Extraversion - it is in psychology the property of the individual, which characterizes the orientation of the personality installation to the outside. The term "extraversion" comes from the Latin "extra", which means outside and "versae", "versie" - denoting a turn, it turns out - turning to the outside. The concept of "extraversion", as well as "introversion" was introduced by the Swiss psychologist and philosopher Carl Gustave Jung to distinguish between two types of personality.

Extroversion is in psychology a complex of personality traits that determine a person's propensity for active social contacts, which is expressed in sociability, active talkativeness with different people and sociability. Also with the help of this complex, the person’s orientation towards the external social environment, and not towards his own inner world, is expressed.

Extroverted individuals often represent themselves and believe that their true vocation is to communicate with people and create.

Extraversion the definition of this property in an individual includes personal concern with all the events around. Himself an extrovert is always in sight, this is a great companion and a good friend.

Extraversion is characterized by such qualities as optimism, impulsivity, variability, carelessness.

Extroversion is a property in psychology that has antagonistic quality - introversion. Extraversion, together with introversion, constitute a single psychodiagnostic scale in the personal questionnaires of G. Aysenck, the Big Five, in the factorial questionnaire of R. Kettel. Passing such questionnaires, most people earn on the scale of "extroversion-introversion" (usually just the name of the scale "extroversion") average ratings, which means that there are not so many "pure" extroverts.

In a scale of extraversion, rather heterogeneous characteristics are combined. Thus, some psychologists characterize extraversion through formal-dynamic, stylistic and substantial properties and personality characteristics. But most psychologists tend to traditionally interpret extroversion as the quality of temperament.

Extraversion is characterized by the constant need to obtain various additional external facts and information. Based on them, the whole further activity of the individual is built.

Knowing what significant differences the properties of extraversion and introversion have, one can correctly determine the sociotype of a person. In literature and in history, there are well-known examples of extroverted social types, among them: Napoleon, Don Quixote, Hamlet, Hugo, Stirlitz, Zhukov, Jack, Huxley.

What is extraversion

Extroversion is in psychology a certain type of human attitude. The concept of extraversion includes a person who is constantly in an extraverted state, always ready to react directly and sharply to external stimuli. His psychological energy is very clearly expressed in striving for the environment and all external objects, processes and phenomena.

Extroversion - is a certain installation of consciousness, which determines the attitude to objects and the world.

Extroversion, like introversion, are psychological ways of adapting the personality to its surrounding world, both attitudes may be characteristic not only of one person. Both categories - extraversion and introversion on Jung appear in nature. The peculiarity of the first category is the high speed of productivity, accompanied by a low life expectancy of the individual and the weakness of its protective mechanisms.

The second category is introverted individuals, which are expressed in intensive self-maintenance of self-preservation, in the strength of defense mechanisms, which leads to a decrease in fertility level.

The behavior of extroverts in nature, mainly manifested in the reproduction and distribution of its energy in all spheres of life. Introversion is expressed in the fact that an individual mainly does what directs all his energy to protect his life activity from any external influences that can potentially cause harm or simply affect the individual, which he categorically does not want, while spending a minimum of energy.

Extroverts direct all their interest to the outside world and take it from this world. In this way their external reality is expressed. For individuals with the qualities of introversion, their inner world, that is, inner reality, is interesting.

Extroversion and introversion according to Jung define two different types of personalities. Jung describes an extrovert person through the value attitude to external objects, interaction with these objects, the possibility of influencing them, and so on. Such an individual does not need to be fixed on deep inner contents, he likes interaction with others.

Installations extraversion and introversion according to Jung denote separate very complex in their structure personal characteristics that have little in common will take on with expressive signs of human behavior. K. Jung divided the human psyche into four elements, each of which he defined as extrovert or introverted.

An extroverted person possesses a libido that is turned outward, this psychic energy is directed to objects that are surrounded (other people and various objects) and to all sorts of connections with them. Being in the extraverted state, the individual perceives, feels, thinks and acts according to each existing object of reality.

In essence, extraversion is not only personal traits, but also a certain attitude of consciousness, which, as mentioned above, is directed at the object, then, as in introversion, it is directed at the subject, that is, at itself, as C. Jung thought.

If the direction according to the object and objective given prevails so much that the most important decisions or actions are determined by objective circumstances, and not by subjective views, then it is definitely a question of an extraverted person. At the same time, K. Jung analyzes possible deviations or mental disorders within the framework of extraversion itself. A too strong extroverted personality installation can, to such an extent, cease to reckon with the subject himself, that he will appear a "victim", called an objective requirement. The danger of such a state for an extrovert is that through such a deep involvement in objects, it can completely lose itself in them.

Focusing on the knowledge of the basics of psychology, a person can clearly understand or distinguish between the qualities inherent in either the introverted or extraverted personality type.

Extraversion is characterized by such features as the increased value of objects with which people interact, the expansion of object relations. An extrovert considers people empty, if he can only observe them, but not interact with them. Since the very value of people for an extrovert is low, he tries to increase it on his own. Despite the great activity and a huge charge of energy, extroverts have very fast fatigue. Since almost all the energy they spend on communicating with people, they prefer to relax and recover in solitude.

Extraversion is the mobility, frankness, coexistence of the personality with other people, easy adaptability to the current situation. An extroverted personality type contributes to its rapid and free creation of social connections and attachments. Such a person can very easily instill something into himself and it is just as easy to put aside bad forebodings or fears, which contributes to a person’s good orientation in an unfamiliar situation and quick risk-taking decisions.

Introversion, in turn, is characterized by a reflective, fluctuating character of a person, striving for solitude, preserving personal boundaries, moving away from objects and being in a defensive position relative to external influences.

For an extrovert, the driving force of perception, views and actions are external factors. While the introvert is the absolute opposite of this order of things.

For a person with the dominance of extraversion, another individual with a different type of psychological attitude seems to be a boring, predictable and spoiling fun. At the same time, an introverted person, striving to be self-sufficient, perceives extroverts as superficial, capricious, annoying people, who only do what they want to attract the attention of others by any acceptable means.

Psychologist G. Murray, who is also engaged in the study of extroversion and introversion of a person, said that Jung's statements cover a whole list of individual particular signs that can be studied and evaluated freely from each other. He also proposed new names for these measurements. One thing he called them was "exocatexia - endocatexia", which gave the function of reflecting the comparative meaning that a person gives to the outside world as opposed to the inner, that is, his own feelings, ideas, fantasies, images, and so on.

He called another dimension “extracept-intception”, it is mainly related to the determinants of evaluation, perception and behavior. He endowed the notion of “extracept” with the tendency of a person to be guided by concrete, clearly observable, physical circumstances. The concept of "introception" he defined the tendency to follow more subjective factors (thoughts, feelings, aspirations).

Studies by a number of significant scientists in the field of factor analysis - Raymond Cattell, Hans Eysenck, J. Gilford, indicate the possibility of identifying separate independent components of the dimension of "extraversion - introversion". Their data represent consistent signs of the existence of a common dimension, which are quite well combined with the views of C. Jung and encompass many specific individual differences inherent in man.

So, extraversion introversion on Eysenck (along with neuroticism) are presented as the parameters defining the type of personality. A person with extraversion is an individual who loves communication, loves to spend his time in noisy and cheerful companies, prefers to have a wide circle of acquaintances, without defining one of them as the closest.

Extroversion introversion for Eysenck determined using his author's test. Under this test, extraversion stands out as a characteristic of behavior. Therefore, the introvert is able to behave like an extrovert, but not to be such as it is.

The Aysenk test has the following scales: extroversion, introversion and neuroticism. Neuroticism is also seen as a person’s anxiety level. This test is also capable of very accurately identifying a certain psychological type of person, which in some cases is necessary in order to choose the most correct approach to the patient and correct the direction of psychotherapy.

The structure of the test has 57 questions, through which behavior is determined in everyday life. The questions are dichotomous, that is, you need to answer simply, either "yes" or "no." After answering the questions, it is necessary to compare the data with the key, for the coincidence of the answer it has one point. The interpretation itself is carried out with the help of a circle in which the degree of expression of extraversion is multiplied in the direction from left to right, and the level of neuroticism decreases from top to bottom.

In such a science as socionics, the definition of the categories of extraversion and introversion according to Jung is used. So, extraversion is the idea of ​​the orientation of a person to the outside world, relative to the inner world. Socionics assumes that if a first (basic) function is defined in an individual as extraverted, then the entire socionic type will be defined as extraverted.