Conflict - this is a confrontation arising between the participants of the communication process due to differences in attitudes, attitudes, interests, beliefs, values, goals. Conflict is considered the most acute way to resolve the confrontation. It consists in counteracting the parties and is often accompanied by negative emotions, actions that go beyond the generally accepted norms. Confrontation is inevitable in all spheres of life. Therefore, it is necessary to study methods of conflict resolution in order to reduce their destructive impact and minimize the risk of negative consequences.
The sphere of escalation of conflict situations, when the goals of the opposing sides collide, is diverse and differs in content, object and subject of relations. The conditions for the emergence of a confrontation caused by a conflict of interests may be different, and there is always a discrepancy in the personal goals and objectives of the organization, the company where the person works.
Conflict of interest, what is it?
Conflict of interest is the contradiction that arises between the personal interests of the individual and his professional duties, official duties. The presence of such a contradiction may affect impartiality and impartiality in making decisions, actions or inaction in the performance of official instructions, official duties and professional duties.
Conflict of interest examples can be observed not only in the performance of an official of the public service, but also when working in private business. In this case, the opposition of interests will be called the contradiction that occurs when an individual or an organization as a whole works simultaneously in several different directions and the tasks of these activities diverge among themselves.
Conflict of interest. An example of it can be found in the professional sphere at every step in situations where the personal interests of an employee contradict the interests and goals of the enterprise in which he works. Situations that give rise to conflicts of interest are everywhere. They arise between members of one class, members of family relationships, like-minded groups, and colleagues. Confrontations, based on the confrontation of the objectives of the participants of interaction, can appear regardless of the presence of hostility between individuals. Under any circumstances, such a phenomenon as a conflict of interest must be immediately stopped, because it leads to infringement of the interests of the organization as a whole.
In addition, confrontational situations may arise with limited means to achieve the intended objectives. An excess of interests conflicts with the lack of resources necessary to meet collective and personal needs.
So, responding from a legal point of view to the question of conflict of interests, what it is, you can deduce the following definition.
Conflict of interest is a generally accepted term in the theory of law, which refers to a situation where one individual can simultaneously have two incompatible interests. In this case, one interest will be protected, and the satisfaction of another interest may cause damage to the protected interest. The interests to be protected include the interests of the private order and public, which include the needs of an unlimited number of a separate category of private persons (shareholders, investors). In the legal doctrine, the described concept is widely used today.
In general, the conflict of interests in the field of entrepreneurship is characterized by the presence of three objective components: the duality of needs, major damage, unlawful deed or concealment and objective connection between them.
Usually a conflict of interest arises:
- as a personal opposition of interests and as an organizational conflict of interests;
- in a situation where the personal interests of the individual, such as: private financial assets and professional relationships outside the organization, enter into an imaginary or real confrontation with the official duties performed by him, are called personal conflicts of interest. An organizational conflict occurs when: an organization is unable to provide services objectively due to other types of activities;
- the impartiality of the organization is violated or may be violated when fulfilling the obligations imposed on it;
- this organization has an excessively large competitive advantage.
Conflict of interest is an example of the following. Incompatibility of interests is most often observed in the public service, when an individual whose duty is to make decisions on the use of budget funds has some kind of relationship with a firm, enterprise, organization that is one of the nominees for receiving such funds in the event of competitive bidding.
The settlement of conflicts of interest is considered one of the primary tasks of anti-corruption mechanisms and at the same time, a means of ensuring the proper flow of official relations.
Today, when creating a model of internal corporate behavior, many commercial enterprises include in it a description of possible conflicts of needs and ways to prevent them. Among the most frequently encountered potential confrontational situations are the following:
- disclosure of confidential corporate information to competing (interested) firms, companies;
- the use of opportunities provided by the organization, to the detriment of this organization in order to fulfill its own goals and interests
- taking loans and gifts from customers or suppliers, which leads to the emergence of certain obligations, contrary to the tasks and needs of the organization;
- communication with competing companies, customers or suppliers in order to obtain benefits for their own person or loved ones.
Particular attention should be paid to the settlement of conflicts of interest arising in the public service in foreign countries. World practice examines such contradictions in three forms: nepotism, kronism, and embedded lobbyism.
Nepotism is the provision of posts and positions to persons with whom the employer is in kinship and relationships.
Kronism is found in the appointment of civil servants to the highest government positions of their friends, intimate partners or business colleagues. Embedded lobbying is observed when a representative of private enterprise gets a position in the area of public service in which he conducts his business.
Psychologists and conflictologists working in the field of finding solutions to resolve confrontational situations offer the following methods of conflict resolution.
In the first turn, they recommend not to continue the confrontation. Theorists in the field of conflictology advise to prefer open competition of confrontation. In accordance with the preliminary agreement, the winner of such a competition is given the object of conflict, and the losing side has to voluntarily give up possession of the object of opposition. This option is considered one of the most acceptable.
You can voluntarily give up the subject of dispute. This method is more effective in resolving personal conflicts, since on the scale of an organization such actions can lead to serious financial losses.
Finding a compromise is considered the most effective way. It is better to make an effort to find a compromise, rather than wasting energy on swearing. This method is relevant when the parties involved in the confrontation have the resources, time and desire to find the optimal solution that meets the needs of all opponents, as a result of which all contradictions will be exhausted.
Also, psychologists recommend not to start a quarrel, but to try to agree on fruitful cooperation, the result of which will be equal possession of all parties to the object of the conflict.
Separately, it is necessary to single out the ways of settling conflicts of interests arising from service in state bodies. There are four such methods: preventive, method of information disclosure, voluntary refusal, monitoring.
The preventive method is to prevent the emergence of a conflict of interest situation. This method is considered the most effective in terms of fighting corruption. An example of the described method is the refusal of an official appointed to a position from a part in the capital of an enterprise.
The method of disclosure involves financial control. All civil servants are obliged to annually declare income and property held in their private ownership.
Voluntary refusal to participate in the decision-making procedure, which is associated with the emergence of conflicts of interest. Such actions may be compelled by a public servant to have moral views, professional ethics, and current legislation.
In the system of state bodies, specially authorized organizations aimed at combating corruption acts are monitored. Such organizations monitor compliance with the prescriptions of the legislative base, requirements for the behavior of an official and the resolution of conflicts of interest.
Competent and timely resolution of conflicts is the key to people's mental health, since any confrontation gives rise to contradictions, duality, disharmony in the team. At the same time, conflicts are also a necessary condition for rallying the team and bringing it to a qualitatively new stage of development.
The ability to manage conflicts is considered an important skill for a successful leader. After all, as they say, ignorance of the aspects of conflict management in a team does not exempt the authorities from responsibility.
Confrontations in organizations are classified by focus and are horizontal, vertical and mixed.
Horizontal conflicts are caused by competition and comparison. Vertical - are observed between individuals who are subordinate, that is, between the authorities and subordinates. Mixed confrontations, respectively, is a vertical and horizontal confrontation at the same time.
Resolving conflicts between a manager and a subordinate, within a team is possible, provided:
- recognition of the existence of a situation of confrontation, the presence of the opposing participant and his claims;
- a clear idea of the content of conflicting interests;
- preparation of opponents to the adoption of specific common standards of behavior.
For each leader, if he cares about the prosperity of his organization, it is very important that the collective psychological climate has a beneficial effect on the nature and quality of the collective activity of employees.
Today, one of the main conditions for the fruitful activity of a leader is his socio-psychological awareness, part of which is conflictological readiness and competence.
Conflict-based competence, competent and effective resolution of conflicts between a leader and a subordinate, within the team includes:
- awareness of the nature of collisions, disagreements, conflicts between subjects;
- development in themselves and employees of a constructive attitude to the contradictions in the organization;
- possession of the skills of non-conflict communicative interaction in difficult situations;
- the ability to analyze and explain the emerging problem situations;
- the ability to develop useful beginnings of confrontations;
- the presence of skills to manage the phenomena of confrontation;
- the ability to anticipate the possible consequences of conflict;
- the skills to eliminate the negative consequences of contradictions;
- the ability to constructively regulate collisions, quarrels, disputes and conflicts.
Conflict resolution forces leaders to act as a third party. In other words, the boss is a mediator who seeks to restore the psychological balance in the team. The leader’s activity as a mediator includes assessing and analyzing the situation, as well as directly resolving the conflict.
The analysis and assessment of the confrontational situation consists in obtaining information on the subject of the collision, gathering information about it, studying the data obtained, checking their reliability, and analyzing the conflict situation.
The process of resolving contradictions includes the choice of means for settlement, the type of mediation, the embodiment of the chosen method, the refinement of data and decisions made, the reduction or removal of post-conflict tensions in the relationship of opponents, the analysis of conflict management experience.
However, today the most acute problem is not the resolution of conflicts in the professional sphere, but the ability to resolve differences arising in the adolescent environment.
For many years, psychologists, sociologists have been studying the problems of puberty, but to this day there are many unresolved issues. Adolescence is considered the most controversial and particularly sensitive age. When children reach puberty, they try to live apart from adults; they create a special subculture that is based on certain norms, moral attitudes, and convictions. It is characterized by specific forms of behavior, extraordinary clothing, peculiar language, original symbolism, attributes and rituals. This subculture is incomprehensible to adults who consider adolescents as children, unable to make independent decisions, to have serious feelings. Adult misunderstanding is one of the key components of disagreement in the adolescent environment.
Conflicts play a significant role in the formation of new qualities of character and in personal transformation.
Conflict interaction in the pubertal period occurs in three directions: teenager - teenager, teenager - parents and teenager - teachers.
Among adolescents, conflict interaction is based on confrontation, the goal of which is leadership. Here, the main factors of conflict behavioral style are status, level of aspirations (ambitions) and self-esteem.
The contradictions between significant adults (parents) and adolescent children are caused by defects in the upbringing, destructiveness of family relationships, and individual psychological transformations in the development of children. Conflict behavioral style in adolescents occurs when adults do not take into account their age-related changes, individual characteristics, when the content and form of the communicative interaction of adults does not change.
Pedagogical conflicts are characterized by features related to the specifics of the educational process, differences in age and status of the parties.
An example of conflict and its solution in school. A high school student is characterized by poor performance, she is rude and aggressive in interaction with the teacher. During the lesson, the schoolgirl prevents classmates from performing the teacher's assignments, throws pieces of paper at the children, does not respond to the teacher's remarks.
A constructive solution to this problem will be the following. After ignoring the teacher's remarks as a girl, the teacher could get out of the current situation by saying something ironic about her. For example, "Olga ate a little oatmeal this morning, so the range and accuracy of the throw suffers, the last piece of paper did not reach Petit." After these words, you can continue to calmly continue the lesson further. At the end of the lesson, it is necessary to discuss the situation with the child, to demonstrate to the girl her understanding, her friendly attitude and desire to help. In subsequent lessons, this student is recommended to pay more attention, encourage her answers by praise, and trust in responsible instructions.
Thus, it is possible to derive a single algorithm for the constructive resolution of school conflicts:
- In the first turn, you must be calm;
- secondly, it is necessary to analyze situations without vicissitudes;
- thirdly, it is important to observe an open dialogue between opponents, to be able to listen to the opposing side, to calmly state their own point of view on the problem that has arisen;
- fourth, it is necessary to find common goals and methods for solving the problem, which will allow to come to these goals;
- fifth, it is necessary to take stock, allowing to avoid similar collisions in the future.
Conflict resolution in adolescence can be achieved in three ways: repression, concessions (compromise) and cooperation.
Contrary to popular belief, resolving adolescent conflicts with suppression is not always so bad. Например, в сложных экстремальных ситуациях. Подавление заключается в возложении ответственности на собственные плечи в положительном его значении.However, the abuse of this conflict management style leads to the development of subordination because of fear, anger, secrecy, inability to make decisions.
A compromise way of settling the conflict process consists in mutually directed concessions.
The way to resolve disagreements through cooperation is based on mutual respect of the parties, communication and constructive decisions.
Conflict resolution also in adolescence can be achieved with the help of the following techniques:
- creative approach (turning a problem into a potential opportunity for oneself);
- optimal self-affirmation, which consists in an attack on a specific problem, and not on an individual;
- control of emotions;
- recognition of personal attitudes, which are a hindrance to an impartial look at the subject of the collision;
- develop alternatives;
- effective planning, development of strategy options (negotiations);