroys public morality. Prostitution, distribution of pornography, exhibitionism, as an atrocity, pulls the administrative punishment and responsibility for the law on administrative offenses.

A disciplinary act is a type of delinquent behavior, and is expressed in unlawful failure to perform or inadequate execution of work duties by a worker, absenteeism without significant reasons, use of alcoholic beverages, narcotic substances during working hours, coming to work under the influence of alcohol, violation of security rules, and entails a responsibility regarding labor law.

Crime, as the most dangerous type of delinquent crime, is expressed in actions that pose a danger to society. Banned under threat of punishment by the Criminal Code. Such acts include: murder, theft, kidnapping, carjacking, terrorism, vandalism, rape, fraud, drug trafficking and psychotropic substances. These crimes, although not all listed here, are the most severely punishable in accordance with the Criminal Code. Depending on the severity of the committed act, different penalties are applied in the amount of community work and minor fines, up to imprisonment. And they concern individuals who have reached the age of sixteen, sometimes fourteen. If the person who committed the crime has not reached the age necessary for criminal punishment, they are brought to justice of an educational nature (severe reprimand, referral to a specialized educational institution, public works).

Delinquent and criminal behavior is the most dangerous, since a delinquent teenager who commits criminal acts is very dangerous. He is very negative and mistrustful towards society and the law does not stop him until he is punished by this law.

Torts can be civil law: causing moral damage, harm to the property of a person or organization, discredit the reputation of a legal entity or an individual. Such actions are punishable by civil law.

Different types of delinquent behavior are subject to social condemnation and are also formalized by the state in legal regulations, by describing the characteristics that define and define violations as violations, which the law introduces various types of responsibility.