Adaptation - this is the adaptation of the organism to the circumstances and conditions of the world. Adaptation of a person is carried out through his genetic, physiological, behavioral and personal characteristics. With adaptation, the human behavior is regulated accordingly to the parameters of the external environment.
The peculiarities of human adaptation are contained in the fact that he must achieve simultaneous equilibrium with environmental conditions, achieve harmony in the "man-environment" relationship, adapt to other individuals, who also try to adapt to the environment and its inhabitants.
Adaptation concept. There are two approaches to the analysis of the phenomenon of adaptation. According to the first approach, adaptation is a property of a living self-regulating organism, which ensures the constancy of characteristics under the influence of environmental conditions on it, which is achieved by developed adaptation abilities.
For the second approach, adaptation is a dynamic formation, the process of habituation of an individual to the circumstances of the environment.
Since a person is a biosocial system, the problem of adaptation should be analyzed according to three levels: physiological, psychological and social. All three levels are connected to each other, act on each other, establish an integral characteristic of the overall functioning of body systems. Such an integral characteristic appears as a dynamic formation and is defined as the functional state of the organism. Without the term "functional state" it is impossible to talk about the phenomenon of adaptation.
Adaptability in situations in which there are no barriers to success, is carried out through constructive mechanisms. These mechanisms include cognitive processes, goal setting, and conformal behavior. When the situation is problematic and saturated with external and internal barriers, the process of adaptation proceeds through the protective mechanisms of the individual. Due to constructive mechanisms, a person can show an adequate response to changes in social life circumstances, using the opportunity to assess the situation, analyze, synthesize and predict possible events.
There are such mechanisms of human adaptation: social intelligence - the ability to perceive complex relationships, relationships between objects of the social environment; social imagination - the ability to understand experience, mentally determine fate, realizing oneself now, one’s own resources and capabilities, placing oneself within the framework of the current stage of society; realistic aspiration of consciousness.
Personality adaptation consists of a system of defense mechanisms, due to which anxiety is reduced, the unity of the “I-concept” and the stability of self-esteem are ensured, the correspondence between the ideas about the world and about the person in particular is preserved.
Such psychological defense mechanisms are distinguished: denial - ignoring unwanted information or mental trauma episodes; regression - the manifestation of human infantile behavioral strategies; reaction formation - a change in irrational impulses, emotional states to the opposite; repression - "erasing" from the memory and consciousness of painful memories; repression is almost the same repression, but more conscious.
The above-described basic defense mechanisms for the adaptation of the personality are still additional, they are considered more mature: a projection is ascribing to someone qualities, deeds that are inherent in the personality itself, but they are not aware of them; identification - identifying oneself with some real or imagined character, attributing to him his qualities; rationalization - the desire to explain the act, interpreting the events in such a way as to reduce its traumatic impact on the person; sublimation - the transformation of instinctive energy into socially acceptable forms of behavior and activity; humor - the desire to reduce psychological stress, using humorous expressions or stories.
In psychology, there is the concept of an adaptation barrier, it means a kind of boundary in the parameters of the external environment, beyond which the adaptation of the individual is no longer adequate. Properties of the adaptation barrier are expressed individually. They are influenced by biological environmental factors, the constitutional type of personality, social factors, individual psychological factors of a person that determine the adaptive capabilities of the individual. Such personal characteristics are self-esteem, value system, volitional sphere and others.
The success of adaptation is determined by the full functioning of the physiological and mental level of the individual. These systems are located and function in conjunction. There is a component that ensures this interrelation of two levels and the normal activity of a person is carried out. Such a component may have a dual structure: mental and physiological element. This component in the regulation of human adaptation are emotions.