Adaptability - is the ability of a person to adapt to changing circumstances. Adaptability expresses the intellectual qualities of a person, thanks to which an individual is able to change the direction of his thoughts and all his intellectual activity in accordance with the set mental tasks and the conditions for their solution.

High adaptability is a property in the psychology of personality, due to which an individual has more opportunities than people with a low degree of adaptability.

High adaptability shows intellectual ability to vary between general level of development and convergence.

Adaptability is very close to the mobility of intellectual activity. As a personal quality, psychological adaptability contributes to spiritual development, worldview dynamics and a change in world outlook.

High adaptability is a very useful quality, because a person may not be afraid of falling into unfamiliar situations or places, because he will quickly begin to navigate and accept the existing conditions.

The flexibility and adaptability of human actions, reactions often help an individual to survive even in extreme potentially dangerous situations.

Adaptability is carried out at three levels - biological, social and psychological.

At the biological level, adaptability is the ability of a person to maintain his form in the necessary limits for the normal functioning of the body when the conditions of the world change.

Psychological adaptability provides stable functionality of all brain structures with the influence of external psychological factors.

The flexibility and adaptability of mental processes demonstrate a measure of the development of the natural abilities of the individual, helping her to survive in all conditions.

Adaptability at the social level expresses adaptation to the environment through the ability to analyze the social environment, emerging social situations, awareness of one's own capabilities in the current circumstances, as well as the ability to adapt to the main goals and objectives of the activity.

Social adaptability

By social adaptability is meant the integration of the individual in society, as a result of which self-awareness and roles are formed, self-control and the ability to self-service, adequate connections with others.

The adaptive system of a person includes social mechanisms, using which a person is either isolated from environmental influences or tries to transform this environment to fit himself in such a way that it corresponds to his full-fledged social, biological and personal development.

Adaptability is manifested in a person’s social life, in its daily activities. When a person changes his place of work, he must adapt to the new team, conditions, corporate rules, managerial style and the individual characteristics of colleagues.

Low adaptability significantly affects the efficiency of work, respectively, performance can be reduced and a person can be closed in himself and not be able to show their positive qualities. If you analyze the situation, you can choose the appropriate style of behavior, and try to adapt to the new circumstances.

When a person changes his place of residence, not only an apartment, but even a city or country, it is always stressful. And only well-being, calmness and psychological stability of a person depend on the ability to adapt.

If it happens that under the influence of unexpected and inescapable circumstances, the living conditions of the individual change, he may become unsettled. It is in such extreme situations as war, epidemic, natural cataclysm that the ability of a person to adapt is tested.

High adaptability of people contributes to the fact that they quickly cope with stress and take the situation as inevitable. Also, people with good adaptability can help people cope with their experiences and adapt to the situation.

When a person's marital status changes, it affects the change in his social status. The following situations are particularly stressful: marriage and divorce. In both situations, a person must be able to adapt to what will change the previously usual way of life.

Social adaptability of the individual expresses its active adaptation to the social environment. Specific social adaptability of the personality is of two types. The deviant appearance is a way of adapting a person to social circumstances, violating the values ​​and rules of behavior accepted in society. Pathological adaptability is the adaptation of an individual to social conditions, using pathological forms of behavior that have arisen by mental disorders.

Adaptability is a property due to which the functioning of regulatory mechanisms in society occurs. The more complex the civilization system in its functional meaning, the more developed its elements and subsystems, the stronger the need for effective means to smooth out the contradictions arising from the collision of interests of the whole and its elements. In such situations, there are some processes. Society requires its subsystems to adapt to the circumstances necessary for the development of civilization. Individuals, their groups and various communities are adaptations, and they are required to adapt behavior to the needs and interests of the civilization system.

Law acts as a regulatory mechanism and implements the adaptation of society and social objects (individuals, groups) to each other. His task is to balance and bring in functional conformity antagonistic forces within a single civilization system. The purpose of law is the search for compromises, mutually acceptable solutions that ensure dynamic equilibrium, and these solutions should allow the system to be a single cooperative whole that solves important common social tasks.

The law determines that social subjects should behave in a law-abiding, normative and adapted manner to the general civilizational context. Law is a type of adaptive mechanism due to the fact that it has norms and laws as effective means for adapting behavior to social conditions.

Principle of adaptability

When analyzing the adaptive qualities of an individual's activity, it is desirable to take into account that adaptability in psychology has long been viewed as a key characteristic expressing the individual as an exceptionally adaptable creature.

The principle of adaptability in psychology involves three options that are most common in various theories and approaches to the study of human behavior.

The first option is homeostatic. It is based on the idea of ​​homeostasis, which came from biological theories. According to this idea, all the reactions of the human body, passively adapting to the influences of the environment, are required to perform only one adaptive function - the return of body functions to balance. Such a variant of the principle of adaptability has been particularly actively used in reflexology, since its idea is that the activity of a person is aimed at maintaining the balance of his body and environment.

The homeostatic version of adaptability underlies many, at first glance, dissimilar psychological concepts: the theory of the personality of K. Lewin; psychoanalysis Z. Freud; L. Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance; in non-behavioral concepts.

In humanistic psychology, the homeostatic idea is opposed to the idea of ​​striving for tension, of disturbing imbalance.

In all the concepts presented, the individual is opposed to the social environment, human behavior is subject to a predetermined ultimate goal - finding balance with society, through achieving balance and mental harmony with oneself through the process of self-actualization, that is, accepting oneself as nature did, regardless of help or public interference.

The second option, the hedonistic principle of adaptability, assumes that any behavioral acts of a person are focused on increasing pleasure and reducing suffering, especially negative emotions. In everyday life, the hedonistic principle of adaptability is often encountered; examples of its manifestation can be observed when a person tries to adapt to a situation in such a way as to derive benefit and pleasure from it. However, there are facts that illustrate the presence of the actions of the individual, absolutely opposite to the inclination to attain pleasure and avoid suffering.

The hedonistic principle of adaptability; examples of it can be observed not only in a situation of self-sacrifice or heroism, but also in the daily work of a person, where most of the actions are directed not at the pleasure, but at the work purpose.

The third option - the pragmatic option is most often found in cognitive and functional psychology, where it acts as a judgment that any optimal human actions are directed towards maximizing the benefits and effects, using minimal costs.

The pragmatic principle of adaptability suggests that even if a decision made by a person seems unreasonable to him, he equally admits that such a decision is completely logical and reasonable. Any decision helps to optimize the psychological benefits, even if the person himself will then come in a sincere surprise to his own choice.

The pragmatic variant proceeds from the definition of personality, as a rational and logical person, and by the same thing, any human action, as rational and rational. From this it turns out that when analyzing the development and formation of a person in his individual life circumstances, various manifestations that do not fit into the framework of logical action are discarded, and unmotivated actions of a person are also not accepted.

Psychologists, anthropologists, and archaeologists try to find explanations for expressions of the essence of personality on its individual life path, in the history of society in rational adaptive formations - utilitarian effective activity and its products. With all this, the appropriate pragmatic version of the principle of adaptability of the image of a "rational person" is complemented, confirmed, and most of the non-utilitarian manifestations from the life of an individual and society are perceived as unworthy of attention, useless and strange.

All three variants of the principle of adaptability are based on the fact that in all three of them the behavior of a person is directed towards the originally envisaged goal. The submission of activity before a given norm or stipulated goal is a feature of human behavior, which is characterized as adaptive.