Suggestion - this is a psychological impact on the consciousness of the individual, with the aim of suggesting to him desirable attitudes that are not realized and contradict his will. The term "suggestion" implies the existence of additional concepts to describe the suggestive process. Suggestion is applied in the most diverse areas of life: psychology, medicine, pedagogy, religion, sport, education, military, painting, literature, theatrical activity, music.

Suggestive is a characteristic of a person who easily gives in to suggestion.

A suggestor is an individual who inspires and is a source of suggestion. Suggestors can be not only an individual, but also a group.

A sugrend is one who is susceptible to suggestion, its object. An individual subjected to suggestion perceives information entering his brain without understanding it, analyzing or relating to known facts about it and his own state.

Suggestion is used in order to change the undesirable behavior of a person or his thinking, to incline the individual to his opinion, to the desired action, to disseminate the necessary information and useful rumors.

There are several types of suggestion: in a state of wakefulness, in a trance state, in a dream, subliminal condition, with a retired effect, with the use of certain procedures and preparations, intermittent and in absentia. Each of these types of suggestions is unsafe in their use by people who do not know the basics of suggestionology, since they can harm both themselves and other people. The impact that is carried out by suggestion on a person when he is in a state of hypnotic sleep is called hypnosis. In other words, psychological hypnosis in reality is a state of suggestion. At its core, suggestion is a component of communication between people or specific communication.

Suggestion is considered from three points of view: psychophysiology, psychology, philosophy. Suggestiveness or suggestiveness is the degree of susceptibility to suggestion, which is determined by the subjective readiness of the individual to submit to the suggestive influence.

Suggestion - is a heterogeneous phenomenon, which is the opposite of criticality. She finds herself in different ways in different areas of the individual, relative to a particular activity and content. Each individual to some extent in certain situations may be suggestive.

Suggestiveness represents different degrees of susceptibility to suggestion, which depend on gender, age, class, profession, willpower, mental development, mental and physical health, etc.

Suggestion is a characteristic of the individual, which depends on situational and personal factors, expresses the property of the human neuropsychic apparatus, as well as belonging to the herd instinct and subordination to the strongest; displays the result of an intimate relationship and suggerend attraction to the suggestor.

What is suggestion

Suggestion is in psychology and psychotherapy the method of influencing the human psyche, without his awareness of this process. At the same time, the influence extends to the emotional sphere, impressions of a person and the unconscious area.

Suggestion is in psychology a very useful method in the fight against phobias, depression, neuroses. Since the suggestion is not recognized by the patient, the defense mechanisms do not work, which allows him to control his thinking and actions. Most of the methods of suggestion are used in medical and psychotherapeutic practice, but it happens that it is used for mercenary purposes.

Suggestive impact can be exerted by other people, and can act from within, that is, self-hypnosis (autosuggestion). For example, a person in an unpleasant situation calms himself with the fact that everything will end well, so he uses self-suggestion. Self-hypnosis produces a powerful effect on a person, since a person can practice it indefinitely.

Methods of suggestion. Suggestion is of several kinds. By means of achievement: verbal and non-verbal. Verbal suggestion involves the use of words, phrases, non-verbal - facial expressions, gestures, features of the environment.

Suggestion is dependent on implementation methods and is divided into direct and indirect. The direct consists in the use of verbal formulas with which the suggestor influences the psyche of the suggestion and changes its behavior and consciousness. Indirect suggestion provides for the conclusion of hidden information in the message.

By the nature of the impact suggestion is imperative and cooperative. The imperative is based on policy guidelines and non-verbal stimuli. Cooperative involves the use of soft forms suggestion with the use of weak incentives and weakly expressed verbal suggestions.

There are certain suggestion factors that increase the person's suggestiveness. Among them are the following personality traits:

- low self-esteem, lack of self-confidence;

- an inferiority complex, timidity, a tendency to obedience;

- shyness, high level of anxiety, gullibility;

- high emotionality and impressionability;

- poor logical thinking, slow reactivity of mental activity;

- dependence on others, on their opinions and influence;

- infantilism (immaturity of the individual);

- weak volitional processes, mental retardation.

The above personality traits (suggestion factors) can be determined using specially targeted tests. Thus, a person can correct certain qualities in order to be less suggestible.

In addition to certain personality traits, suggestion factors include:

- psychophysical current state of the person at the time of suggestion;

- the level of calm, relaxation;

- the power of emotional arousal, fatigue, stress experience.

The lack of competence in the topic under discussion and the activities performed, the high importance of the issue for him, the lack of time to make an informed decision contributes to increasing the impact of the suggestion on a person. Older people and children are more easily exposed to suggestion, because their psyche is unstable and cognitive processes are rather weak.

The means of suggestion is human speech. Using a verbal message, a person can influence a partner in order to change his ideas. But not every person agrees to these changes, because he is able to protect his autonomy, and therefore erects psychological barriers.

One can often hear in one expression the notions of “suggestion and countersuggestion”, they are opposite in essence. So, psychologists have put forward the idea of ​​countering suggestive influences and called this concept "counter-aggression" (as a counterattack).

The ability of a person to resist suggestion, to express reciprocal psychological activity is called counter-aggression, or counter-suggestion, thanks to which a person is able to build barriers to communication.

In a person's life there are not only situations that carry positive information, but also useless ones, and there are also threatening ones. The main thing is that the person himself should be able to distinguish which situation is beneficial for him and which one has an adverse effect.

Suggestions and counter-provings can act simultaneously. When one person tries to instill his will in another, the sugherend will not wait for the end of this process, but will immediately start a counterattack. Kontrsugugi provides for distrust of the suggestor. Protecting against trust in him, a person protects himself from his influence. If a person has determined in advance that a communication partner is an unsafe person, then he immediately begins to perceive him as unnecessary, unauthorized, not his own and will simply avoid meeting with him, not delving into his messages, interrupt the conversation. Do not hesitate to do so, in this way you can protect yourself from unnecessary exposure.

Actively used suggestion in advertising. The object of advertising suggestion is a huge mass of people. In the best way, people perceive the information that is laid out in an accessible, visually, figurative and concise manner, and the effect will be especially great if the suggested information meets the needs and interests of society.

Suggestion in advertising will be more effective if the suggestor will have a high status and be an authority for people, have intellectual superiority over others. Therefore, in any kind of advertising, the main character is distinguished by pronounced personality traits: courage (or femininity), confidence, will, optimism and charisma.

It is important that the suggestive tool be amenable to suggestion. The relationship between the inguser and the suggester should take shape, as best as possible, that is, to cause trust, authority and dependence. Therefore, in many advertisements, the characters in order to be closer to people create the necessary conditions, a homely atmosphere, talk about popular, exciting issues.

Suggestion in advertising depends on the "construction" of the message, on the level of its argumentation, the combination of emotional and logical components, the concreteness of keywords, the meaning of which can be immediately represented in the head. In the advertising message, it is important to use figurative concepts, keywords that would carry a specific meaning and harmony.

For effect it is necessary to specify concrete and figurative qualities. It is necessary to try with the help of words to form a person's ideas about the specific merits of a product, therefore, phrases should be with peculiar content.

The effect of suggestion in advertising will be greater if you take away the particle “not” in the advertising appeal, because it creates a negative effect.

Suggestions examples of advertising appeal: "Our cream makes the skin of your hands young and smooth", instead of: "Our cream will make your hands not covered with wrinkles, and will not grow old"; "You will be healthy" instead of "You will not get sick anymore."

The effect of suggestion in advertising depends on the speech dynamics. The main speech techniques are: softness and strength of voice, rich intonation, pauses, the effect of surprise. If these techniques master the quality, you can achieve high persuasiveness of the appeal.

Advice suggestion factors include the tone of voice. More advantageous would be the use of a male voice in sounding a message. The low baritone, velvet voice acts positively on a person’s subconscious. But the tenor causes a reaction of surprise.

The effect of suggestion in advertising is achieved with the help of facial expressions and gestures, if they are adequate to the situation, are perceived as interest and emotional involvement, which helps create a situation of trust and positive attitude.

Suggestion in advertising is achieved by the impact of certain sound combinations. If you choose the right sound combinations, they can not only evoke emotions, but also certain images in the imagination.

Advertising suggestion, examples of the use of sounds: the sound "o" is perceived softly and causes slackness, when a person hears "o", he wants to relax; sounds "e" and "a" are associated with emotional lift, "On", "Hurray", "Eh".

Some manipulators for personal use prefer to use such techniques as hypnosis (suggestion - suggestion). Hypnosis suggestion is applied using fascination techniques, gaze fixation, rhythmic stimuli and verbal formulas.

In order to realize the suggestion method in psychotherapy, it may be enough just to achieve the first stage. Reception is carried out in this way: against the background of loud and masking information at the subconscious level, stimuli are implanted that are outside the threshold of hearing. Another use of audio suggestion in hypnosis is spectral masking using musical information as a carrier of useful information.

Visual suggestion works using the visual suggestion method, the most popular method here is the use of the 25th frame.

Using the methods of video and audio correction, you can achieve positive and negative goals of suggestion. With a positive goal, they are used to rehabilitate patients who have experienced a traumatic situation, those who need to regain a sense of self-confidence, to achieve success. But, unfortunately, these methods are used to a greater extent for gaining personal benefits from other people.

Speech dynamics methods are used by clergymen. They speak in a soft and soulful voice with a clear goodwill, without a hint of irritability, use expressive pauses and intonations, have adequate speech, facial expressions and corresponding gestures.

The rate of speech can be increased in people with high intelligence, which in turn inspires confidence in this person. The main thing is that such a high rate allows you to capture the essence of the message, otherwise it will remain meaningless.

Also in advertisements they use familiar voices of popular leaders or actors so that people would succumb to their suggestion, perceiving their authority.