Psychology and Psychiatry

School disadaptation

School disadaptation - this is a disorder of adaptation of a school-age child to the conditions of an educational institution, in which the ability to learn is reduced, and relationships with teachers and classmates deteriorate. Most often it occurs in younger schoolchildren, but can also manifest itself in children in high school.

School maladjustment is a violation of the student's adaptation to external requirements, which is also a disorder of the general ability to psychological adaptation due to certain pathological factors. Thus, it turns out that school maladjustment is a biomedical problem.

In this sense, school disadaptation acts for parents, teachers and doctors, as a vector "illness / health disorder, developmental disorder or behavior disorder". In this vein, the attitude towards the phenomenon of school adaptation is expressed as something unhealthy, which speaks of the pathology of development and health.

The negative consequence of this relationship is a reference point for compulsory testing before a child enters school or to assess the developmental level of a student, in connection with his transition from one school level to the next, when he is required to have results of the absence of deviations in the ability to study according to the program offered by teachers and the school that the parents chose.

Another consequence is the pronounced tendency of teachers who cannot cope with a student, direct him to a psychologist or psychiatrist. Children with an adaptation disorder are singled out in a special way, they are labeled as following from clinical practice for everyday use - "psychopath", "hysterics", "schizoid" and other various examples of psychiatric terms that are completely wrongfully used for social, psychological and educational purposes. to cover and justify the powerlessness, lack of professionalism and incompetence of those who are responsible for the upbringing, education of the child and social assistance for him.

The appearance of signs of psychogenic adaptation disorder is observed in many students. Some experts believe that approximately 15–20% of students need psychotherapeutic assistance. It was also established that there is a dependence of the frequency of occurrence of adaptation disorder on the age of the student. In young schoolchildren, school maladjustment is observed in 5–8% of episodes, in adolescents this figure is significantly higher and amounts to 18–20% of cases. There is also data from another study, according to which adaptation disorder in pupils aged 7–9 years manifests itself in 7% of cases.

In adolescents, school disadaptation is observed in 15.6% of cases.

Most ideas about the phenomenon of school maladjustment ignore the individual and age specificity of the child’s development.

The reasons for school maladjustment students

There are several factors that cause school maladjustment. Below will be considered, what are the causes of school maladjustment of students, among them there are:

- insufficient level of preparation of the child for school conditions; lack of knowledge and insufficient development of psychomotor skills, as a result of which the child is slower than the others to cope with tasks;

- insufficient control of behavior - it is difficult for a child to sit a whole lesson, silently and not getting up;

- inability to adapt to the pace of the program;

- socio-psychological aspect - the failure of personal contacts with the teaching staff and with peers;

- low level of development of the functional abilities of cognitive processes.

As a cause of school maladjustment, there are several other factors that affect the student's behavior at school and the lack of normal adaptation.

The most influential factor is the influence of the characteristics of the family and parents. When some parents are too emotional reactions to the failure of their child in school, they themselves, not knowing at all, damage the impressionable child's psyche. As a result of this attitude, the child begins to be ashamed of his ignorance about some topic, respectively, he is afraid to disappoint his parents the next time. In this regard, the baby develops a negative reaction with respect to everything connected with the school, which in turn leads to the formation of school maladjustment.

The second most important factor after the influence of parents is the influence of the teachers themselves, with whom the child interacts at school. It happens that teachers incorrectly build a learning paradigm, which in turn affects the development of misunderstanding and negativity on the part of students.

School maladjustment of adolescents is manifested in too high activity, the manifestation of his character and personality through clothing and appearance. If, in response to such expressions of the schoolchildren, the teachers react too violently, then this will cause the adolescent to respond negatively. As a protest against the learning system, a teenager may face the phenomenon of school maladjustment.

Another influential factor in the development of school maladjustment is the influence of peers. Especially school disadaptation of adolescents is very dependent on this factor.

Teenagers are a very special category of people, which is characterized by increased impressionability. Teens always communicate with companies, so the opinion of friends who are in their circle of communication becomes authoritative for them. That is why, if peers express protest to the learning system, then there is a high probability that the child himself will also join the universal protest. Although mostly it concerns more conformal individuals.

Knowing the reasons for school maladjustment of students, one can diagnose school maladjustment at the onset of primary symptoms and start working with it in time. For example, if at one moment a student declares his unwillingness to go to school, his own level of academic performance declines, he begins to speak negatively and very sharply about teachers, then it is worth thinking about possible disadaptation. The sooner the problem is identified, the sooner it can be dealt with.

School maladjustment may not even be displayed on the performance and discipline of students, expressed in subjective experiences or in the form of psychogenic disorders. For example, inadequate reactions to stress and problems that are associated with the disintegration of behavior, the emergence of conflicts with other people, a sharp and sudden decline in interest in the process of learning in school, negativism, increased anxiety, disintegration of learning skills.

Forms of school maladjustment include features of the educational activities of primary school students. Younger students are most likely to master the subject side of the learning process - the skills, techniques and skills through which new knowledge is learned.

The development of the motivational-need side of learning activity occurs in a latent way: gradually assimilating the norms and forms of social behavior of adults. The child still does not know how to use them as actively as adults, while still remaining very dependent on adults in their relationships with people.

If the younger student does not develop the skills of learning activities or the methods and techniques that he uses and which are fixed in him, are not productive enough and are not designed to study more complex material, he lags behind classmates and begins to experience serious difficulties in learning.

Thus, one of the signs of school maladjustment appears - a decline in academic performance. The reasons may be the individual features of psychomotor and intellectual development, which, however, are not fatal. Many teachers, psychologists and psychotherapists believe that with proper organization of work with such students, taking into account individual qualities, paying attention to how children cope with tasks of varying complexity, it is possible to achieve elimination of lag for several months without isolating children from class. in study and developmental delay compensation.

Another form of school maladjustment among younger students has a strong connection with the specifics of age development. Replacing the main activity (learning comes to replace the games), which occurs in children as young as six years old, is due to the fact that only the understood and accepted motives of the teachings become established motives under established conditions.

The researchers found that among the surveyed students of the first to third grades there were those who had a preschool character in relation to learning. This means that for them to the forefront there was not so much learning activity as the situation in the school and all the external attributes that the children used in the game. The reason for the emergence of this form of school maladjustment lies in the inattention of parents to their children. External signs of the immaturity of learning motivation are manifested as an irresponsible attitude of the student towards schoolwork, expressed through indiscipline, despite the high degree of formation of cognitive abilities.

The next form of school maladjustment is the inability to self-control, the arbitrary control of behavior and attention. The inability to adapt to school conditions and control behavior in accordance with accepted standards may be the result of improper upbringing, which affects quite adversely and contributes to the exacerbation of certain psychological characteristics, for example, increased excitability, difficulty in concentrating attention, emotional lability and others.

The main characteristic of the family style of these children is the complete absence of external frameworks and norms, which should become the means of self-government for the child, or the availability of controls only outside.

In the first case, it is inherent in those families in which the child is absolutely left to himself and develops in conditions of complete neglect, or families with a "child cult", this means that the child is allowed absolutely everything he wants, and his freedom is not limited.

The fourth form of school maladjustment among younger schoolchildren is the inability to adapt to the rhythm of life at school.

Most often it occurs in children with a weakened body and low immunity, children with delayed physical development, a weak nervous system, with disabilities of the analyzers and other diseases. The reason for this form of school maladjustment in the wrong family education or ignoring the individual characteristics of children.

The above-listed forms of school maladjustment are closely related to the social factors of their development, the emergence of new leading activities and requirements. So, psychogenic, school maladjustment is inextricably linked with the nature and characteristics of the relationship of significant adults (parents and teachers) to the child. This attitude can be expressed through the style of communication. Actually, the communication style of significant adults with primary schoolchildren can become an obstacle to learning activities or lead to the fact that real or contrived difficulties and problems associated with studies will be perceived by the child as incorrigible, generated by its shortcomings and intractable.

If negative experiences are not compensated, if there are no significant people who sincerely wish for good and can find an approach to the child to increase his self-esteem, then he will have psychogenic reactions to any school problems that, if recurring, will form a syndrome called psychogenic disadaptation.

Types of school maladjustment

Before you describe the types of school maladjustment, you need to highlight its criteria:

- failure to study in programs that meet the age and abilities of the student, along with such signs as repetition, chronic failure, lack of educational knowledge and lack of necessary skills;

- disorder of emotional personal attitude to the learning process, to teachers and to life-related opportunities associated with studies;

- episodic non-corrective behavior disorders (antidisciplinary behavior with demonstrative opposition to other students, disregard of the rules and obligations of life in school, manifestations of vandalism);

- pathogenic maladjustment, which is a consequence of the disruption of the nervous system, sensory analyzers, brain diseases and manifestations of various fears;

- psychosocial maladjustment, which acts as a gender-age individual characteristics of the child, which determine its non-standard and need a special approach in the conditions of school;

- social maladjustment (undermining order, moral and legal norms, antisocial behavior, deformation of internal regulation, as well as social attitudes).

There are five main types of manifestations of school maladjustment.

The first type is a cognitive school maladjustment, expressing the child's failure in the process of teaching programs that correspond to the student’s abilities.

The second type of school maladjustment is emotionally-evaluative, which is associated with constant violations of the emotional-personal attitude both to the learning process as a whole and to individual subjects. Includes anxiety and worries about problems arising at school.

The third type of school maladjustment is behavioral, it is the repetition of the violation of behaviors in the school environment and training (aggression, unwillingness to make contact and passive-refusal reactions).

The fourth type of school maladjustment is somatic, it is associated with deviations in the physical development and health of the student.

The fifth type of school maladjustment is communicative, it expresses difficulties in identifying contacts with both adults and peers.

Preventing school maladjustment

The first step in the prevention of school adaptation is the establishment of the child’s psychological readiness to transition to a new, unusual regime. However, psychological readiness is just one of the components of the child’s comprehensive preparation for school. At the same time, the level of existing knowledge and skills is determined, its potential capabilities, the level of development of thinking, attention, memory are studied, and, if necessary, psychological correction is used.

Parents should be very attentive to their children and understand that during the adaptation period the pupil is especially in need of the support of loved ones and in readiness to experience emotional difficulties, anxieties and experiences together.

The main way to deal with school maladjustment is psychological assistance. It is very important for close people, in particular parents, to pay due attention to long-term work with a psychologist. In the event of a negative influence of the family on the student, it is worthwhile to fix such manifestations of disapproval. Parents are obliged to remember and remind themselves that any failure of a child at school does not mean his life’s collapse. Accordingly, it is not necessary to condemn it for every bad assessment, it is best to conduct a careful discussion about the possible causes of failures. By maintaining friendly relations between the child and the parents, it is possible to achieve a more successful overcoming of life difficulties.

The result will be more effective if the help of a psychologist is combined with the support of parents and a change in school environment. In the case when the student’s relations with teachers and other students do not add up, or these people have a negative effect on him, causing antipathy to the school, then it is advisable to think about changing the school. Perhaps in a different school institution, the student will be able to become interested in studying and making new friends.

Thus, it is possible to prevent the strong development of school maladjustment or gradually overcome even the most serious maladjustment. The success of prevention of adaptation disorder at school depends on the timely involvement of parents and the school psychologist in solving the problems of the child.

Prevention of school maladjustment includes the creation of classes of compensatory education, the use of advisory psychological assistance when needed, the use of psycho-correction, social training, training of students with parents, teachers mastering the methods of correctional and developmental education, which is aimed at educational activities.

School maladjustment of adolescents distinguishes those adolescents who are adapted to school by their very attitude toward learning. Adolescents with disadaptation often point out that it is hard for them to learn, that there is a lot of incomprehensible learning. Адаптивные школьники в два раза чаще говорят о трудностях в недостатке свободного времени через загруженность занятиями.

The approach of social prevention as the main goal highlights the elimination of causes and conditions of various negative phenomena. With this approach, the correction of school maladjustment is carried out.

Social prevention includes a system of legal, socio-environmental and educational activities that are carried out by society to neutralize the causes of deviant behavior, which leads to a disorder of adaptation in school.

In the prevention of school maladjustment, there is a psychological-pedagogical approach, with its help the qualities of a person with maladaptive behavior are restored or corrected, especially focusing on moral-volitional qualities.

The informational approach is based on the idea that deviations from the norms of behavior occur because children do not know anything about the norms themselves. This approach is most concerned with adolescents, they are informed about the rights and obligations that are presented to them.

Correction of school maladjustment is carried out by a psychologist at school, but often parents send the child to an individually practicing psychologist, because children are afraid that everyone will know about their problems, therefore they are put to a specialist with a grain of salt.