Psychology and Psychiatry

Psychological barrier

Psychological barrier - This is a special state of mind, in which the individual can not implement certain actions. Such conditions occur due to inadequately acute negative psychological experiences regarding actual problems or specific situations. Subjectively, psychological barriers are experienced by a person as insurmountable difficulties in establishing relationships and communication links and are accompanied by self-satisfaction, self-acceptance, low self-esteem, low level of aspirations.

The presence of such characteristics leads to intrapersonal psychological conflicts, fear, guilt, anxiety, various complexes, in particular an inferiority complex.

Types of psychological barriers: communication barriers, individual psychological and social psychological barriers of the individual.

In communication distinguish psychological barriers of communication and semantic barriers of the individual. Psychological barriers to communication are directly related to the difficulties that arise when a person organizes his communicative interaction.

Semantic psychological barrier occurs due to the misunderstanding of people who fill one event with different meanings. In every sphere of human interaction, there is the possibility of the emergence of psychological semantic barriers. It is possible to single out those relationships in which they most often arise - this is a semantic psychological barrier in relations between children and parents, a wife and a husband, a leader and a subordinate.

Individual psychological barriers of a person are manifested in his self-doubt, excessive shyness, tightness, fear, anxiety.

Overcoming psychological barriers occurs with the help of a psychologist, passing special trainings or self-development.

Social psychological barriers of the personality are a special condition that depends on the psychological characteristics of the personality itself, but to a greater extent on the specific situation of its life. So, a person’s bad mood, caused by a negative coincidence, can become a psychological barrier that deforms the person’s attention and understanding in a certain situation of communication with a partner.

Psychological barriers to communication

The psychological barrier is a state of passivity of the subject, which prevents them from performing the necessary actions. This state enhances negative feelings and attitudes (guilt, fear, anxiety, low self-esteem, shame).

A communication barrier is designated as a clash of opposing oriented tendencies in the consciousness of one individual, in interpersonal relationships of individuals or entire groups, associated with negative emotional experiences.

The psychological barrier in the relationship causes inefficient interaction of people and the attendant conflicts. Psychological factors of the emergence of such conflicts lie in the individual characteristics of a person, such as temperament, manner of communication, the difference in the emotional states of interlocutors.

The barrier of temperament appears when two people meet with completely opposite types of nervous system, different ways of responding to the environment. Communication of people with different temperaments can form a psychological barrier in a relationship or lead to conflict.

Another reason for the formation of psychological barriers in relationships is the accentuation of personality. Accentuations contain positive and negative qualities and determine the style of human behavior. Since accentuation is an extreme expression of a person’s personality traits, each type is capable of causing conflicts.

The way of behavior and the manner of communication formed on the basis of temperament, character and accentuation can create psychological barriers to communication between people with different manners of communication. Therefore, each person should know about the different types of subjects of communication, and be able to behave correctly with them.

The subject of the dominant type always refers to the person, not thinking about the feasibility of communication. For him, the main thing is that he became the initiator of communication, influences others and suppresses the activity of partners in the communicative process. This is observed in raising the voice, interrupting, repeating one information many times. In dealing with such a person, you must calmly adhere to an independent point of view.

The non-dominant type of the subject of communication, as opposed to the dominant type, is afraid to take the initiative to speak or even to express their opinion, to share knowledge. The non-dominant type is too compliant, it will never kill a partner and will feel guilty if this happens. In dealing with this type of need to be careful, to encourage him to openness, give him the opportunity to express themselves.

The mobile type of the subject of communication vividly comes into contact, easily switches attention, his speech is hastily, he personally sets the pace of communication, overlaps the interlocutor. During the conversation, such a person actively expresses his opinion about what the interlocutor is saying, inserts his own remarks and statements. When communicating with a mobile type, it is necessary to remember that it is very difficult to discuss serious topics with an analysis of the essence of the issues raised for a long time.

Rigid type of the subject of communication is characterized by the fact that he is not immediately included in communication. First, he studies his partner, trying to understand his intentions. He is always very attentive, expresses thoughts in detail, his speech is slow, he carefully selects expressions. He does not tolerate being interrupted or in a hurry. It is very difficult for impatient personalities to communicate with a rigid type. In communicating with him it is necessary to avoid haste and inattention. It is advisable to adhere to the rules of etiquette, if communication with this person really matters.

The extraverted subject type is interoperable. Regardless of mood, he is always focused on communication. An extroverted type is very inquisitive, he is always interested in his interlocutor, shows attention and sympathy to him, and in turn awaits a reciprocal attitude. Communication with an extroverted type is organized very easily, since he himself sets the positive mood of communication.

The introverted type of subject of relations is characterized by the lack of initiative of the external dialogue, it focuses on auto-communication. Such a person is shy, he does not like to talk in big companies. It is better to talk one-on-one with him, then there is an opportunity to talk a little, but for intensive communication it is better to gradually introduce such a person into the conversation.

Focusing on the characteristics of various types of subjects of a relationship and knowing the approach to each of them, a person ensures the rear of possible psychological barriers in relations.

The emotional state of the individual also has a great influence on the effectiveness of the process of communication, since emotions are a regulator of a person’s mental activity and behavior. Emotions can be both positive and negative. There may be various types of psychological barriers caused by negative emotions.

The barrier of suffering is caused by tragic events, pain, low self-esteem or dissatisfaction with oneself. Due to the experience of suffering in humans decreases the level of sociability.

The barrier of anger arises from a person experiencing the emotions of anger. Such a person is able to behave inadequately, speak insulting words or show aggressive actions. Naturally, an aggressive person is afraid or trying to avoid communicating with him, because they do not know what to expect from him.

The barrier of disgust appears as a result of a person’s violation of basic norms of ethical behavior or from a person’s perception of the interlocutor’s appearance. Disgust and disgust can provoke: dirty clothes, shoes, careless actions and gestures of a partner, repulsive acts (fingers in the mouth, nose, ears, blowing your nose), violation of personal space, the smell of alcohol, unpleasant odors from the body of the interlocutor and the like. If a person has certain physical defects, which he cannot change or hide, then people get used to it over time, but people cannot so quickly violate the rules of body hygiene, therefore they often do not even enter into communication with such a person.

The barrier of contempt arises when the interlocutor evokes negative emotions by his behavior. Such behavior is immoral acts, prejudices, cowardice, betrayal, stinginess and others.

The barrier of fear appears as a result of communication with a person who instills a sense of fear. Such a person is avoided, especially trying not to find himself alone with him or not to catch his eye.

The barrier of shame or guilt is formed as a result of understanding the irrelevance of what is happening and, as a reaction to immoderate praise, criticism, flattery, as the fear of being embarrassing from realizing one’s guilt. In such cases, the person’s face turns red, the voice changes, he leaves the gaze and the interlocutor’s communication.

The barrier of a bad mood occurs as a result of the lack of mood of one of the interlocutors. The negative attitude of a person influences his interlocutor and discourages the desire to communicate with him.

The speech barrier is formed due to the person’s making speech errors in the conversation. Constant distortion of words, the admission of speech errors in the construction of the message, the wrong choice of words, weak argumentation - these factors can drown out the meaning of the words of the speaker, because the interlocutor will focus only on "interference."

The social and psychological barriers of the individual are the human condition under which spiritual and mental resources are blocked and their realization in the process of life activity. As a personal property, the socio-psychological barrier is a permanent feature, formed as a result of the characteristics of a person’s character. Increased wariness, suspicion, distrust of others are the socio-psychological barrier in the process of communication.

Social psychological barriers of the person perform the function of protection from the destructive impact. For the first time, the concept of defense mechanisms was introduced by Sigmund Freud, later he described them as a means of weakening the internal psychological conflict generated by the collision of instinctive impulses and demands of the social environment.

Even before Sigmund Freud described his mechanisms, his daughter, Anna Freud, attempted to create an integral theoretical system of defense mechanisms. In its interpretation, these mechanisms are aimed at weakening the psychological conflicts of the individual, enhancing its adaptation to the environment and self-regulation, and providing psychological protection for the individual against the influence of stressogenic factors that can upset the internal balance. They are also psychological barriers in an adequate perception and understanding of the essence of traumatic factors by a person.

Replacing or suppressing the signals of the threat, thereby maintaining internal stability, these mechanisms are psychological barriers because they prevent a person from having an adequate assessment of these threatening signals and the accompanying situation, which requires a restructuring of the behavior and mental state of the individual. These barriers are also a means of controlling the degree of conformity or inconsistency of an individual’s intentions regarding social norms.

The system of protection of the psyche is understood as a mechanism to maintain the psychological integrity and stability of the model of the world, which blocks information that does not correspond to the person’s ideas about the world. Sometimes this mechanism interferes with the formation of new solutions if they contradict existing ideas.

Socio-psychological barriers are more needed to the individual, who has a weak nervous system, increased susceptibility and sensitivity.

The psychological barrier protects the world of a person from extremes of its internal state and external conditions of life, from destructive stressful situations and exposure to dangerous temptations.

The action of the psychological barrier has two sides. On the one, he protects the human world from internal conflicts and negative external influences, but on the other, it slows down, restrains emotional reactivity, reduces the speed of intellectual processes and the general mobility of a person, which in turn leads to limited interaction with the social environment.

How to overcome the psychological barrier

Focusing on the theoretical basis of the characteristics of the psychological barrier, it becomes easier for a person to invent and develop various ways out of the situation created by the barrier. There is also a general strategy for overcoming psychological barriers and conflicts caused by them.

Overcoming psychological barriers has a scheme in which there are several steps. First of all, it is necessary to assess the current situation, determine its orientation and all possible consequences. Next, you need to identify benchmarks for the causes of occurrence, to consider and study the proposed ways out of the situation relative to its causes. And finally, determine the necessary affective actions to solve the exit from the problem situation caused by the psychological barrier.

Actions aimed at eliminating psychological barriers adjust the process of communication and lead to affective joint activities. A large role in overcoming psychological barriers has a motivational orientation of a person.

Overcoming psychological barriers in a relationship requires, first of all, an assessment of the situation, an explanation of the causes of the psychological barrier, and then action in accordance with the intended strategy. In this case, the main principle should be used: cooperation and mutual understanding, taking into account the individual psychological characteristics of the interlocutors. Since psychological barriers are capable of generating an emotional state in which it is hard to think, draw conclusions, creatively solve problems, it is necessary to resolve emerging conflict situations.

Overcoming psychological barriers will not be effective if you do not adhere to the following rules. It must be remembered that during a conflict a person is guided not by reason, but by emotions, which often lead to affect, and in the state of affect, consciousness is turned off, and the person becomes unable to answer for his actions.

In order to avoid psychological barriers to communication, you need to adhere to a multi-alternative approach, insist on your proposal, but not reject the idea of ​​a partner, present him with advantageous positions of your idea and understand his proposal.

In order to prevent the psychological communication barrier, one needs to realize how important the resolution of the conflict is, and think what could be the case if there is no solution. Thus, the main aspect is transferred from the relations between the partners to the problem question that has arisen between them.

If the interviewee is irritated or aggressive, you need to reduce internal stress. If you lose control of the situation, you need to do what is possible in any situation and does not require extra costs - shut up. In a short time, the partner will reorganize, calm down, and it will be possible to continue to have a calm conversation.

In the process of communication you need to focus on the positive traits of a person, the best that is in him. If a person sees an attentive attitude towards himself with signs of sympathy, then in response he also wants to be polite, and he tunes into a positive wave. Creating a favorable positive atmosphere, the person thereby minimizes the possibility of a psychological communication barrier.

To understand the intentions of a person, you must try to put yourself in his place. No need to blame the other subject in the current problem situation, which concerns both individuals, you must recognize your share of responsibility. It is undesirable to exaggerate your merits or demonstrate superiority over the interlocutor, this will only set him up more aggressively, then you can forget about the productive conversation.

If the psychological barrier in communication is impossible to overcome, then you should at least try to save tolerable relations with the interlocutor.

A psychologist can best help in overcoming social and personal psychological barriers. He will hold an individual consultation and regardless of the type of psychological barrier will select a competent approach.

Если в нужный момент нет возможности пообщаться с психологом, тогда необходимо заняться самоанализом. Нужно проанализировать свой режим дня, подумать, если ли в нем действия, направленные на решение давних проблем, воспоминания которые вызывают негативные ассоциации. If there are really similar problems, then you should engage in distracting activities.

Very good help yoga. They bring the mind into tranquility, purify thinking. Having learned to relax and control oneself, a person provides himself with psychological protection from stress.

In the daily routine, you need to include actions aimed at resolving conflicts that prevent you from living on, to part with them once and for all, and not to carry this burden with you throughout your life. Perhaps the reason lies in the fact that the person is afraid to meet with these problems, especially if he had previously had an unpleasant experience regarding this situation. In this case, it is necessary to imagine how positive the results of solving this problem can be. You should learn to see the situation from different sides, not to give negative emotions and thoughts to master your consciousness.