Logotherapy - This is the direction of psychotherapy, which is based on the assumption that the development of a personality occurs through its striving to search for life meaning. In the absence of the meaning of life in a person, when he does not understand why he lives, he develops existential frustration, manifested in neuroses and disorders.

Logotherapy has a focus on research, having meaning for the existence of characteristics and assists in the awareness of these characteristics, their significance. Realizing this meaning, a person recovers, which is the purpose of logotherapy.

The direction of logotherapy has similar principles as in humanistic psychology, but to a greater extent it is still based on the principles of psychoanalysis.

The creator of the direction of logotherapy psychology is Victor Frankl. In logotherapy psychotherapy, the logotherapist directs his strength to ensure that a person can acquire the meaning of his being and make it so that the logotherapist himself does not impose his thoughts and advice, but merely pushes the person to find the lost meaning. In order to succeed, the psychotherapist uses the method of Socratic dialogue.

The lost meaning of life and the generalized values ​​associated with it can be found by a person among such areas: experience, creativity and a consciously accepted attitude to situations and circumstances that are not amenable to change, and where the patient cannot do anything himself.

That is, thanks to logotherapy, a person learns to look wider, bypassing the current situation and find meaning beyond its limits. One of the most basic sources of meaning is religious faith, sometimes it is even the only meaning of human existence.

Frankl's Logotherapy

Frankl's method of logotherapy is based on the basic principles on which it is based - the will to the meaning, the meaning of life and free will.

V. Frankl considers the principle of "will to meaning" a self-sufficient motivation without expressing it and generating other needs. It is this aspiration that is the central concept between the others that form the basis of logotherapy. An active desire to find a place in life is the strongest motivation of a person.

Also, the basics of logotherapy include the concept of no-dynamics, its V. Frankl defined as the main driving force of the human spirit. It is created in a voltage field that arises between two poles, that is, between a person and a meaning. And it is precisely the search for a destination that will quickly lead a person to a state of internal tension than to the attainment of harmony and mental balance. But, it is important that it is this tension that will be the main condition for human well-being, as evidenced by the provisions of logotherapy. V. Frankl does not consider the sense that a person invents and invents, it is too simple for him.

If we consider the semantic aspect, it becomes clear that the core of meaning goes into the transcendent spiritual realm. Proceeding from this, Frankl gave the name to this direction not "sense therapy", which would seem obvious, but "logotherapy", that is, "therapy with the spirit and the word."

The basis of logotherapy is also the concept of super-sense introduced by the founder of the method. Such super-sense cannot be known through rational means, it is broader than human knowledge. It is accessible to that which is transmitted from the core of the individual, from that which is in the being of man, through an existential act called Frankl, as "the fundamental belief in being." Only with the will to sense, the individual will be able to meet with super-meaning, with the result that she will be free and be able to answer for their actions. So, the will to the meaning is the human desire to comprehend the meaning and the acquisition of frustration, if this does not happen.

V. Frankl believed and expressed it in his logotherapy that the purpose of life for each person is special, so it changes depending on people, on the situation.

Logotherapy asserts that there is always such a meaning that could be accomplished by a specific person. Here life itself offers a person options and requires action from him.

In the role of meaning are the value-semantic attitudes that have become fixed, due to the generalization of characteristic situations in the evolutionary development of mankind.

Frankl in logotherapy identified three semantic systems: the values ​​of creativity (human creations, what is given to the world), the values ​​of experience (experience gained from the outside world), the values ​​of relationships (position relative to fate).

Viktor Frankl also paid attention to the concept of conscience in logotherapy, he argued that through conscience, man realizes the need for being. Calls it "an organ of being" and refers to specific manifestations, considering it an integral component of the condition of human existence.

Conscience is an intuitive ability to find a single meaning, directing a person’s actions, assessing his actions (good or bad) regarding the realization of those meanings to which a person directs activity.

A person’s free will relates directly to his experience. There are certain categories of people who consider their will not to be free — those with schizophrenia, who seem to be ruled by someone else, and deterministic philosophers who are confident that people feel the will as if it is free, but as they say This is self-deception. Therefore, the difference in their beliefs and the thoughts of Victor Frankl is that it is necessary to answer the question of how true experience is.

Frankl's Logotherapy The basic principles described above are a special direction, in the sense that they have a powerful philosophical basis and everyone can find their own meaning in life.

With the emergence of the direction of logotherapy, psychology acquired a new experience, until Victor Frankl, no one so strongly engaged in therapy in this direction, although there were very many philosophical opinions about the meaning of life. Frankl focused on questions about the role of meaning in therapy and psychopathology. Thanks to his experience of being in a concentration camp, he realized that only the presence of meaning helps a person to survive in the most unbearable conditions.

V. Frankl, in the theory of logotherapy, departed from deep orientations, as in psychoanalysis towards the desire to comprehend more “top-level” mental phenomena and processes.

Logotherapy methods are quite practical in their application, and, as proved, effective. There are three main techniques of logotherapy: paradoxical intention, dereflexia and logo analysis. They are designed to be used in work with patients who experience anxiety, intimate neurosis, and obsessive-compulsive syndrome.

Phobias and alarming neuroses are characterized by warning anxiety, which gives rise to those circumstances, situations, and phenomena that the patient is afraid of. The appearance of such circumstances activates the anti-reciprocal anxiety, thus creating a vicious circle that exists until a person starts to avoid situations that, in his opinion, can cause his fear. This avoidance is called "false passivity."

A person whose obsessive-compulsive neurosis is engaged in this “false passivity” when it makes attempts to counteract obsessive actions and thoughts. This "false activity" is also inherent in patients with intimate neurosis, manifested by the fact that a person, seeking to achieve sexual competence, does not respond adequately to the situation. The desired action remains impracticable through the action of "excessive intention", "excessive attention" and intrusive self-observation. In such cases, the logotherapeutic technique of paradoxical intention is effective.

The paradoxical intention of logotherapy is to cause fear in the patient by doing what he fears. Consequently, a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder stops resisting obsessive actions and thoughts, and a patient with a phobic neurosis no longer struggles with his fears, stopping the anticipatory cycle of anxiety. In this state, the patient completely changes his attitude to the situation.

The paradoxical intentional technique of logotherapy is effective and applicable, regardless of the origin of the symptom, that is, it is an absolutely non-specific method. You also cannot call it symptomatic therapy, because, using the paradoxical intention method, the logotherapist does not work with the symptoms, but with the attitude of the patient to his neurosis and symptomatic manifestations.

Sometimes this method of logotherapy helps even in the most severe and protracted cases.

Such a method definitely has an impact on the deep levels of the psyche, although in its theory it departed from deep psychoanalysis, but you cannot call it superficial either. Viktor Frankl himself argued that the paradoxical intention is “existential reorientation”, a complex process of retraining a person, and not just a change in behavioral stereotypes.

The second technique of logotherapy - dereflexia, self-observation, intention, excessive attention lends itself to its effect. This method is particularly effective in applying it in the treatment of male impotence and the inability of a woman to reach orgasm.

Dereflexia acts in such a way that it distracts the patient's attention from his own person, first of all, and from the action being performed, switching completely to the partner, which in turn removes the requirements for performing certain actions.

Logotherapy techniques (paradoxical intentions, dereflexia, logoanalysis) are very effective in use, with their help the main problem is eliminated, which does not give rest, interferes with life, and with it the meaning of existence is erased. Having resolved a painful situation, a person can open his eyes wider and see how much everything he has to do.

Logotherapy methods are designed to help a person solve his problems. Since he takes part in them, the result largely depends on him, his efforts and desire to change the situation.

Logo analysis ("logo" - "meaning", "spirit") is designed to study the life and values ​​of the patient.

The purpose of logotherapy in the logo analysis is expressed in the ability to expand the field of human consciousness, stimulating his creative imagination, in order to find answers to emerging questions within himself. In the process of logoanalysis, the patient should make an assessment of individual stages of his life, having done this, discuss them with the psychotherapist. Thanks to the method of logoanalysis in logotherapy, a person is able to achieve spiritual insight and rediscover for himself the essential significant components of life. Through the use of logotherapy, a person is able to penetrate the deeper meaning of experiences, love, learn the meaning of suffering, and find the answer to the question of what his meaning of life is.

The purpose of logotherapy is to explore your inner needs, a person realizes the responsibility for his life.

Logotherapy is a sense-centered therapy, therefore it contains the idea of ​​a "desire for meaning." The number of people complaining about the meaninglessness of existence is growing all the time, the reason is the unfortunate experience of early search for meaning, and this, in turn, leads to depression, addiction and aggression.

The goal of logotherapy is to describe the process of sense understanding through phenomenological analysis in order to understand how people acquire meaning and a sense of fulfillment.

Logotherapy is used in various areas that can be divided into specific and non-specific. The psychotherapy which is engaged in a different sort of diseases belongs to not specific scope. The specific area of ​​application of logotherapy includes noogenic neuroses, which have arisen in connection with the loss of the meaning of life. In such cases, the Socratic dialogue method is used, the essence of which lies in the fact that it is capable of pushing the patient to reflect on an adequate meaning of life.

The goal of logotherapy is to expand the ability to see the entire plane of potential meanings that can be contained in any situation.