The concept of consciousness in philosophy is a difficult topic to study, great people have pondered over it. The relationship between the concepts of consciousness and the brain in philosophy is an even more difficult topic, since the two concepts are presented as completely different. The definition of consciousness is an idea, and the brain is a material substrate. But nevertheless there is definitely a connection between them.
Modern philosophers are confident in the existence of consciousness and relative to the sources, there are several of its factors. First, the external and spiritual world, natural and spiritual, are reflected in consciousness under the guise of certain sensory-conceptual representations. Such information is the result of human interactions and the situation that provides contact with her.
Second, the sociocultural environment, aesthetic and ethical attitudes, legal acts, knowledge, ways and means of cognitive activity — this allows a person to be a social being.
Third, it is the spiritual inner world of the personality, its life experiences and experiences, reinterpreting which a person makes plans.
Fourth, the brain is such a factor, because at the cellular level it ensures the functioning of the consciousness.
Fifth, the cosmic information field is also a factor, the link of which is the functioning of human consciousness.
It turns out that the source of consciousness is not only the ideas themselves (beyond the theory of idealists), and not the brain itself (after the materialists), but objective and subjective reality that is reflected by man with the help of the brain in transpersonal forms of consciousness.
Consciousness and the brain in philosophy is studied with several approaches. One of these is physicalism - the materialistic direction, which denies the existence of consciousness as an independent substance, since in the first place, it is generated by matter.
Solipsism is also an approach that studies the concept of consciousness and presents extreme views. He says that the awareness of each person exists as a single authentic reality. The material world is a product of consciousness.
The approaches described present moderate materialism and objective idealism. Regarding the first, the category of consciousness in it is defined as a unique manifestation of matter, allowing you to display yourself. The second one, it says that there is some connection with matter in consciousness, the existence of consciousness is defined as original.
Indeed, human awareness of the brain, or how, is not in itself explained by the approaches described above. It is necessary to explore other directions. For example, there is a cosmic view, according to him - the meaning of consciousness independent of the material carrier is the gift of the cosmos, and is indivisible.
According to biological theory, the ability to realize is a product of living nature and inherent in absolutely everyone, even the simplest organisms. Because life is not spontaneous, and patterns flow out of consciousness. All living creatures have instincts congenital and acquired in the process of their vital activity, accumulated together with experience, they are also able to perform complex in structure actions, and some animals even have a peculiar morality.
But there is also a view as to which, the property of consciousness is considered inherent exclusively to man. But, even leaving such different versions, definitions, philosophy does not give a single answer to the question about the source of the origin of consciousness. The human mind is in continuous motion, development, because with it every day there are different events that a person is trying to comprehend, to realize.
Consciousness and language in philosophy can be briefly described as another question of concern to philosophers. Mind and language directly have an influence that can be controlled. When a person works to improve speech data, he also changes his own properties of consciousness, thereby developing his ability to objectively perceive information and make decisions. Ancient philosophical thinkers such as Heraclitus, Plato, Aristotle studied the relationship of consciousness, thinking and language. It can even be traced in the Greek word "logos", which literally means that thought is inseparable from the word.
Consciousness and language in philosophy can be briefly determined through such a philosophical course as the “philosophy of language”, it insists that the ability of consciousness directly influences a person’s perception of the world, in particular his speech, from this expires, which also communicates with others.
In modern time, many scientists are trying to find all new relationships in consciousness and language. For example, recent studies have confirmed that in each person in thinking they use visual images that were formed under the influence of consciousness. Thus, awareness directs the thought process. Close to this definition was the thinker Rene Descartes, who gave such an explanation, which was permanently fixed in philosophy and other sciences, that it can be found dominant.
Descartes believed that there are two substances - the thinking and the body, fundamentally different from each other. Things and events of bodily substance are considered spatial and accessible to external contemplation, then the consciousness and events in it are not spatial, that is, they cannot be observed, but they can be realized by the inner experience of the carrier of this consciousness.
Idealists did not support such an idea, but argued that personality is a state of consciousness, like a spirit in which physical and biological does not have a special meaning. Contemporaries are not satisfied with this view, therefore philosophers who discuss the psychophysical problem of consciousness, adhere to a greater degree of variants of materialism.
The most consistent version of the materialistic direction is the theory of identity, which assumes that thought processes, perceptions and sensations are identical with the state of the brain.
Functionalism, as another look at the definition of consciousness, regards phenomena and processes as functional states of the brain, rather than physical ones. The brain is defined as a complex multi-level system with physical, functional and systemic properties. This approach has several drawbacks, of which the main one is that such a definition is very much in the spirit of Cartesian dualism.
Some supporters of modern philosophy believe that it is necessary to turn away from Descartes’s ideas about personality as “spirit in the car,” assuming that initially man is a rational animal capable of conscious behavior, a personality cannot be divided into two worlds, therefore there is a need for new interpretation of concepts related to the ability of consciousness - from simple sensations to intellectual processes and self-awareness.