Adaptation - this is the adaptation of the organism to the circumstances and conditions of the world. Adaptation of a person is carried out through his genetic, physiological, behavioral and personal characteristics. With adaptation, the human behavior is regulated accordingly to the parameters of the external environment.

The peculiarities of human adaptation are contained in the fact that he must achieve simultaneous equilibrium with environmental conditions, achieve harmony in the "man-environment" relationship, adapt to other individuals, who also try to adapt to the environment and its inhabitants.

Adaptation concept. There are two approaches to the analysis of the phenomenon of adaptation. According to the first approach, adaptation is a property of a living self-regulating organism, which ensures the constancy of characteristics under the influence of environmental conditions on it, which is achieved by developed adaptation abilities.

For the second approach, adaptation is a dynamic formation, the process of habituation of an individual to the circumstances of the environment.

Since a person is a biosocial system, the problem of adaptation should be analyzed according to three levels: physiological, psychological and social. All three levels are connected to each other, act on each other, establish an integral characteristic of the overall functioning of body systems. Such an integral characteristic appears as a dynamic formation and is defined as the functional state of the organism. Without the term "functional state" it is impossible to talk about the phenomenon of adaptation.

Adaptability in situations in which there are no barriers to success, is carried out through constructive mechanisms. These mechanisms include cognitive processes, goal setting, and conformal behavior. When the situation is problematic and saturated with external and internal barriers, the process of adaptation proceeds through the protective mechanisms of the individual. Due to constructive mechanisms, a person can show an adequate response to changes in social life circumstances, using the opportunity to assess the situation, analyze, synthesize and predict possible events.

There are such mechanisms of human adaptation: social intelligence - the ability to perceive complex relationships, relationships between objects of the social environment; social imagination - the ability to understand experience, mentally determine fate, realizing oneself now, one’s own resources and capabilities, placing oneself within the framework of the current stage of society; realistic aspiration of consciousness.

Personality adaptation consists of a system of defense mechanisms, due to which anxiety is reduced, the unity of the “I-concept” and the stability of self-esteem are ensured, the correspondence between the ideas about the world and about the person in particular is preserved.

Such psychological defense mechanisms are distinguished: denial - ignoring unwanted information or mental trauma episodes; regression - the manifestation of human infantile behavioral strategies; reaction formation - a change in irrational impulses, emotional states to the opposite; repression - "erasing" from the memory and consciousness of painful memories; repression is almost the same repression, but more conscious.

The above-described basic defense mechanisms for the adaptation of the personality are still additional, they are considered more mature: a projection is ascribing to someone qualities, deeds that are inherent in the personality itself, but they are not aware of them; identification - identifying oneself with some real or imagined character, attributing to him his qualities; rationalization - the desire to explain the act, interpreting the events in such a way as to reduce its traumatic impact on the person; sublimation - the transformation of instinctive energy into socially acceptable forms of behavior and activity; humor - the desire to reduce psychological stress, using humorous expressions or stories.

In psychology, there is the concept of an adaptation barrier, it means a kind of boundary in the parameters of the external environment, beyond which the adaptation of the individual is no longer adequate. Properties of the adaptation barrier are expressed individually. They are influenced by biological environmental factors, the constitutional type of personality, social factors, individual psychological factors of a person that determine the adaptive capabilities of the individual. Such personal characteristics are self-esteem, value system, volitional sphere and others.

The success of adaptation is determined by the full functioning of the physiological and mental level of the individual. These systems are located and function in conjunction. There is a component that ensures this interrelation of two levels and the normal activity of a person is carried out. Such a component may have a dual structure: mental and physiological element. This component in the regulation of human adaptation are emotions.

Adaptation factors

The external environment has many natural factors and factors created by the person himself (material and social environment), under their influence personality adaptation is formed.

Natural factors of adaptation: components of wildlife, climatic conditions, cases of natural disasters.

The material environment includes such adaptation factors: environmental objects; artificial elements (machinery, equipment); living environment; work environment.

The social environment has the following factors of adaptation: the state society, ethnos, the conditions of the modern city, the social progress associated with it.

The most adverse environmental factors are considered - man-made (man-made). This is a whole complex of factors to which a person needs to adapt, since every day he lives in these conditions (man-made electromagnetic pollution, the structure of motorways, garbage dumps, etc.).

The rate of adaptation regarding the above factors, is individual for each person. Someone can adapt faster, this process is very difficult for someone. The ability of a person to actively adapt to the environment is called adaptability. Thanks to this property, a person is much easier given some kind of travel, travel, getting into extreme conditions.

According to one theory, the success of the process of adaptability is influenced by two groups of factors: subjective and environmental. Subjective factors include: demographic characteristics (age and sex) and psycho-physiological characteristics of a person.

Environmental factors include: the conditions and circumstances of life, the nature and mode of activity, the conditions of the social environment. Demographic factors, in particular, the age of a person has a two-way influence on the successful adaptation process. If you look on the one hand, the age of a young man provides him with more opportunities, and in old age these opportunities decrease. But, with age, a person acquires the experience of adaptation, he finds a "common language" with the external environment.

In another psychological theory, four psychological factors of personality adaptation are distinguished. Cognitive factor includes cognitive abilities and specific features of cognitive processes. The factor of emotional response includes features of the emotional sphere. Practical activity is a factor in the conditions and characteristics of the individual. Personality motivation is a special factor in personal adaptation. For example, if a person is dominated by the motivation to achieve success over the motivation to avoid failure, then successful adaptation is formed and key activities become more effective. The nature of adaptation is also affected by the relevance of the motivational personality core to the goals and conditions of the activity. Motive is a factor of adaptation and with its help mediates the impact of external circumstances on the individual.

Types of adaptation

There are four types of adaptation: biological, social, ethnic and psychological.

Biological adaptation of the individual is an adaptation to the circumstances of the surrounding world, which has arisen through evolution. Biological adaptation is manifested in the modification of the human body to environmental conditions. This fact underlies the development of criteria for health and disease. Health is the condition in which the body adapts to the environment as much as possible. When the adaptation process is delayed, the ability to adapt falls and the person becomes ill. If the body is completely unable to adapt to the necessary environmental conditions, then this means its maladjustment.

Social adaptation of an individual is the process of adaptation of one person or group to a social society, which is the conditions by which life goals are embodied. This includes getting used to the learning process, to work, to relationships with different people, to the cultural environment, possible conditions for recreation and entertainment.

A person can adapt passively, that is, without changing anything in his life or actively, changing the conditions of his own life activity. Naturally, the second way is more effective than the first, because if one hopes only on the will of God, one can live all the time waiting for changes and never wait for them, therefore it is necessary to take the fate into one's own hands.

The problem of human adaptation to the social environment can be expressed in various forms: from tensions with the work or study team to unwillingness to work or study in this environment.

Ethnic adaptation is a type of social adaptation, which includes the adaptation of ethnic groups to the peculiarities of the environment of their settlement from social, weather conditions.

The problem of the adaptation of ethnic minorities is the racist attitude towards them of the indigenous people and social discrimination.

Psychological adaptation of the personality is noted in any form of adaptation. Psychological adaptability is an important social criterion by which an assessment of an individual is given in the sphere of relationships, in the professional field. Psychological adaptation of an individual depends on various changeable factors, such as, for example, personality traits, social environment. Psychological adaptability has such an aspect as the ability to switch from one social role to another, and this happens quite justifiably and adequately. In the opposite case, we are talking about maladaptation or mental health disorders.

Personal readiness to adapt to environmental changes, adequate mental assessment characterize a high level of adaptability. Such a person is ready for difficulties and is able to overcome them. The basis of any adaptation is the acceptance of the current situation, the understanding of its irreversibility, the ability to draw conclusions from it and the ability to change one’s attitude towards it.

If a person cannot satisfy his actual needs, as a result of insufficiency of psychological or physical resources, then the balance of “person-environment” relations can be upset, which in turn can cause anxiety to a person. Anxiety can provoke fear and anxiety in a person, and can serve as a protective mechanism, to perform a protective or motivational function. The emergence of anxiety enhances behavioral activity, alters forms of behavior, or involves the mechanisms of intrapsychic adaptation. Anxiety can also destroy insufficiently adaptive behavioral stereotypes, replacing them with adequate forms of behavior.

The adaptation process is not always adequate. Sometimes it is affected by some negative factors and then the process is disturbed, unacceptable forms of behavior begin to form.

There are two types of unacceptable forms of adaptation: deviant and pathological. The deviant form of adaptive behavior combines in itself the forms and methods of action that ensure that individuals satisfy their needs with a method that is not permitted by the group.

Features of adaptation in the deviant form are expressed in two types of behavior: non-conformist and innovative. Non-conformist type of deviant behavior often provokes group conflicts. The innovative type of deviant behavior is expressed in the creation of new ways to solve problem situations.

Pathological form of adaptation is carried out through pathological mechanisms and forms of behavior, leading to the emergence of psychotic and neurotic syndromes.

Together with the pathological forms there is a maladjustment. Disadaptation is a violation of the interaction between a person and the environment, which is accompanied by conflicts between individuals and within the personality itself. It is also defined as behavior inappropriate to the norms and requirements of the environment. Disadaptation can be diagnosed by certain criteria: a person has a violation of professional activity, problems in interpersonal relations, emotional reactions that go beyond the limits of the norm (depression, aggression, anxiety, isolation, closeness, and others).

Disadaptation of personality in duration is: temporary, steady situational maladjustment and overall sustainable. Temporary maladjustment occurs when a person enters a new situation for himself, to which one must necessarily adapt (enrollment in school, entry into a new position, birth of children, unexpected and undesirable changes in the regime, etc.).

Disadaptation of a stable-situational form occurs when it is impossible to find adequate ways to adapt in unusual conditions when solving a problem situation (at work, in family relations).

Personality maladjustment can occur if a person has experienced a difficult, traumatizing situation; is under stress; survived an extreme traumatic situation in which he participated directly or witnessed it, such situations are connected with death, its potential probability or the real threat to life; experiencing the sufferings of one’s own or other people, while feeling a sense of helplessness, fear or horror. Often, such situations cause post-traumatic stress disorder. Personality maladjustment also occurs in the event of its unsuccessful incorporation into a new social environment for it or because of problems encountered in personal and interpersonal relations.

The state of maladaptation is accompanied by violations in human behavior, as a result of which conflicts arise, which often have no serious reasons or obvious reasons. The person refuses to fulfill his duties, at work he shows inadequate reactions about the orders of his superiors, which had never happened before. He actively expresses his protest to others, tries his best to counteract them. Previously, the individual has always been guided by social values ​​and acceptable norms, thanks to which the social behavior of people is regulated.

Deviant deviant non-normative behavior is a form of manifestation of the disorganization of a person or group in society, showing a discrepancy between the expectations and moral and legal requirements of society. Such a departure from the ordinary, normative state is associated with its change and the conditions of activity and the performance of a specific action. This action is called an act. Such an act plays a significant role in the adaptation process. With its help, a person is able to explore the environment, test himself, test his capabilities, resources, identify his qualities, positive and negative aspects of an individual, features, intentions, choose ways to achieve goals.

Deviant behavior is most often formed during adolescence. Just at this period, a person is very receptive, it forms its attitude towards the world, towards people, this influences its adaptation in the close environment and in the social environment, and in general. A teenager considers himself entitled to personally choose how to behave, and he often considers the rules and laws established by society to be intrusive and tries to counteract them. Negative deviation is observed in such manifestations as lies, rude and impudent behavior, laziness, aggressiveness, the tendency to often arrange fights, smoking, missing classes, alcohol, drugs and drugs.

There is also a positive deviation, it is revealed in the desire of the individual to experiment, to study something, to identify their capabilities. Often this is manifested in creative activity, in the ability to create a creation of art and the desire to realize their ideas. Positive adaptation is more favorable in relation to the adaptation of the individual in the social environment.