Both of these phenomena are not uncommon, but it is rather difficult for an unprepared person to determine whether an individual fainted or lost consciousness. The average man in the street does not have the proper knowledge, so he cannot notice the difference between fainting and loss of consciousness.
So, fainting is called a sudden, short-term loss of mind, due to transient insufficiency of the capillaries of the brain. In other words, the brain feels the lack of oxygen due to poor blood flow. The described state comes as a result of the sudden onset of oxygen starvation. It is accompanied by the depression of reflexes, a decrease in the frequency of myocardial contractions, a decrease in pressure.
Loss of consciousness is a prolonged disorder in which there is a lack of reflexes and inhibition of the ganglionic nervous system. The violation in question is dangerous for the possibility of going into a coma.
Below are the main characteristics of loss of consciousness and fainting.
Absolutely all individuals can fall into the state of syncope or syncope, without regard to their age differences, gender, and physical condition. Short fainting occurs more often when frightened, in a stuffy room due to lack of air, during menstruation, during gestation, with a sudden decrease in pressure, due to overdose of drugs or abuse of alcohol-containing liquids, during excessive exercise, fasting or improper diet. Each of these factors provokes the outflow of blood from the brain tissue, which causes short-term oxygen starvation of neurons.
The main signs of syncope (fainting) are the following: slight mental confusion, noise arising in the ears, yawning, dizziness, cooling of the extremities, blanching or blueness of the dermis, excessive sweating, reduced muscle tension, nausea, pressure drop, unpleasant sensation in the mouth, dilated pupils . Falling into a faint state looks from the outside as if a person is gradually sinking to the floor. Disconnection of consciousness does not occur instantly and can last up to 120 seconds.
Loss of consciousness is a long-term syncope occurring due to a strong oxygen deficiency in brain cells.
Among the factors leading to the considered infringement, are the following: impaired blood flow through the capillaries caused by thrombosis, arrhythmias, narrowing the lumen of blood capillaries, embolism, venous congestion, lack of cardiac output, a decrease in the sugar concentration, an overdose of insulin, epilepsy, brain concussion, pathologies of the nervous system, chronic illnesses of the pulmonary system, osteochondrosis of the cervical segment, intoxication of the body with various toxic agents such as: nicotine, carbon monoxide, pirtosoderzhaschie substances.
In an unconscious state, the individual lies motionless. It has no reactions to external stimuli, the muscles of the body are relaxed, due to which involuntary urination or an act of defecation is possible, and the sensitivity of the pupils is reduced. Skin cyanosis of the skin, nail cyanosis due to impaired breathing and oxygen deficiency are also noted.
First aid for loss of consciousness
Having noticed that the individual loses consciousness, in the first turn, it is recommended to give first aid and take actions to prevent the occurrence of bruises and head injuries. Then, the etiological factor of the syncope should be eliminated. For example, if an individual has disconnected due to heat, then the room must reduce the temperature by opening the windows. You can try to return the person to consciousness through external stimuli (splashing the face with cold water, patting the cheeks, irritation with ammonia).
Loss of consciousness first aid should rule out commotion and unnecessary fuss. Panic only exacerbates the situation.
If an individual has an ordinary swoon, then the elimination of the factor that gave rise to such a state will quickly return the mind to the person. In a fainting state, loss of consciousness arises from a violation of the blood supply to the brain. Therefore, the restoration of normal blood circulation is the main task of people providing assistance. In order to return the bloodstream to normal, it is necessary to lay the victim. In this case, his body should be placed on the same level with the head. This means that, contrary to popular opinion of ordinary people, it is not necessary to put anything under the head, and even less it should not be thrown back. Since the vascular tone is reduced, then raising the head will lead to an outflow of blood from the brain cells and the restoration of the blood supply to the brain will not happen.
Assisting in the loss of consciousness is usually not much different with measures to remove a person from fainting. The patient must be removed from the area of exposure to damaging factors, his clothes should not be unfastened, air laid, laid flat, braked or the patient should not be lifted. When nasal bleeding occurs, the individual should be laid to the side. It is impossible to give water to a person who is in a state of insensitivity, since his reflexes, including swallowing ones, are absent. The patient may choke, if you try to water his rape. If an individual has not regained consciousness after a hundred and twenty seconds, then he must be hospitalized.
Fainting rarely occurs suddenly. Often, it follows pre-unconscious symptoms, which include rapidly increasing nausea, dizziness, a sensation of tinnitus, and blurred eyes. All of the above is observed against the background of general weakness. Sometimes it may appear yawning, sweating. Human epidermis acquires wax pallor. After that, the muscles are relaxed, the individual switches off and settles. From the moment of detection, the first will take a bad state of health before the fall, most often, it takes no more than sixty seconds. Therefore, the loss of consciousness first aid should begin immediately after the appearance of the debut precursors. Indeed, often the etiological factor is unknown.
It is impossible for an individual who has come to consciousness to independently give medications, in particular, nitroglycerin, with complaints of heart algii. Because such actions can give rise to a collapse of pressure, which will cause a repeated syncope. Often, the loss of consciousness occurs against the background of a sharp drop in pressure, in which any nitrate-containing substances are completely contraindicated.
Loss of consciousness is considered to be quite a threatening symptom indicating the presence of a serious pathology in the body. Therefore, assistance in the loss of consciousness should be provided immediately. The person assisting with loss of consciousness does not have time to panic. Indeed, any delay in itself often carries a serious threat to the life of the victim.
It is easy to diagnose loss of consciousness. Suffice it to note the presence of such phenomena as the lack of response to external stimuli, covering pain, complete immobility, excluding convulsions. At the same time, determining the etiological factor often causes difficulty.
In order to facilitate the task of diagnosing syncope, physicians use all methods of research known to modern science. The process of diagnosis begins with a study of the history, which allows you to identify the presence of pathologies that can cause loss of consciousness, determine the reception of pharmacopoeial agents that lower the pressure or affect the functioning of the nervous system, it turns out, if possible, provoking a phenomenon, for example, physical overstrain, rapid rise from a lying position , being in a stuffy room, heat.
From laboratory studies, first of all, blood is taken:
- to conduct a general analysis, allowing to detect the presence of anemia;
- to determine the concentration of glucose (this analysis allows to establish the presence of hyper- or hypoglycemia);
- to identify indicators of O2 blood saturation (helps to identify disorders that interfere with normal oxygenation).
Various instrumental studies are also conducted:
- electrocardiogram, which allows to establish the presence of heart block and arrhythmia;
- a type of electrocardiogram - daily monitoring of myocardial rhythm;
- ultrasound examination of the heart muscle, which helps to detect changes in cardiac contractility of the heart, to establish the state of the valves;
- Doppler sonography of carotid capillaries, contributing to the establishment of barriers to blood flow;
- computed tomography, which allows to identify brain pathology;
- magnetic resonance imaging, aimed at the establishment of damaged segments of the brain tissue.
In order not to encounter with the considered violation, it is necessary to engage in preventive measures.
To prevent syncope from occurring, regular exercise is an ideal solution, which optimizes natural blood circulation and strengthens blood capillaries. It should be borne in mind that all loads on the body, first of all, should be regulated and moderate. No need to try at the first lesson to beat the Olympic records. The main thing here is systematic, not intensity. In addition, the evening promenade not only minimizes the risk of loss of consciousness, but also increases the overall resistance of the body to various ailments and stresses.
Aromatherapy also occupies a prominent position in the list of preventive measures. Regular aromatherapy procedures help to get rid of convulsions, spasms, improve blood circulation, saturate blood O2.
In addition to the listed preventive measures, there are activities aimed at avoiding fainting with a sense of precursors. If numbness of the extremities suddenly appears, nausea, cold sweat, then it is necessary to quickly take a recumbent position, raising your legs up, or crouch, with your head down below the level of your knees. Then it is necessary to remove from the neck area any objects that interfere with free breathing (tie, scarf). After relieving the condition, it is recommended to drink water or sweet tea.