Psychology and Psychiatry

Border situation

Border situation - These are the circumstances in which there is a danger or a risk to the life of the individual. The concept of border situation was first introduced by the German psychiatrist and existentialist philosopher Karl Jaspers in 1935. There are borderline or critical circumstances in situations where the individual, at death or over him, has a feeling of guilt due to difficult life trials or experiencing severe stress.

Border situations according to Jaspers are a factor in the liberation of a person from all the conventions, norms, rules or generally accepted views that previously held him, thus the individual realizes his existential purpose.

The concepts of existentialism, the border situation have a direct connection with each other, because due to the borderline circumstances a person is able to come to a true awareness of his being, he can move away from ordinary consciousness.

The structure of a border situation consists of a person, his self, freedom and insight born as a result of it.

Psychology defines the notion of a border situation as a point where a person can completely change, reconsider his values, relations with the outside world and, above all, his views on life.

Everything that previously lived a person becomes for him somehow unreal, illusory. The individual at some stage begins to realize that all this prevented him from living a real life.

The borderline situation in philosophy

In philosophy, the border situation is viewed in an existential direction. Thanks to which a person can emerge from obedience to the objective world and begin to experience a true existence. In this case, the individual refuses the values, traditions and attitudes that prevail in society under circumstances that are dangerous to his life. Or it happens in a struggle, in torment or in a death state.

The structure of the border situation in philosophy consists of existential fear, fear of not finding one's place, purpose or meaning in life.

Border situations according to Jaspers are presented in the form of earthly disease, mortal danger, suffering and struggle, in which a person comes to realize himself as being.

Jean-Paul Sartre considers the frontier situation as “foul”, boredom, experiencing unreasonable expectations, foreboding of the futility of any undertakings.

Philosophy considers two concepts: existentialism is a borderline situation, as with the help of boundary conditions a person comes to existence.

The concept of a borderline situation, from a philosophical point of view, is the experience of the person of her place of life and the acceptance of all her problems, the direct connection of man with the world.

Border situations are not so defined in particular, as they play the role of a general state of affairs, these are circumstances that not only change with respect to conditions in their specific manifestations, but also belong to personal being. This includes the fact of a fundamental imprisonment in circumstances, and also counts the fact that a person thinks about his guilt, about what he deserves to die. The circumstances in which such thoughts arise appear to belong to critical situations.

Border situations do not change, belong to human existence and are not final. They do not overlook, a person does not see everything else behind them. They are like a wall, bumping into a person, is broken. But man does not need to change them, but only to clarify for himself, but it is impossible to comprehend them to the end.

The concept of "boundaries" define the framework of human existence, and these frameworks are embedded inside a person. These facets are what defines the person from the inside, the deepest phenomena of the being. This framework is observed in suffering, struggle, guilt, death, chance and other experiences, which are always determined by a person as an accidental phenomenon, which can be avoided, but it is this explanation that shows the flawedness of the existing order. In order to improve this order, the philosophers tried to invent utopias of an ideal world in which there was no place for suffering, struggle and various life problems. Therefore, considering the problems to be solved, they move away from the obligation to deal with them.

Existential philosophers assert that these moments can be experienced in their indivisibility, as something which cannot be avoided, as something decisive that belongs to a human being, without which a human being cannot be sufficiently defined.

Therefore, borderline circumstances are something that can be taken into account and taken into account in the act. But decisive in them is precisely the fact that, under the influence of reality, a person questions the basis of some occupation or action, they conceal inferiority, which is capable of shaking human life to its very foundations. A person in such circumstances is faced with an understanding of the deep anxiety of his being. Although they are completely different, there is something in common - they have no support that would stand before a certain experience or even a thought, they do not carry anything absolute and solid. Everything is in a permanent position at issue, everything is relative, split into antagonism.

In this sense, borderline situations are such circumstances, falling into which a person approaches the border of existence. Over time, they are encountered in the experience of each person, as a result of this, the sensation of reality is not harmonious and whole, it reveals contradictions that are not so easily resolved by means of thinking, and are also generally irremovable.

In life-threatening cases, the finiteness of human existence is cognized in the most precise way, because such circumstances have boundaries that make it impossible to harmoniously comprehend human life and the world. Only in the most radical border situation, that is, death, are all the ideas described possible, because its meaning is of great and direct significance for the experience of existential existence. Due to the fact that border situations are opposed to any complacency in the closed and harmonious image of the world, they keep a person in an initiative state, do not allow him to relax, because of anxiety and the search for meaning, it determines human behavior.

Border situations cannot be fully explained and understood, their actual meaning is beyond the control of reason, but they make the vulnerability of human existence evident. Critical conditions make it possible to see how lost human existence is. But human existence initially exists in the position of being lost, it cannot be compared with existential existence, essentially using our own strength and impulses. It must be forced to this, and this happens in experience, where personal existence is plunged into a borderline situation.

Only on the experience of experiencing extreme conditions does a person form the concept of existential existence. Only on the basis of a border situation can there arise a tangible acuteness contained in the concept of existential existence. Sometimes a person is lucky once or twice and he avoids borderline situations, having gone into the bustle of everyday existence, but if one is well aware of this, then one can see how existential existence is realized here. A person becomes truly himself when he enters a borderline situation, is not afraid to "look into her eyes."

The concept of borderline situation is considered by psychology as the designation of the experience of existential fear and anxiety in the face of the unknown. Since philosophy and psychology have a close relationship, psychology also insists that only in life-threatening circumstances a person is able to know his true being, he becomes himself. It is fear that reveals the connection of a person with the world and makes him free from everyday norms, rules, and attitudes. In fear, a person cognizes his entire existence, and all urgent matters and projects seem to him so conditional in time. Even when it seems to a person that he is aware of his purpose, and that he thinks that he loves life, he still finds true meaning only in the face of death.

The concept of borderline situation is of great importance in the existential concept, because experiencing these conditions and existential is one and the same. In the process of existential man shows his self, "I", which in turn manifests his freedom. It is in freedom that the being of the self is hidden. Since man was able to comprehend himself on the basis of freedom, he thereby comprehended his transcendence. Only in experiencing the feeling of helplessness can a person be able to know his being and become free. This is experienced in extreme conditions, where external circumstances lead to death, and in situations where a person loses a loved one, experiences a sense of guilt about him, or is afraid of real life, is afraid to accept himself and everything that happens.