School disadaptation - this is a disorder of adaptation of a school-age child to the conditions of an educational institution, in which the ability to learn is reduced, and relationships with teachers and classmates deteriorate. Most often it occurs in younger schoolchildren, but can also manifest itself in children in high school.
School maladjustment is a violation of the student's adaptation to external requirements, which is also a disorder of the general ability to psychological adaptation due to certain pathological factors. Thus, it turns out that school maladjustment is a biomedical problem.
In this sense, school disadaptation acts for parents, teachers and doctors, as a vector "illness / health disorder, developmental disorder or behavior disorder". In this vein, the attitude towards the phenomenon of school adaptation is expressed as something unhealthy, which speaks of the pathology of development and health.
The negative consequence of this relationship is a reference point for compulsory testing before a child enters school or to assess the developmental level of a student, in connection with his transition from one school level to the next, when he is required to have results of the absence of deviations in the ability to study according to the program offered by teachers and the school that the parents chose.
Another consequence is the pronounced tendency of teachers who cannot cope with a student, direct him to a psychologist or psychiatrist. Children with an adaptation disorder are singled out in a special way, they are labeled as following from clinical practice for everyday use - "psychopath", "hysterics", "schizoid" and other various examples of psychiatric terms that are completely wrongfully used for social, psychological and educational purposes. to cover and justify the powerlessness, lack of professionalism and incompetence of those who are responsible for the upbringing, education of the child and social assistance for him.
The appearance of signs of psychogenic adaptation disorder is observed in many students. Some experts believe that approximately 15–20% of students need psychotherapeutic assistance. It was also established that there is a dependence of the frequency of occurrence of adaptation disorder on the age of the student. In young schoolchildren, school maladjustment is observed in 5–8% of episodes, in adolescents this figure is significantly higher and amounts to 18–20% of cases. There is also data from another study, according to which adaptation disorder in pupils aged 7–9 years manifests itself in 7% of cases.
In adolescents, school disadaptation is observed in 15.6% of cases.
Most ideas about the phenomenon of school maladjustment ignore the individual and age specificity of the child’s development.