Perception - This is a process that forms the image of objects, phenomena from the outside world into the structure of the psyche. This is a reflection of the qualities and intrinsic characteristics of the object and the phenomenon whole. This is a kind of curtailed thinking. Often it is interpreted not as a process, but as a result, that is, the very image of the object. Perception is synonymous with perception, therefore the image of an object is formed using the perception of primary sensations, certain knowledge, desires, expectations, imagination and mood. The main features of perception are objectivity, constancy, integrity, apperception, structure, meaningfulness, illusion, selectivity.

Perception has many synonyms: apperception, perception, evaluation, understanding, acceptance, contemplation.

Perception in psychology

Perception in psychology is the process of displaying the characteristic properties of objects and phenomena in the psyche, when the senses have a direct effect. The long hour was a discussion about sensations and their importance in perception. Associative psychology interpreted sensations as basic elements of the psyche. Philosophy criticized the idea that perception is built from sensations. In the twentieth century, some changes occurred in psychology, perception is no longer viewed as a combination of atomic sensory sensations, but it has begun to be understood as a structural and integral phenomenon. Psychologist J. Gibson interprets perception as an active process of appropriating information from the world, which includes a real survey of the information that is perceived. Thus, this process shows a person the properties of the surrounding world, related to his needs, and manifest his possible activities in a current actual situation.

Another psychologist, W. Nesser, asserted that perception in psychology is the process of extracting information from objects of the external world, which is carried out on the basis of the schemes of various objects and the whole world that are in the subject. These schemes are obtained in the process of experience, and there are also original themes that are innate. The supporters of cognitive psychology adhered to a similar idea, believing that perception is the process of categorizing perceived information, that is, classifying perceived objects into a certain category of objects. Some categories are congenital - this is information about the surrounding nature and the closest objects that a child is able to relate to a certain category, but there are categories in which objects belong, the knowledge of which is gained in experience.

In the human mind, the mapping occurs through a direct effect on the analyzers.

Methods of perception depend on the system to be affected. Through perception, people can be aware of what is happening to them and how the world affects them.

This process was previously described as the summation of certain sensations, or a consequence of the elementary associations of individual properties. Still, some psychologists consider perception as a set of sensations appearing as a result of direct sensory cognition, which are interpreted as subjective experiences of the quality, localization, strength, and other properties of stimuli.

Such a definition is incorrect, so contemporaries describe this process as a reflection of whole objects or phenomena. Allocates the most effective stimuli from the complex (shape, color, weight, taste, and others) at the same time distracting from insignificant stimuli. It also combines groups of essential features and compares the perceived complex with the previously known knowledge of the subject.

During the perception of familiar objects, their recognition happens very quickly, the person simply combines two or three properties into a whole and comes to the desired solution. When unfamiliar, new objects are perceived, their recognition is much more complicated and occurs in wider forms. As a result of the analytical-synthetic process, the essential features that prevent others from uncovering are highlighted, non-essential and combining perceived elements are connected into a single whole, and a full perception of the subject arises.

The process of perception is complex, active, requires substantial analytical and synthetic work. This character of perception is expressed in many signs that require special consideration.

The process of perception has motor components with the help of which the perception of information is realized (eye movement, feeling of objects). Therefore, this process is more accurate to determine how the perceptual activity of the individual.

The process of perception is never limited to one modality, but has a coherent interrelation of several analyzers, as a result of which ideas appear that have formed in the personality. It is very important that the perception of objects never occurs at the elementary level, but acts on the highest levels of the psyche.

When there is a clock in front of a person’s eyes, he mentally names this object, disregarding non-essential properties (color, shape, size), but highlights the main feature - the indication of time. He also attributes this item to the appropriate category, isolates it from other items similar to the appearance of items, but those that fall into a completely different category, for example, in this case, the barometer. This confirms that the process of perception of a person according to the psychological structure is close to visual thinking. The active and complex nature of perception determines its features, which apply equally to all forms.

Features of perception constitute the main characteristic of perceived objects. They are also properties of these objects, phenomena, and objects.

Features of perception: objectivity, integrity, structure, constancy, understanding, apperception.

The objectivity of perception is observed in the attribution of knowledge acquired from the outside world into this world. Performs regulatory and orienting functions in practical activities. It is created on the basis of external motor processes that ensure contact with the object. Without movement, perception would not be related to the objects of the world, that is, the property of objectivity. It is also important in the regulation of the behavior of the subject. Usually, objects are defined not by their appearance, but according to their practical purpose or basic property.

Constancy is determined by the relative constancy of properties in objects, even if their conditions change. With the help of the compensating property of constancy, the subject is able to perceive objects as relatively stable. For example, constancy in the perception of colors is the relative immutability of the visible color under the influence of light. Constancy of color is also determined by the action of certain causes, among them: adaptation to the level of brightness in the visual field, contrast, ideas about the natural color and the conditions of its illumination.

The constancy of the perception of size is expressed in the relative constancy of the visible dimensions of the object at different distances. If the subject is relatively close removed, its perception is determined by the action of additional factors, of particular importance among them is the effort of the eye muscles, which adapt to fixing the object during its removal at different distances.

The perception of the shape of objects, their constancy is expressed in the relative stability of its perception, when their positions change relative to the line of sight of the observant subject. During any change in the position of the object in relation to the eyes, its image shape on the retina changes, using eye movements along the contours of objects and highlighting the characteristic combinations of contour lines known to the subject from past experience.

The study of the evolution of the origin of constancy perception of people leading their way of life in a dense forest, not seeing objects at different distances, only around them. They perceive objects that were far away as small and not distant. For example, builders see objects that are at the bottom, without curving their size.

The source of the properties of constancy of perception are the actions of the perceptual system of the brain. When a person repeatedly perceives the same objects in different conditions, the stability of the perceptual image of the object, the relatively changeable conditions and movements of the receptor apparatus itself is ensured. Consequently, the emergence of constancy expires from a kind of self-regulating action, which has a feedback mechanism and adapts to the features of the object, the conditions and circumstances of its existence. If a person lacked constancy of perception, he could not have been guided by the constant variability and diversity of the surrounding world.

The integrity of perception gives greater information, in contrast to sensations that reflect the individual characteristics of the object. Integrity is formed on the basis of general knowledge about its individual properties and characteristics of the object, taken in the form of sensations. The elements of sensation are very strongly interconnected and the only complex image of an object occurs when a person is under the direct influence of certain properties or parts of an object. Impressions of this arise as a conditioned reflex as a result of the connection of visual and tactile impact, which was formed in life experience.

Perception is not a simple summation of human sensations, and does not respond to them instantly. The subject perceives a generalized structure that is actually isolated from sensations and is formed during a specific time. When a person listens to music, the rhythms he heard will continue to sound in his head when a new rhythm arrives. Listening to music, perceives its structure holistically. The last note heard cannot base such an understanding, the whole structure of the melody with various interrelations of elements incorporating it continues to play in the head. Integrity and structurality lie in the properties of the reflected objects.

Human perception has a very close connection with thinking. Therefore, the feature of meaningful perception will play a very important role. Although the process of perception arises under the influence of a direct influence on the senses, perceptual images always have a semantic meaning.

Conscious perception of objects helps a person to mentally name an object, assign it to a designated category, group. When a person encounters a new subject for the first time, he tries to establish some similarity with already familiar objects. Perception is a constant search for the best description of the available data. How a subject is perceived by a person depends on the stimulus, its features, and the person himself. Since, a living holistic person perceives, rather than individual organs (eyes, ear), therefore the process of perception is always under the influence of specific personality characteristics.

The dependence of perception on the influence of the mental characteristics of a person’s life, on the properties of the subject’s personality itself, is called apperception. If the subjects to show unfamiliar objects, then in the first phases of their perception, they will look for standards, regarding which the object that is presented can be attributed. During perception, hypotheses are put forward and are to be tested regarding the belonging of an object to a certain category. So, during perception traces from past experience, knowledge are involved. Therefore, one subject can be perceived by different people in different ways.

The content of perception is determined by the task before the subject, his motivation, in his process, the values ​​of attitudes and emotions that can change the contents of perception. These conditions are necessary for the orientation of the subject in the outside world.

Types of perception

There are several classifications of types of perception. First, perception is intentional (arbitrary) or intentional (arbitrary).

Intentional perception has an orientation by which it regulates the process of perception — it is to perceive an object or phenomenon and become familiar with it.

Arbitrary perception can be included in some activity and implemented in the process of its activity.

Inadvertent perception does not have such a clear focus, and the subject is not determined to perceive a particular object. The direction of perception is influenced by external circumstances.

As an independent phenomenon, perception manifests itself in observation. Observation is deliberate, systematic and long-lasting perception in some period of time, aimed at tracking the flow of some phenomenon or changes occurring in the subject of perception.

Observation is the active form of human perception of reality. During observation, as a self-directed activity, from the very beginning there is a verbal formulation of tasks and goals that orient the observation process to specific objects. If you exercise for a long time in observation, you can develop such a property as observation - the ability to notice characteristic, unobtrusive, which are not immediately apparent features and details of objects.

For the development of observation, an organization of perception is necessary, which corresponds to the necessary conditions for success, clarity of the task, activity, preliminary preparation, systematic, planned. Observation is necessary in all spheres of human activity. Already from childhood, in the process of playing or learning, it is necessary to emphasize the development of observation, versatility and accuracy of perception.

There is a classification of perceptions by: modalities (visual, olfactory, auditory, tactile, gustatory) and forms of perception of the existence of matter (spatial, temporal, motor).

Visual perception is the process of creating a visual image of the world, based on sensory information perceived by the visual system.

Hearing perception is a process that ensures the susceptibility of sounds and their orientation in the environment, is carried out using an auditory analyzer.

Tactile perception - based on multimodal information, leading among which is tactile.

Olfactory perception is the ability to sense and distinguish odorous substances, like smells.

Taste perception - the perception of stimuli acting on the mouth receptors, are characterized by taste sensations (sweet, salty, bitter, sour).

More complex forms of perception - is the perception of space, movement and time.

The space is formed by the perception of shape, size, location and distance.

The visual perception of space is based on the perception of the size and shape of the object, due to the synthesis of visual, muscular, tactile sensations, perception of the volume, distance of objects, which is carried out by binocular vision.

A person perceives movement because it occurs on a specific background, which allows the retina to display in a certain sequence the changes that occur in the positions in motion relative to the elements, in front of and behind which the subject moves. There is an autokinetic effect when in the dark a luminous fixed point appears to be moving.

The perception of time is investigated a little less, because there are many difficulties in this process. The difficulty of explaining how a person perceives time is that there is no obvious physical stimulus in perception. The duration of objective processes, that is, physical time can be measured, but the duration itself is not a stimulus in the true sense of the word. In time, there is no energy that would act on some temporary receptor, for example, as is observed in the action of light or sound waves. To date, no mechanism has been found that indirectly or directly converts the physical time intervals to the corresponding sensory signals.

The perception of information is an active, semi-conscious process of the subject's activity in receiving and processing essential knowledge about the world, events and people.

The perception of information is influenced by certain circumstances. Firstly, the situation in which familiarity with the information took place is important. A favorable situation contributes to a more benevolent perception than the information is worth it, and vice versa, an unfavorable situation will contribute to a negative perception of information than in the case itself.

Secondly, the depth of understanding of the situation. Человек, хорошо разбирающейся в ситуации в большинстве случаев спокойнее относится к информации, связанных с ней событий и окружающих в тот момент людях.He does not dramatize what is happening, does not extol, and very adequately assesses the situation than a person with a limited outlook.

Thirdly, the perception of information is influenced by the characteristics of the phenomenon, subject or object, which is indicated by the information.

Fourthly, stereotypes (simplified standardized representations of complex phenomena and objects of the surrounding reality) have a great influence. Stereotypes are an idea, based on the views of others, about things that a person has not yet met, but can meet and thus makes it easier for them to understand these things.

Fifth, perception often becomes more difficult, under the influence of unpredictability or distortion of information, inability to correctly bring information.

Human perception by human

When people meet for the first time, they, perceiving each other, emit features of appearance that represent their mental and social qualities. Particular attention is paid to posture, gait, gestures, cultural speech, behavioral patterns, habits, behaviors. One of the first and most important is professional characteristic, social status, communicative and moral qualities, as far as a person is angry or hearty, sociable or non-communicative and others. Individual features are also selectively highlighted.

The characteristics of a person are interpreted according to his appearance according to several methods. The emotional way is expressed in the fact that social qualities are attributed to a person, depending on his appearance, aesthetic appeal. If a person is outwardly handsome, then he is good. Very often, people fall for this trick, it is worth remembering that appearance is deceptive.

The analytical method assumes that each element of appearance is associated with a specific mental property characteristic of this person. For example, frowned eyebrows, compressed lips, a frowning nose indicate an evil person.

The perceptual-associative way is to ascribe to a person qualities that make him seem like another person.

The socially-associative method assumes that qualities are attributed to a person according to a certain social type relative to his individual external features. Such a generalized image of a person influences communication with this person. Often people identify by a torn clothes, dirty pants, torn worn-out shoes, a person without a certain place of residence and are already trying to stay away from him.

The perception of man by man lends itself to social stereotypes, standards, and standards. The idea of ​​the social status of the individual, the general idea of ​​him, is transferred to other manifestations of this personality, this is the halo effect. The effect of primacy suggests that the initial perceived information, heard from other people about a person, may affect his perception when meeting him, will be of overwhelming importance.

The effect of social distance is generated by significant differences in the social status of people who are in communication. The extreme manifestation of such an effect can be expressed in a contemptuous, hateful attitude towards representatives with different social status.

Evaluation and feelings of people during their perception of each other are very many-sided. They can be divided into: conjunctive, that is, unifying and disjunctive, that is, separating feelings. Disjunctives are generated by that which is condemned in that environment. Conjunctive - favorable.

The development of perception in children

In the development of the perception of children has specific features. From birth, he already owns some information. Further development of this process is the result of the child’s personal activity. As far as he is active, as quickly as he develops, he becomes acquainted with various objects and people.

The perception of children in the future can be controlled by parents. The early development of the properties of perception is carried out as the child grows up, it manifests itself in the peculiarity that for the perceiving child the form of the object becomes significant, it is gaining meaning. In infancy, the development of recognition of people and objects around a person occurs, the number of targeted conscious movements increases. Such activity in the development of perception occurs before primary school age.

It is very important that research on possible violations of perception take place before this time. The reason for the anomalies in the development of understanding of reality, may be in the breaks in the communication systems of the sense organs and brain centers, which receive a signal. This could occur in the case of injury or morphological changes in the body.

The perception of children of primary school age is expressed by vagueness and vagueness. For example, children will not recognize people who are dressed in costumes at holidays, although their face may be open. If children see a picture of an unfamiliar object, they single out one element from this image, based on which they comprehend the whole object. This understanding is called syncretism, it is inherent in children's perception.

On the average preschool age, ideas about the ratio of the size of objects appear. A child can judge familiar things, as large or small, regardless of their relationship with other objects. This is observed in the ability of the child to arrange toys "for growth".

Older preschool children already have an idea about measuring the size of objects: width, length, height, space. They are able to distinguish the location of objects between themselves (top, bottom, left, right, and so on).

Productive activity of the child consists in his ability to perceive and reproduce the characteristics of objects, their color, size, shape, location. At the same time, the assimilation of sensory standards and the development of special actions of perception are important.

The perception of older works of art of works of art expresses the unity of experience and cognition. The child learns to capture the image and perceive the feelings that concern the author.

The peculiarity of the perception of the people around the child is revealed in value judgments. The highest and brightest score is attributed to those adults who have a close relationship with the child.

The perception and evaluation of other children depends on the popularity of the child in the group. The higher the position of the child, the more highly attributed to him.

The development of the perception of children of preschool age is a complex, multifaceted process that contributes to the child learning to more accurately reflect the world around him, know how to distinguish features of reality, and was able to successfully adapt to it.