Consciousness human - this is a subjective experience of external reality, which is expressed in the self-report of these events. A broader definition of the concept of consciousness is a property of the psyche, through which external events are displayed, regardless of the level of implementation (biological, social, sensual or rational). In a narrower meaning, it is a function of the brain, peculiar only to people, which, associated with speech, is expressed in purposeful and generalized reflections of phenomena of reality, preliminary construction of actions in the mind and prediction of results, manifested in rational management and self-control of actions through reflection.

The concept of human consciousness is the subject of research in many sciences (psychology, philosophy, sociology), scientists are trying to uncover the meaning of the existence and occurrence of such a phenomenon.

Consciousness is a synonym: reason, comprehension, understanding, comprehension, thought, reason, then they will be used in the text.

Forms of consciousness

There is an individual and social consciousness. The first, the individual, is the consciousness of each individual about his individuality of being, through his social being. It is an element of social consciousness. Consequently, the second, the concept of social consciousness is the generalized individual consciousness of various personalities. Such a generalization occurs historically, in the process of a long time. Therefore, it is also considered a group.

In group consciousness it is necessary to consider two features - this is the social contact of people, as an important factor and the general strength of these people when combining their separate forces.

Each team is a group of different personalities, however, not every group of personalities will be a team. Based on this, the manifestation of the collective consciousness will always be group, and the group will not always be collective. Collective intelligence is, firstly, a manifestation of social consciousness as a social idea, and secondly, this idea determines the activities of individuals in this collective.

Individual awareness of typical individuals always determines group awareness. But only typical for a particular group, which is suitable for the frequency of manifestation, the power of expression at any time, that is, such that it is ahead, guides the development of this group.

The collective and group forms of consciousness are under the dependence of the public consciousness and are determined by the relations between the members of the group. Thus, those mental phenomena that are characteristic of the process of communication represent different phenomena in the group consciousness.

The latter, in turn, is divided into several forms of consciousness. The most specific are mass-like phenomena, they constitute public moods and create a group psychological climate. These moods are mostly caused by interpersonal relations. If a group has good, warm and trusting relationships, then, accordingly, the psychological climate will be favorable and the problems of such a group will be easier to solve. But if a person is introduced into such a collective, it dispels enmity between the group members, naturally, the psychological climate will worsen, the efficiency of labor will begin to fall. Also, mass attitudes in a group can be influenced by didactogeny - these are changes in mood that reach a painful state and are caused by rude behavior and the influence of the leader.

Another form of group consciousness is panic. Panic is a manifestation of fear, a state of passion that captures a whole group and is intensified by the influence of mutual imitation.

Fashion is a form of group consciousness, when people begin to imitate each other, become equal to public opinion and rely on media notification regarding what they should walk, dress, put on shoes, and listen to what music.

Collective thinking is also a form of group consciousness, it fixes the focus of each member in solving the task of the collective, makes it possible to think it over and illuminate it from various sides, also contributes to initiative. Collective thinking adds criticality to decisions, and this contributes to the development of self-criticism in each group member, enriches one with knowledge and experience through acquiring knowledge from others, creates a positive emotional tone, creates situations of competition, increases efficiency, reduces time to solve the problem. The solution of one task promotes the emergence of new ones and thus stimulates the development and progression of the group, the collective thinking moves the team forward.

The form of social consciousness is divided into several types: religion, science, law, morality, ideology and art. Forms such as religion, law, morality, and art, as social phenomena are relatively independent and are studied by various sciences. Moral and aesthetic consciousness have a connection that can be observed on a daily basis, for example, moral actions are often described as beautiful, and vice versa, immoral actions are called disgusting or ugly.

Religious art through church painting, music is used to deepen religious feelings and in general the religious consciousness of each person and entire groups. In small groups, religious awareness is a phenomenon from religious psychology, which includes the religious worldview of the individual and groups.

The philosophical view of consciousness is a theoretical worldview, knowledge of the laws of nature, man and society, it identifies the methods of their knowledge. Displays being in conceptual form, performs epistemological and ideological functions.

The scientific nature of consciousness is a rational systematic mapping of the surrounding world through the application of scientific theories, arguments and facts, is displayed in the minds of people in categories of laws and theories. It allows a person to think in categories, apply various principles of knowledge to make new discoveries. The application of scientific consciousness can be seen in various fields of human existence.

Morality, as a form of awareness, appeared and changed, as did the moral psychology of a group, which summarizes the socially useful experience of communication in groups and in appropriate conditions.

Morality of consciousness is based on the category of morality, it is the most ancient form of social consciousness, it also passes through all areas of human activity (profession, life, family). It is reflected in the categories by which a person thinks and is guided: good, evil, conscience, dignity, and others. Moral is determined by the outlook of specific societies and classes. In moral norms, universal, that is, independent of the social class, moral values ​​are displayed: humanism, honor, responsibility, compassion, collectivism, gratitude, generosity.

Politicity of consciousness began to emerge with the formation of the state, classes and the sphere of politics. It reflects the interaction of classes and social groups, the place and their role in state power, the relations between nations and states, and are oriented by economic motives. It integrates all forms of social consciousness. It is affected by various spheres: religion, science, law, but the political remains the leading one. It is also an element of the functioning of the country's political system. There are two levels in it: the ordinary-practical level and the ideological-theoretical level. Experience and tradition, emotional and rational, experience and traditions are interconnected at the everyday-theoretical level, it appears spontaneously from the activities and life experiences of people. It is also unstable because it exists under the influence and dependence on living conditions, people's emotions and constantly changing experience.

The use of everyday consciousness is important in that it is inherent in the integrity of life understanding, and during creative processing it is the basis of theoretical consciousness. The theoretical political consciousness is characterized by the completeness and depth of the display of political reality, characterized by the ability to predict and systematize views. It can develop a political program, based on the economic and social spheres. Such a political ideology is able to actively influence at the level of public consciousness. Only specially trained people who think about the laws of social life and occupy themselves with "political creativity" are working on the creation of ideology. A well-formed ideology can have an impact on the consciousness of society as a whole, because it is not a simple belief system, but a well-structured propaganda, permeating all sectors and spheres of society, which uses state power and uses the media, science, culture, religion.

In legal consciousness, there is a very large connection with the political, since in them there are political as well as economic interests of various social groups. It affects various spheres of social life in which it performs such functions: regulatory, cognitive and evaluative.

It is also legal, has a historical character, and its development is dependent on economic and political circumstances and living conditions, it originates with the first manifestations of the political organization of society, law and division into classes and reflects the relationship of people, organizations, government bodies that are connected by rights and duties, their guarantor is the law.

Economic awareness displays knowledge and theories of economic activity and social needs. It is formed under the influence of historical conditions and is determined by the need to be aware of economic and social changes. It is also aimed at improving the economic reality.

Ecological aspects of human consciousness perform public functions. First of all, cognitive and educational functions. It is interconnected with other forms of consciousness: moral, aesthetic and legal. The state of ecology requires a person to have an aesthetic and moral attitude to the surrounding nature; otherwise, a person is influenced by legal consciousness in order to pay for damage caused to nature.

Environmental consciousness is in the humane attitude to nature, the awareness of man himself, as part of this nature. The criterion in this is the spiritual need for careful attitude and the desire to preserve the beauty of nature.

Consciousness and unconscious

The state of awareness is the state of a person in which he is able to clearly see and comprehend everything that happens around him and what happens directly to him, is able to keep under control his actions and follow the development of events around him.

The unconscious is uncontrolled, unconscious actions and special mental manifestations. These are two different poles of the psyche, but they are in communication and interaction.

Psychoanalysis, the first in psychology, began to study individual consciousness and their unconscious interconnection and how they manifest themselves in behavior. According to this trend, human awareness is only one tenth of the psyche. Most part is the unconscious, which stores the instincts, desires, emotions, fears, they are always with a person, but only sometimes manifest themselves and at that moment lead a person.

Consciousness is synonymous with consciousness, and this term will also be used. So, the conscious is the one that is controlled by man, the unconscious is the one that cannot be controlled, only it is capable of acting on the person. Illumination, dreams, associations, reflexes, instincts - manifest without our will, also intuition, inspiration, creativity, impressions, recollections, obsessive thoughts, reservations, miswritings, illnesses, pain, motivations - manifestations of the unconscious, sometimes some of them can manifest themselves in quite the wrong moment or if the person does not expect it at all.

Thus, there is a connection between the unconscious and the conscious, and today no one dares to refute it. Both the conscious and the unconscious intertwine in man and affect him and each other. The unconscious sphere can open up to the person, which determines what internal motivations and forces move the person, his thoughts and actions, outside of consciousness.

Guided by this knowledge, you can greatly improve your life, learn to trust your intuition, become open to creativity, work on your fears, open yourself to insights, listen to your inner voice, work through oppressed desires. All this requires a reserve of strength and desire, but then in order to fully understand yourself, develop, achieve goals, get rid of complexes, you need to engage in self-analysis and deep self-knowledge.

Unconscious saves the mind from unnecessary load, protects against information overload. It places in itself negative experiences, fears, traumatic psyche information and because of this, it protects a person from psychological overstrains and breakdowns. Without such a mechanism, people could not withstand all the pressures from the outside world. Thanks to liberation from negative experiences or outdated unnecessary information, a person is able to fully realize himself.

Protection of human consciousness is manifested in the release of his constant control over the actions that he performs every day. Activities such as brushing your teeth, using appliances, cycling, and many others become automatic and do not require comprehension of actions. Also, an adult does not notice how he makes words out of letters when he reads, does not think about what actions he needs to perform in order to walk. Similarly, actions become automatic in professions.

Because some information goes into the unconscious area, much more space is freed up for the assimilation of new information, the mind is easier to concentrate on new important tasks. But we must not forget that even what has gone into the unconscious is not lost without a trace, it is stored, and under the influence of some kind of stimulus is able to break out, because, in any case, it is part of a person.

Conscious and unconscious psyche have the same importance for people, and one should not underestimate the functionality of any of them.

Consciousness and Identity

The concept of human consciousness is also used in the context of self-consciousness. The properties of consciousness are that, as a person's personal core, it contains feelings, sensations, thoughts and emotions. The value of self-awareness is that it is a person’s attitude to himself. It turns out that both concepts are parts of a whole.

If you look back at the history of mankind, then primitive people had only underdeveloped awareness, which developed in stages. It began with the fact that a person felt his body on a physical level, understood the limitation of his abilities. After exploring his body, he began to explore the outside world, from which his mind acquired new information, which stimulated his development. The more a person gets acquainted with different objects, the more he is able to find their differences and learn new properties.

Formation of self-consciousness, occurred a little later. At first, only congenital instincts (reproduction, self-preservation) guided man. Thanks to self-awareness, man has managed to rise above such primitivism, and this has contributed to the emergence of hierarchy in communities. Each group had a leader whom everyone listened to, followed his instructions, accepted criticism and praise. Thus, people became higher than their instincts, because they began to do something not specifically for themselves alone, but for the whole group and leader. Such a manifestation of self-consciousness in the outside world, and not inside the mind of man. Even later, the individual began to listen to his own voice and act in relation to the "heard", this allowed him to rise above instincts, fleeting desires and other factors that hindered personal development.

In the development of modern man, the formation of consciousness and self-awareness also appears in stages. At first, the child gradually realizes itself, then it turns out under the guidance of adults. Later, external executives are replaced by internal ones. But this development did not reach everyone. In undeveloped countries, there are such people who still live on instinct.

Without self-awareness, a person cannot go further in his personal development, achieve goals, get along with people around him, become successful. With the help of self-consciousness, a person sees and makes his life as he wants. Все успешные люди владеют этим свойством. Иначе они не смогли бы стать разумными, развить интеллект.

Кстати, часто сравниваются такие категории, как сознание и интеллект. Many people believe that if there is a consciousness, then it also speaks of intelligence, but these categories have different meanings. An intellectual person is not always conscious. The level of consciousness of not very educated people may be higher. Therefore, consciousness and intelligence are non-identical concepts. But with the help of self-awareness, the development of intellectual possibilities takes place. The properties of self-consciousness and consciousness - make up the life of a modern person, help him to gain freedom, otherwise she would have remained only within the framework of desires.

Consciousness in philosophy

The concept of consciousness in philosophy is a difficult topic to study, great people have pondered over it. The relationship between the concepts of consciousness and the brain in philosophy is an even more difficult topic, since the two concepts are presented as completely different. The definition of consciousness is an idea, and the brain is a material substrate. But nevertheless there is definitely a connection between them.

Modern philosophers are confident in the existence of consciousness and relative to the sources, there are several of its factors. First, the external and spiritual world, natural and spiritual, are reflected in consciousness under the guise of certain sensory-conceptual representations. Such information is the result of human interactions and the situation that provides contact with her.

Second, the sociocultural environment, aesthetic and ethical attitudes, legal acts, knowledge, ways and means of cognitive activity — this allows a person to be a social being.

Third, it is the spiritual inner world of the personality, its life experiences and experiences, reinterpreting which a person makes plans.

Fourth, the brain is such a factor, because at the cellular level it ensures the functioning of the consciousness.

Fifth, the cosmic information field is also a factor, the link of which is the functioning of human consciousness.

It turns out that the source of consciousness is not only the ideas themselves (beyond the theory of idealists), and not the brain itself (after the materialists), but objective and subjective reality that is reflected by man with the help of the brain in transpersonal forms of consciousness.

Consciousness and the brain in philosophy is studied with several approaches. One of these is physicalism - the materialistic direction, which denies the existence of consciousness as an independent substance, since in the first place, it is generated by matter.

Solipsism is also an approach that studies the concept of consciousness and presents extreme views. He says that the awareness of each person exists as a single authentic reality. The material world is a product of consciousness.

The approaches described present moderate materialism and objective idealism. Regarding the first, the category of consciousness in it is defined as a unique manifestation of matter, allowing you to display yourself. The second one, it says that there is some connection with matter in consciousness, the existence of consciousness is defined as original.

Indeed, human awareness of the brain, or how, is not in itself explained by the approaches described above. It is necessary to explore other directions. For example, there is a cosmic view, according to him - the meaning of consciousness independent of the material carrier is the gift of the cosmos, and is indivisible.

According to biological theory, the ability to realize is a product of living nature and inherent in absolutely everyone, even the simplest organisms. Because life is not spontaneous, and patterns flow out of consciousness. All living creatures have instincts congenital and acquired in the process of their vital activity, accumulated together with experience, they are also able to perform complex in structure actions, and some animals even have a peculiar morality.

But there is also a view as to which, the property of consciousness is considered inherent exclusively to man. But, even leaving such different versions, definitions, philosophy does not give a single answer to the question about the source of the origin of consciousness. The human mind is in continuous motion, development, because with it every day there are different events that a person is trying to comprehend, to realize.

Consciousness and language in philosophy can be briefly described as another question of concern to philosophers. Mind and language directly have an influence that can be controlled. When a person works to improve speech data, he also changes his own properties of consciousness, thereby developing his ability to objectively perceive information and make decisions. Ancient philosophical thinkers such as Heraclitus, Plato, Aristotle studied the relationship of consciousness, thinking and language. It can even be traced in the Greek word "logos", which literally means that thought is inseparable from the word.

Consciousness and language in philosophy can be briefly determined through such a philosophical course as the “philosophy of language”, it insists that the ability of consciousness directly influences a person’s perception of the world, in particular his speech, from this expires, which also communicates with others.

In modern time, many scientists are trying to find all new relationships in consciousness and language. For example, recent studies have confirmed that in each person in thinking they use visual images that were formed under the influence of consciousness. Thus, awareness directs the thought process. Close to this definition was the thinker Rene Descartes, who gave such an explanation, which was permanently fixed in philosophy and other sciences, that it can be found dominant.

Descartes believed that there are two substances - the thinking and the body, fundamentally different from each other. Things and events of bodily substance are considered spatial and accessible to external contemplation, then the consciousness and events in it are not spatial, that is, they cannot be observed, but they can be realized by the inner experience of the carrier of this consciousness.

Idealists did not support such an idea, but argued that personality is a state of consciousness, like a spirit in which physical and biological does not have a special meaning. Contemporaries are not satisfied with this view, therefore philosophers who discuss the psychophysical problem of consciousness, adhere to a greater degree of variants of materialism.

The most consistent version of the materialistic direction is the theory of identity, which assumes that thought processes, perceptions and sensations are identical with the state of the brain.

Functionalism, as another look at the definition of consciousness, regards phenomena and processes as functional states of the brain, rather than physical ones. The brain is defined as a complex multi-level system with physical, functional and systemic properties. This approach has several drawbacks, of which the main one is that such a definition is very much in the spirit of Cartesian dualism.

Some supporters of modern philosophy believe that it is necessary to turn away from Descartes’s ideas about personality as “spirit in the car,” assuming that initially man is a rational animal capable of conscious behavior, a personality cannot be divided into two worlds, therefore there is a need for new interpretation of concepts related to the ability of consciousness - from simple sensations to intellectual processes and self-awareness.