Psychology and Psychiatry

Adaptation of young children to the conditions of preschool

Adaptation of young children to the conditions of preschool - This is quite a difficult and disturbing process in most cases. Entering a nursery changes the usual rhythm of the parents' life. They feel very anxious because they are used to the fact that their children are always under their control. Those, in turn, are also experiencing stress, because at home they are accustomed to the same routine, feeding method, and sleep patterns. And at one point, all this changes: parents can not see half a day, the food is completely different, the mode is different.

The child’s ability to adapt to everything new - the mode of the day, new people - determines the further formation and development, a prosperous life in the preschool institution and in the family. It is the adaptation of young children to the conditions of preschool educational institutions that allows to eliminate the problems that arise and form the adaptability of the children to everything new.

An important role is played by social adaptation of young children, since preschool is the first social institution where they gain experience in constant communication with their peers and other people, this is where the foundations of the communicative style are laid. Therefore, an environment should be created for the addiction of children, given their age.

Adaptation of young children to the conditions of pre-school education depends on their physiological and personal qualities, family relationships, conditions of stay in a preschool institution.

Adaptation in young children to the conditions of preschool education, its pace and formation is different. In order for this process to take place more productively, it is necessary to maintain contact between parents and caregivers; both parties must have a desire to cooperate, to go towards each other. If the period of adaptation of the child to the garden passes safely, then the baby will be calm.

Adaptation to preschool children of early age

At an early age, adaptation to the conditions of preschool educational institutions goes through several stages. At the first stage of adaptation, information is collected about the features and needs of the baby. When parents first attend preschool, they are introduced to the charter, the parent contract. Parents are also introduced to the teachers and students of the group. An individual visit schedule is being developed. Primary diagnosis is carried out.

At an early age during adaptation there is often a lack of reflection. This applies in two ways, since it simultaneously simplifies the situation, but also - complicates the diagnostic process and the formulation of the main problem of an early age.

Psychocorrectional work is carried out on experiences in the early age period, behind the “here and now” position and with emphasis on the consolidation of positive processes that manifest themselves in the process of remedial work.

At the second stage, the concluding diagnosis of the characteristics of adaptation of an early age, a comparative analysis of the values ​​of the primary and concluding diagnostics is also carried out.

When the adaptation of young children to preschool ends, there is a medical-psychological-pedagogical consultation with an expanded composition, which analyzes the results of work during adaptation, its positive aspects and problem situations, summarizes, introduces changes to the organization plan of the adaptation process and discusses follow-up activities on the specifics of the adaptation of pupils.

In order to achieve rapid adaptability to new circumstances, a new regime, certain conditions must be created for young children to adapt to preschool. Purposeful organization of children's life activity should be carried out in entering into the unfamiliar environment of a preschool institution; it would have an impact on the formation of a positive attitude towards preschool education.

Adaptation conditions for young children in pre-school should be coordinated on both sides - from parents and from caregivers. If caregivers have pedagogical knowledge about which conditions for the adaptation of young children in pre-primary educational institutions will be better, then parents should take this into account in order to make the conditions for home and kindergarten as similar as possible.

Almost all the kids, entering the kindergarten, cry, a little smaller part behaves more confidently, it is clear from them that they are not particularly worried about this. They exactly perform all the actions of the educator. It is easier for such children to part with their relatives, and they adapt more easily.

Others go with their parents together in a group. This behavior shows that babies need to communicate. They are afraid to remain without a mom or dad in a group, so the caregiver may allow parents to remain. Feeling at this moment the support of a loved one, the crumb begins to behave more relaxed and confident, he begins to be interested in toys. If parents are always near the baby, then he will not be able to go through the process of adaptation and further socialize.

The behavior of babies is often completely different, because they all had different conditions of development, they had different needs before they were enrolled in preschool. Of particular importance is the psychological readiness of children at an early age for kindergarten, it is one of the outcomes of the development of the preschooler's psyche.

Difficulties of adaptation of young children to the conditions of preschool institutions may arise in involvement in the process of communication, which is not of interest to them. Parents should talk a lot with children, introduce them to peers outside kindergarten, so that they are ready for intensive communication.

Non-observance of basic pedagogical rules in upbringing can lead to violations of their intellectual sphere and physical maturation. Concerning this, negative behaviors are formed.

Adaptation of young children to the conditions of pre-school has three phases. The first is the acute phase, characterized by an unstable somatic and mental state. Often, babies decrease in weight, suffer from respiratory diseases, suffer from sleep disorders, decrease in speech development is observed.

The second phase of adaptation among pupils of an early age is subacute, normal behavior is typical here, all progress is weakened and fixed against the background of a slightly slowed pace of development, in particular mental development, relative to average age norms.

The third phase of the adaptation of young children to the conditions of preschool education - compensation, the pace of development increases and closer to the end of the year, the pace of development is delayed.

In order for the transition from the family mode to the DOW regime to be successful during the adaptation period, it is necessary that it be carried out gradually. Of great importance is the coordination of self-esteem and claims of crumbs with their true capabilities and environmental conditions.

Adaptation of children in early childhood kindergarten has three degrees. Easy adaptation at an early age is characterized by a relatively short stay in a negative emotional state and mood. Young children are prone to sleep disorders, they have no appetite, do not want to play with their peers. In less than a month, this state is normalized. Mostly joyful, stable condition, active communication with adults and other pupils of early age.

Adaptation to preschool children of early age of moderate severity is expressed in a slower normalization of the emotional state. In the first month of adaptation, diseases often occur, mainly respiratory infections. Such diseases last from a week to ten days and end without complications. The mental state is unstable, any novelty contributes to negative emotional reactions. With the help of an adult, children are more interested in cognitive activity and are more likely to get used to new conditions.

Severe adaptation: the emotional state stabilizes very slowly, it can last for several months. In a difficult period of adaptation, aggressive and destructive reactions are characteristic. All this affects health and development. There are several reasons for the difficult degree of adaptation of an early age: the lack of a regime in the family that would coincide with the order in kindergarten, inability to play with a toy, peculiar habits, lack of hygiene skills, inability to communicate with new people.

Adaptation of young children to DOW conditions can be easy, quick and practically painless, but can be difficult. It is impossible to immediately determine exactly what it will be, it depends on the influence of many different factors: from the conditions of the gestation period to the individual properties of the central nervous system. Only an experienced pediatrician can guess what the adaptation of a young child will be, and what difficulties may arise in its course.

Regardless of the forecast, one way or another, negative symptoms will always occur, at the level of the whole organism. But such deviations are an insignificant part of what may be present in the behavior of young children. They are under a strong mental strain that haunts them everywhere. Therefore, children are under stress or are a step away from it. If the stress is minimal, then the shifts of the adaptation period will pass smoothly. If the stress is captured completely, then the child will most likely get sick, this happens during a difficult adaptation.

The mental state also changes markedly. After enrollment in preschool institutions, the kids change dramatically in a different direction, their own parents often do not recognize them. For example, if earlier the baby was quiet and balanced, now he has started to roll up tantrums and act up. He lost the self-service skills that he previously used. This process is called regression, it shows a reaction to stress. The skills lost during the regress return after some time and everything is normalized by the end of the adaptation phase.

Social adaptation of young children is often very difficult, because fear is a constant companion of this period. They are afraid of unfamiliar adults and peers, they do not understand why they should obey other people's adults, they prefer to play themselves than with others. All this forms in them closeness from contacts with others, introversion. Other kids also do not really want to make contact with such a child, because they see how he is afraid of everything that surrounds him and only calls his mother, who can protect him. If the moment comes when the crumb finds contact with other babies, then this means the adaptation period is over.

Kindergarten is the place where the experience of collective communication takes place for the first time. New circumstances, new acquaintances - all this is not immediately perceived. Most babies react with crying. Some can easily enter the group, but at home they cry in the evenings, others go to kindergarten, but just before the entrance they start crying and acting up.

The manner of education in the family plays a significant role in adapting to new circumstances. Often it is in the family that the reason for low social adaptation lies. Personality is formed more in the family. Also of great importance is the structure of the family, its cultural level of development, compliance with moral rules, moral laws, the attitude of parents.

The family has a particularly strong influence on the formation of the “I-concept”, since the family is the only social sphere for children who are not in preschool. This influence of the family lasts for some time and in later life.

The child has no personal experience of the past, does not know the criteria for self-esteem. He is guided only by the experience of surrounding people, their assessment, the information that he receives from his family and, for the first time in years, he develops self-esteem.

The impact of the environment also forms and consolidates the self-esteem obtained in the family. Self-conscious crumbs, able to successfully and quickly cope with the failures arising in front of them, at home or in kindergarten. They can also adapt faster. Kids with low self-esteem are always in a state of doubt, it is enough for them once to experience failure to lose confidence in themselves, and this is what hinders their adaptation process.