Indeterminism - this is a methodological position, therefore, not everything in the world has a cause. This is a philosophical category that negates the objective causal relationship and the cognitive essence of explanation in science. The basic laws of nature exist due to the principle of probability. The case is an equal, fundamental entity with which one can explain the evolutionary nature of nature. Also, indeterminism can be, on the one hand, naturalistic, since it confirms the self-sufficiency of nature, and, on the other hand, it is theological, because it explains the nature’s descent from God.

The principle of indeterminism also takes place in physics, it is expressed in the causelessness of microprocesses, but quantum physics denies such a phenomenon, since it reflects them in a special statistical form.

In biology, the principle of indeterminism consists of identified causality and unambiguous predictability. Since the need was revealed to maintain statistical methods to reflect the causal relationships of real processes, based on which it is impossible to make unambiguous and decisive predictions. Indeterminists say bankruptcy of the principle of causality, in general. They refute the development of modern science and talk about the effectiveness of the dialectical materialist theory, which recognizes objectivity and represents a variety of causal connections and forms of their reflection in the minds of people. Many modern young physicists are becoming supporters of such a worldview. Scientific progress will not be possible regardless of the principles of dialectical materialism, in particular the principle of causality.

Indeterminism is also often found with such concepts as determinism and agnosticism.

Determinism and indeterminism are philosophical positions about the objective causality of objects, objects and phenomena that have opposite definitions regarding this.

Agnosticism and indeterminism deny the possibility of knowing various phenomena under the pretext of the absence of objective causal patterns in social life that are unique to nature.

Agnosticism and indeterminism have a similar definition, since they both express the idea that it is impossible to fully understand the true essence of human cognition of reality.

Indeterminism is in philosophy

Indeterminism in philosophy is a doctrine that negates the objective causality and conditionality of all phenomena. Indeterminism in the history of philosophy occurs in various forms, and has received the greatest popularity in bourgeois philosophy, whose contemporaries especially like to ridicule the ideas of materialistic determinism in the social sciences.

Very popular in bourgeois philosophy is the concept of the Baden school. Its representatives limited the principle of determinism to the plane of the natural sciences and threw back its use in the sciences "of the spirit." Their idea was the existence of a fundamental denial of the applicability of the category of causality to the historical process. Historical materialism determines the causation of the phenomena of society. Bourgeois philosophers are looking for some contradictions in historical determinism and the Marxist-Leninist idea of ​​understanding the role of working people in history. Lenin rejected all the accusations of historical materialism of fatalism, he said that determinism presupposes fatalism and is the basis for rational action.

Determinism and indeterminism in philosophy are briefly defined as two opposite concepts regarding the conditionality of a person’s freedom, his choice and the question of a person’s responsibility for his actions.

Indeterminism considers the will of a person as an independent force, states that the principles of objective causality cannot be applied to the explanation of a person’s personal choice or behavior, relative to determinism, it shows its dissatisfaction with its focus on fatalism. Neopositivism, personalism and pragmatism as well as indeterminism opposed determinism and limited its application only to the logical sphere.

Determinism and indeterminism are philosophical positions about the principles of the mutual influence of phenomena.

Independence in philosophy is the negation of a certain characteristic of determinism or the negation of the objectivity of some principle, for example, causality. In the history of philosophy there are few consistent indeterminists. They often deny the objective connection and interaction of social processes, of human existence, which are caused by freedom in choice. This theory is advanced by Kant, he repeats the strong connections existing in nature, and the behavior of people is a plane in which there is a free choice and an internal moral law that determines actions. V. Windelband also expressed a similar position, he clearly divorced the causes of natural processes and the free will of the individual, decision, choice and evaluation.

Indeterminism and determinism

All processes and phenomena present in nature are in interaction and mutual influence, condition each other. Such a relationship is called "determino" in Latin, which means, I mean, translated.

Determinism and indeterminism in philosophy are briefly interpreted as two concepts that differently see the objectivity of the causality of phenomena. Determinism is an aggregate of objective views on the world around us through a natural connection and conditionality of all phenomena, it is opposed to indeterminism.

Indeterminism, on the contrary, denies objectivity of causality in general, rejects its total character. Those who support the idea of ​​indeterminism say that there are states and events that may well exist without a reason, or it may not be indicated.

The development of quantum physics led to the question of the principles of indeterminism and determinism, which has become relevant, especially in modern science. It turned out that the classical basic principles of determinism cannot be applied to the characterization of the processes of the microworld. There have been attempts to interpret the basic laws of quantum theory through agnosticism and indeterminism. This was expressed in their ideas about free will of the electron, the management of theological forces over microphenomena. At the same time, mechanistic determinism was identified with common determinism.

Such an idea was spread by P. S. Laplace, so the mechanistic determinism was called Laplace. Following this theory - at the current time point, the values ​​of the pulses and the coordinates of the existing elements in the entire Universe, determine its state at any moment. This methodological position has a mystical character and leads to fatalism, almost closing with a belief in the spiritual principle. With the development of science, Laplace determinism began to be rejected with respect to organic nature, physics, and social life.

The scientist F. Frank argued that determinism has no scientific value, a causality axiom, is not included in classical physics, because confirmation of causality cannot be reduced to the ratio of the observed facts, because the results of the study are likely distributions.

Two important categories: cause and effect determinism and indeterminism are treated differently. Determinism repeats the causation of phenomena and events, and indeterminism denies any objective connection, denies that the cause can cause a certain consequence.

The cause and effect of determinism and indeterminism are concepts that have a great connection with each other. The cause is the action that causes the appearance of another phenomenon, thus, the effect is the result of the action of the cause.

Indeterminism says that cause and effect are a priori concepts, products of subjectivity, and not of the world.

In modern definition, determinism has two types of objectively existing, opposite interdependent phenomena, which are expressed through various forms of determination.

The first form of such determination is causal, it decisively opposes non-causal. All of the following forms, which appear on the basis of causality, have the appearance of a cornerstone of determinism. Causality itself is a very small part of the objective real connection of all phenomena in the world; it is only one of many definitions of such a universal universal connection.

The principle of causality is expressed in the finding of interacting factors and relationships that determine the emergence and development of an object or object that determines all its properties, relations and originality. The ontological prerequisites of the causality principle lie in the real existence of interconnected phenomena into an integral developing system, and in the process of interaction between them in the presence of certain circumstances and conditions, other phenomena, processes and phenomena are generated, that is, it is a causal relationship. The main characteristic of causality is the genetic connection; this is precisely the main difference between causality and non-causality, that is, determinism and indeterminism.

Epistemological (cognitive) causes of causality are expressed in the fact that the cause and category of the effect, which reflect the objective conditioning of the phenomena, are at the same time the stages of the formation of cognition and logical thinking.

Consequently, the history of science knowledge, at a certain stage of its development, proceeds to the need to understand the causal relationship and the discovery of causality. Knowing the causes is the most important task of science. Socio-historical practice is the social basis of the principle of causality, it proves that all relationships are causal. Knowing the causes that cause certain phenomena, people will be able to create circumstances in order to activate the causes causing useful social consequences, thereby preventing the occurrence of adverse effects. Knowledge of conditions and causes, their action and influence gives people the opportunity to control them and the processes that appear in consequence.

The discovery of cause-effect relationships, their process and action is a complex and difficult process, often contradictory in the development of knowledge, its depth and breadth. If we consider the principle of causality in general, it methodologically directs the knowing subject to knowledge of cause-effect relationships, analysis of their intersections and interactions. This principle gives the researcher a special system of requirements, which he, as an objective imperative, must necessarily guide in order to find out the reason and go straight along a certain path, without straying from it. Following the principle of determinism, knowledge passes through certain levels.

At the first level, the subject of research is presented as a kind and integral system that stands out among other similar subjects in the system. At this level, all possible connections, forms and interdependencies of events and phenomena are studied. In the first place, the task is to distinguish non-causal determination from causal one. To do this, researchers need to clearly imagine the main features of a causal relationship: the production of one phenomenon by another, objectivity, infinity, universality and constancy in time and space.

The second stage, the analysis of the current holistic system, as a certain result of the development process, more precisely as a consequence. If the cause and effect could coincide, then science would lose its purpose. Consideration of the history of the self-developing integral system, from the point of view of the theory, is opposite to the actual process of development, that is, it expires from the obtained results of the development process. These results, which the researcher obtains, are a consequence, a starting point for the realization of the principle of causality. In this way, the subject begins cognition from the other end. The subject proceeds first from an understanding of the subject of the research, as a consequence, then turning back, constructs a process of development that will lead him to the appearance of the object being studied.

Cognition in relation to the investigation, that is, special ways and forms of transfer are analyzed during the process of causing an object, substance, structure, energy and information, and thoroughly relevant laws. Knowing the external and internal causality, the category of interaction has an important methodological significance. Starting from the concept of universal interaction, the subject comes to a real causal relationship, because the ultimate cause of things is true. Knowing the internal structure and interaction of processes, one can explain the specifics of the whole system. Applying the principle of causality, the sequence of the implementation of a communication requirement is important to find out how the system generates itself in the internal interaction of its processes. The nature of such a process is that the effect disappears in the cause and then reappears in it. It turns out that the consistent and purposeful application of the principle of causality is the most important condition in achieving the objective truth of knowledge. Since causality is the basis of other forms of non-causal determination, knowing the causal relationship, knowledge must again return to the beginning of the analysis of determination relationships.

Another type of determinism is a relationship of interrelated phenomena without a direct causal nature; there is no process in which one event is generated by another. The line between indeterminism and determinism is fuzzy, often one point of view can be judged both indeterministic and deterministic.

The differences between causal and investigative determinism correspond to the differences between causal and investigative indeterminism. Also, the principle of indeterminism, therefore to which, any phenomenon, regardless of the time at which it occurs, is not causally determined at a certain time has two different cases.

In the first case, every event has moments in which it is still without a reason. In the second case, it is said that there are no events with consequences that are endless throughout the whole time. In the first case, there is one of the possible versions of causal indeterminism, and in the second, an investigative one.

The combination of the principles of determinism with certain principles of indeterminism deserves special attention. The existence of such a combined position, which combines deterministic and indeterministic statements. The question of combined positions is the cause of many disagreements regarding the differences between determinism and indeterminism and qualifications in one or another conviction.

The most powerful form of determinism cannot be compatible with any form of indeterminism. Consequently, and vice versa, the most powerful form of indeterminism is impossible without contradiction by some statement about the existence of causes and consequences. But there are also incomplete indeterministic and deterministic forms that open the question of the non-determinism and determinism of certain phenomena at a certain time.

Such combined forms of determinism and indeterminism are often found in the history of philosophy. Even Aristotle asserted that the past was unequivocal and the future was ambiguous.

The concept of determinism and indeterminism is absolute, the concept of causality refers to comparative categories. Absolute categories cannot be definable through comparatives and vice versa. Consequently, all definitions of determinism through the prism of causality and causality through the concept of determinism are not universal, the scope of their use is limited.