Psychology and Psychiatry


Interiorization - This is the process of formation of structures of the human psyche through the acquisition of life experience. The concept comes from the French "intériorisation", which translated means from the outside to the inside, and from the Latin "interior", which means internal. The term interiorization and synonyms for it are very rare. This is a specific term, often used only in the respective context. Therefore, synonyms for the word interiorization, as such, are absent and only in rare cases it is used together with the word "transition", which means, respectively, the transition from external to internal.

Before a certain complex action is assimilated by the human mind, it is realized from the outside. Thanks to the internalization, people can talk about themselves, represent themselves and what is very important to think about themselves without disturbing others.

Social interiorization means borrowing the basic categories of individual consciousness from public experience and ideas. This state is expressed in the ability of the human psyche to operate with images of any objects that are not in sight at the moment. These can be objects, objects, phenomena, events, with which a person has ever had an interaction, or he can imagine something he has never even seen, construct events that may occur, or have once happened. A person can go beyond the boundaries of a given moment, events can move in the past and future, in time and space.

The concept of interiorization is characteristic only in relation to people, animals do not have this ability, their brain does not have the ability to go beyond the existing situation. The instrument of interiorization is the word, and the means of transition from situation to situation is speech action. The word identifies and fixes the most important properties of things and methods developed by human practice, which operate information. Human behavior is out of the action of the external situation, which previously determined the behavior of the animal. The correct use of words contributes to the assimilation of the significant properties of things, phenomena and ways of managing information. Thanks to the process of interiorization, a person is able, with the help of words, to learn from the experience of all mankind, as well as previous generations, or the experience of people unknown, hundreds or even thousands of kilometers away. In domestic science, this term was introduced first by Vygotsky. He believed that all functions of the human psyche are formed as external, social forms of communication of people in the form of labor or other activities.

Vygotsky understood the concept of interiorization as the transformation of external actions into a person’s internal conscious plan. The development of the psyche begins from outside under the influence of social factors that exist in society. Collective forms of activity are embedded by internalization into the human consciousness and become individual. After Vygotsky, Halperin began to study this phenomenon and laid it at the basis of a systematic gradual education. Nietzsche understood this concept in his own way. He said that the instincts that do not go outside, still manifest themselves, but from the inside - this is what he called interiorization.

Interiorization is in psychology

In psychology, interiorization is the transformation of the structure of objective activity into the internal structure of personality. Transformation of interpsychological relations into intrapsychological. That is, interpersonal relationships become self-centered.

The concept of interiorization was also applied by P. Halperin in the formation of mental actions.

Interiorization in psychology is the process of understanding the inner nature of the defining action, as a derivative of practical activity.

When internalization is very changing activities, especially its operational part.

Social interiorization is expressed in the process of communication, when mental processes are modified under its influence, since communication in a "latent" form is contained in these processes. The structure of mental functions is similar to the process of communication. This is because the formation of mental functions occurs in early ontogenesis during the internalization of the communication process.

In the process of interiorization, deep, stable and synchronous structures are formed in the human psyche. This is a kind of social mechanisms that determine the nature of "overlying" mental processes (emotional, cognitive). Therefore, it turns out that interiorization is a social mechanism of the psyche.

The internalization and perception of the individual, the transition to the inner plan of humanistic values, the formation of one’s own value orientation is impossible in implementation only on a conscious level. Emotions play an active role in this process. The emotional side of this process has been researched and confirmed by numerous studies, which express the fact that social values ​​can be perceived not only by consciousness, intellectual thinking, but also feelings and emotionality. Even if you take an understanding of social significance, it is not easy, as it were, accompanied, but stained with sensuality. The involvement of the senses can determine the reality of the acceptance of such a value by the person himself, and not by his understanding in general. Thus, in the process of the internalization of universal human values, it is required to take into account the dialectical unity of social and individual, cognitive and sensual, intellectual and emotional, rational and practical. Such integrity indicates a fairly high level of development of the value orientation of the individual. This, in turn, makes it possible to selectively relate to phenomena, surrounding objects, events, to adequately perceive and evaluate them, establish both subjective and objective value, and be guided equally in spiritual and material culture.

The interiorization equally without predominant attitude to some mental process (memory, perception) determines the social forms of all processes.

Interiorization has results related to the perception of sociocultural information (they manifest themselves most clearly), all that is perceived by man (in the broad and narrow sense of the concept), it is taken in social forms. As a result, a number of persistent social mental structures are formed that shape consciousness. Also, the result is a formation on the basis of consciously determined in detail described, internal actions.

For the results of interiorization there is a feature of the structures of mental processes, which differs from the structure of the same processes of animals. A prerequisite for the process of interiorization is an unconscious inner plan that changes qualitatively in the process, as a plan of consciousness is formed. On the one hand, interiorization occurs in the process of communication, on the other hand, it occurs during the translation of the action from the external plane onto the plane of the internal, mental.

This process has a close relationship with communication. During the gradual formation of mental actions within the framework of communication between those who form and those who form, interiorization has an important place in this formation.

Exclusively in the process of communication internalized signs are assimilated. But ontogenesis still determines the structure, this structure reflects their origin. A situation that has an internalized structure is communication, and its structure has a collapsed communication called dialogism.

Dialogue, which is the hidden mechanism of mental functions, is of great importance. Hidden dialogue or communication are considered as components in the deep internalized structure of the psyche. The meaning function carries relationships as a subject-subject, that is, it has a dialogical structure.

Interiorization is associated with exteriorization, the opposite of her concept. The exteriorization comes from the French "exteriorisation", which means the manifestation of the Latin "exterior", which means external, external. Exteriorization is a process in which internal mental actions are transformed into external unfolded subject-sensory actions.

Interiorization and exteriorization play an important role in developmental psychology. In order to develop a certain mental action in a child, for example, addition, it must first be shown to the child as an external action, that is, it must be exteriorized. Already in such an exteriorized form of external action, it is formed. Only then, in the process of its gradual transformation, a generalization of the specific reduction of the links is created, the levels at which it is performed are changed, its internalization takes place, that is, it is transformed into an internal action that already fully flows in the child's mind.

Interiorization and exteriorization in psychology, in the activity approach are the mechanisms by which social and historical experience is acquired. Based on the study of this experience, the idea was born of the origin of the internalization of mental processes, the activity of human consciousness from external practical activity. Any kind of human activity (educational, labor, play) is associated with the use of tools, tools, means of labor, with the creation of socially important products. Social experience cannot be transmitted without expressing it in external form, through speech, or demonstration. With this, a person is capable of perceiving and carrying over the experience of generations. This process is not an ordinary movement, copying outdoor activities into the inner plan of a person. This is the formation of consciousness, shared knowledge, common with the consciousness of other people, separated from them, perceived by man and others in one sense.

The process of interiorization arises from the fact that higher mental functions begin to develop as external forms of activity, and already in the process of interiorization these functions are transformed into mental processes.

The fundamental provisions of the process of interiorization can be described in several postulates. The structure of mental functions is revealed only in the process of genesis, when they have already taken shape, the structure becomes indistinguishable and goes deep. The formation of mental processes reveals the true essence of the phenomenon, which was not originally, but in the process of interiorization, it was created and began to develop. The essence of the phenomenon that has begun to manifest itself cannot be explained through physiological processes or logical schemes, but it is capable of manifesting itself as a continuous process, even after the cessation of the effects of a phenomenon, and this process does not stop. Through internalization, the transformation of external signs into an internal plan of activity begins. This process does not occur in isolation and independently. Normal development of the psyche is possible in the presence of communication with loved ones. Thanks to internalization, a person learns to build mental plans, to develop solutions to situations. Thus, a person acquires the ability of thinking in abstract categories.

Interiorization is in pedagogy

The concept of interiorization Vygotsky most actively developed in the direction of educational psychology. He suggested that the formation of basic social structures in the consciousness of the individual is accomplished during intercourse. In this process, the main point is the formed symbolically-semiotic mental function, thanks to which the person is capable of susceptibility of the world around her through a special "quasi-measurement" - the system of meanings and the semantic field. In the process of interiorization, a symbolic-semiotic function is created.

Interiorization lends itself to a set of social connections in which it is expressed, in the form of the structure of communication between an adult and a child. Such a structure, which is expressed by signs, is internalized in the psyche of the child. The result of this process is manifested in the fact that the structure of the psyche is mediated through internalized signs and the basic structures of consciousness are formed.

This process occurs during the formation of the psyche of the child and has several stages. In the first stage, an adult verbally acts on the child, prompting him to a specific action.

At the second stage, the child masters the way of addressing him and makes attempts to influence with the help of words.

In the third stage, the child is able to independently act with the word on himself. The described stages are well manifested in the development of children's egocentric speech.

The formation of the personal component involves the acquisition of a system of humanistic norms and values ​​that form the basis of a humanitarian culture. The process of planting these values ​​in the educational process is of great social importance. A possible perspective depends on this in the humanization of education, the meaning of which is to provide a person’s conscious choice of spiritual values, on their basis to form a sustainable individual system of moral and humanistic orientations characterizing a person’s motivational and axiological attitude. Value can become an object of human need in the event that the purposeful activity of an organization is realized, the selection of objects and the creation of conditions causing the need for its consciousness and personality assessment are noted. So education can be considered as an organized social process of the interiorization of human values.

Through the psychological mechanism of interiorization, one can understand the peculiarities of the dynamism of the spiritual needs of the individual. During the activities that the person performs in the established conditions, new objects are formed that cause new needs. If certain factors were introduced in the teacher-student pedagogical system that stimulated a student’s initiative, he would have been in circumstances of an expanded development of spiritual needs.

An example of interiorization. The student predicts his activity, internally comparing his own actions and future actions in accordance with social requirements and processes them in the internal state. The selected object is transformed into a need, so the mechanism of this process works.

The individualization of universal human values ​​during student appraisal activities helps in designing new activities, in accordance with social standards and tasks that arise in the process of self-education and self-education, to put it into practice.

When new objects of activity are transferred and become a new need of a person, exteriorization occurs. A characteristic feature of this process is the manifestation of the action of the law of negation, which manifests itself in a peculiar form, when one need can influence another, and at the same time connects it to itself at a higher level.

There are two approaches to the organization of education, as to the purposeful process of the interiorization of universal humanistic values. The first approach is expressed in spontaneously established and specially organized conditions that selectively actualize various situational motives and which, under the influence of systematic activation, slowly but gradually become stronger and can turn into more stable motivational structures. The described method of organizing the internalization of universal values ​​is based on a natural increase in the motives that act as a starting point. A good example is the interest in reading a child.

The second approach in the organization of education is the assimilation of students, who are presented with formulated motives, goals, ideals. According to the teacher, they should be formed among the pupils, and gradually turn from externally perceived into internally acquired and acting. In this case, it is necessary to explain the meaning of the generated motives and their relationship with others. This will help the pupils in their inner work of meaning and save them from an indiscriminate search, which is often associated with many mistakes.

A full-fledged properly organized education, as the process of interiorization requires the use of two approaches, since both of them have both advantages and disadvantages. Если использовать только первый подход, то можно столкнуться с недостаточностью такого способа в том, что если воспитание будет хорошо организованное, согласно к психолого-педагогическим условиям, невозможно будет быть уверенным, что будут сформированы желаемые гуманистические побуждения.