The described disease is characterized by a huge number of varieties caused by pathogenesis, localization of the abnormal focus, age period of the debut seizures, the diversity of the clinical picture.
In children from the age of two, a rolandic form of epilepsy can occur. It is a benign form of temporal epilepsy (the focus of seizure activity is located in the cells of the cortex of the temporal segment of the brain). It manifests itself more often with short night seizures. The prognosis is favorable.
The clinical symptoms of epilepsy in a 2-year-old child contain simple and complex partial epipripers. Often in the process of dreaming, babies can make specific sounds resembling "gurgling", "gargling".
The rolandic form of the disease begins with a somatosensory aura: there is numbness, a tingling sensation in the area of the tongue, gums. The frequency of seizures no more than four times a year, however, in infants and two-year-old children may occur more often.
It is possible to single out such characteristic features of the considered type of the ailment: numbness in the cheeks, lips of the tongue, speech disorder, convulsive condition of the muscles of the limbs and face, full consciousness, drooling, night seizures.
Another type of pathology under consideration that can debut at the age of two is the idiopathic partial form of the disease, accompanied by occipital paroxysms. It is characterized by simple partial epiphriscues, motor, convulsive and visual impairments - hallucinations, visual illusions, and migraine-like manifestations - headaches, nausea, dizziness.
Children suffering from epilepsy are practically not interested in contact with close friends or peers. Their mental maturation and mental development are slow.
Diagnosing the disease in question is a rather complicated process, especially in infants. Since the epilepsy in a child under one year old does not describe the symptoms and sensations of the children, they are also not able to recognize the precursors of seizures and predict the time of the onset of convulsions.
Therefore, the history is collected on the basis of stories, complaints of parents, from a detailed description of the condition of their offspring. Before the close environment of the baby is a serious task. They should describe with maximum accuracy all manifestations of the disease.
At the stage of instrumental diagnostics, magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography are carried out, which help to identify possible foci of brain damage.
An important step in the diagnosis of epilepsy in a 2-year-old child is the detection of the etiological factor of the disease. For this purpose, a complex of laboratory tests is appointed, including blood sampling to check the electrolyte content, finding possible viruses or bacteria, an analysis of feces and urine is done, and the acid-base balance of the blood can also be measured.
Epilepsy in a child 5 years
The assorted disease is characterized by various species that have a specific course.
Эпилепсия у ребенка 5 лет - причина зарождения всегда является дисфункция различных отделов мозга. The defeat of a segment of the brain causes the clinical picture of the disease.
If the epileptogenic focus is localized in the area of the temples, then this form is characterized by a short-term loss of consciousness against the background of the absence of convulsions. The described type is manifested by motor dysfunction and disorder of mental processes. It begins with a psychic (feeling of fear), epigastric (tickling sensation in the retroperitoneal area) aura, dream state. Often the seizure may be preceded by illusions and complex hallucinations. Often, epileptics show automatism on the type of smacking, lip chewing, autonomic dysfunction in the form of heartbeat and increased respiration.
In the case of a frontal form, epi-attacks can be short or long attacks (the baby can be in an unconscious state for more than half an hour).
This type of illness is characterized by secondary-generalized, simple and complex partial epiphysics. Psychomotor frontal epiprips are more common.
The seizure begins suddenly, often without an aura. The described form is characterized by rapid secondary generalization, a series of attacks, pronounced motor phenomena (chaotic movements, gestural automatisms), and the absence of motivating motives.
Clinical manifestations of the parietal form of epilepsy contain paresthesias, algies, disorders of the body pattern. The most characteristic symptom of paroxysms are simple paresthesias ("crawling goosebumps", numbness, tickling, tingling). Mostly, paresthesias occur in the upper limbs and the facial area. A typical feature of seizures is the focus on the spread of epileptic readiness to other areas of the brain. Therefore, at the time of the seizure, in addition to somatosensory dysfunctions, other manifestations may occur - blindness (occipital lobe), automatism and tonic tension (temporal lobe), clonic trembling of the arms or legs (frontal lobe).
Occipital epilepsy is characterized by simple partial paroxysms against the preservation of consciousness. Its manifestations are clinically classified into initial symptoms and subsequent. The first ones are caused by the localization of the convulsive focus in the occipital segment of the brain, the second ones are the result of the transition of pathological activity to other areas of the brain. The initial symptoms include paroxysmal blindness and visual field disorders, visual hallucinations, head deviation, blinking.
Almost eighty percent of the identified types of epilepsy in children are frontal or temporal types of ailment. In some cases, one of the brain segments is affected, then focal epilepsy occurs in children.
The functional transformation of neurons is inherent in the idiopathic focal form. The nervous structures of the brain are made excessively excitable.
Typical manifestations of convulsive epipadiopathy in children can be distinguished: uniform twitching of the trunk muscles or convulsions, loss of consciousness, spontaneous urination, respiratory arrest, strong muscular tension of the body, chaotic movements (trembling of the extremities, lip pulling, head turning).
Treatment of epilepsy in children
The methods of influence aimed at the correction of the pathological condition are characterized by duration and complexity. Epileptic treatment requires tremendous patience, dedication and self-discipline. The goal of therapeutic interventions is considered to be the absolute elimination of epipads with the least side effects.
Modern medicine identifies two key areas of therapeutic treatment: surgical and drug. Pharmacopoeial agents used in the fight against convulsive state are selected individually, taking into account the pathogenesis, nature and specificity of epipripsy, their frequency, frequency, age of epileptic and other factors, since individual antiepileptic drugs show the necessary action and effect only for certain types of epilepsy.
Treatment of epilepsy in children is carried out by an epileptologist or a neuropathologist. The drugs are usually prescribed in various combinations or monotherapy is practiced. They should be taken necessarily, since the lack of adequate therapy leads to an increase in convulsions, progression of the pathological condition, mental degradation of the crumbs and intellectual dysfunction.
Adequate antiepileptic therapeutic effect involves identifying features of the episyndrome, determining the toxicity of a pharmacopoeial remedy, and establishing the likely harmful effect. The choice of the drug is due, above all, the nature of the epipridations and, to a lesser extent, a type of epilepsy.
Modern anticonvulsant pharmacopoeial drugs are directed either to suppress the pathological readiness of neurons (ethosuximide) in the epileptogenic focus, or to prevent the spread of other neurons from the anomalous focus of excitation and involvement, thereby preventing epiphysias (phenobarbital).
The most commonly used drugs are: Carbamazepine, Phenobarbital, Valproate sodium, Difenin. In babies, Phenobarbital is considered to be the most effective, since it is easily tolerated, has minimal side effects, does not cause liver pathology and provokes changes in the child's psyche.
The treatment of epilepsy in children with the described preparation is rather long. It is not allowed to interrupt the reception even once. The dose of Phenobarbital ranges from three to eight milligrams per day per kilogram of body weight of the baby. Begin to use this drug with a small dosage, gradually increasing the dose, bringing to an average level. If side effects are not observed, and the number of epiprips decreases, then you can increase the dosage to the maximum. This drug in children is not canceled even with a prolonged absence of convulsive epipadia.
Most often, for epileptic children, the prognosis is favorable. Prevention of epilepsy in a child should begin at the stage of gestation (excluding all potentially dangerous factors that can adversely affect ontogenesis). Breastfeeding helps reduce the risk of the occurrence of the described disease in babies. In addition, prevention should include the following mandatory measures: maintaining a balance of sleep and wakefulness, timely treatment of diseases, proper nutrition, protection of the head from injury (for example, putting on a helmet when cycling).
Parents should not accept epilepsy as a sentence that cannot be appealed, because modern medical science is developing rapidly. Therefore, today the disease under consideration is successfully amenable to correction.