Association - this is a special connection that occurs between certain phenomena, objects or components. The human psyche has significant associative abilities. It can link a variety of mental phenomena in something new, complex, in stable and long chains. At excitement of links of this chain several of them or one can cause other associative chains. The perception of a person can “lead” a chain of ideas, concepts, emotions and judgments, if they previously consisted of an associative connection.

The term association is the meaning of a word - a connection that comes from the Latin "associatio". In psychology, it is defined as the natural connection between events, objects or facts that exists in the mind of an individual and is fixed by his memory.

In all associations, the conditioned-reflex essence, the physiological basis of the switching function of the cortex. All of them are subject to the basic laws of generating conditioned reflexes. For the rapid formation of associative links, according to the laws, the right combination of irritation is required, i.e. the need for the existence of the irritation that a person would like to associate with the well-known one, so that it slightly precedes the already formed idea. Also important in creating a repetition association is to consolidate a new link, while relying on the previously established link.

Association in psychology is a relationship that is formed in the process of thinking between the various components of the psyche and means that the appearance of one component causes the image of the second, associated with it.

Any memorization or memorization involves the establishment of certain neural connections. This is important for understanding the psychological nature of the associations themselves. An association consisting of a series of reflexes, which are also a sensation, is nothing more than a "perpetual sensation".

What is association - definition

This is a logical connection in psychology, arising between certain events and facts, reflected in consciousness and fixed in memory. This is a connection that makes us, when meeting one phenomenon, think of another. Thus, the following associative links appear: like a fox - cunning, a hare - fear, red - passion, white - purity. However, despite the fact that stereotypical associations are more common, there are people who can express a personal association under a certain object, which will be completely different from the associations of others. It depends on the way of thinking of man, his imagination and imagination.

Association meaning of the word is found not only in psychology, but also in economics, and it means union (of countries), association. In ancient times, even philosophers thought about the relationship between phenomena in human imagination, but the term that would summarize it, they did not introduce. It was introduced by J. Locke, and he marked the interrelation of ideas caused by the usual coincidence of circumstances.

Associative connections have a physiological basis, it consists of a short-term nervous connection. The conditional short-term generation of the neural connection is responsible for the object similarity. The whole process is reduced to the analysis and operation of the synthesis, the relationship with other mental processes. So, a person saw something, the subconscious mind analyzes it, and the imagination performs a synthesis of the similar (analyzes the thing and circumstances in general), which has already been encountered in such conditions. With the help of establishing associations one can easily remember different things, names, events, numbers, learn languages.

The association is so holistic sensation, like other sensations - purely visual, auditory or tactile. The difference is that it lasts a little longer, and its character changes continuously.

Like other individual sensations, the association becomes distinct and consolidates as a result of frequent repetition. It is due to the frequent repetition of the constituent nervous processes become strongly connected, so that even the smallest excitement will entail the reproduction of the full association.

If a visual-auditory association is established, then with the slightest impact on any of the sensations, with a weak nervous excitation of the tactile, auditory or optic nerve with sound or form, it is reproduced in the entire consciousness.

People, creative professions or with creative mental composition can create their own creative associations, finding memorable, diverse and interesting ideas. Those associations that a person creates, can erase or correct, are called managed. By managing such associations, a person can also manage memory and attention.

If a person wants to remember what he needs to take, leaving the house, it is necessary to clearly present the hallway, and immediately comes up in memory: “Umbrella”. If a person wants to remember an interesting story and tell later in the company, he should be well aware of the situation where they will gather together with the company. Then getting into this situation with that company, he will remember this story.

Types of associations in psychology

There are types of associations for similarity, contiguity, contrast, cause-effect.

When a person must memorize a gymnastic exercise, which consists of ten consecutive elements in the performance, connections are formed between the components of this exercise, which are called associations by contiguity.

Nervous processes that ensure the implementation of any element that can cause the effects of nervous processes that are associated with the following. As a result, the individual consistently and accurately performs the exercises. Such associations are based on spatial relationships and time frames between objects.

Types of associations by adjacency are also present when memorizing verbal information, when learning poems or languages.

Some others are types of associations by similarity. They manifest themselves when, when perceiving things in memory, memories of an object similar to it are evoked, even if the latter is not previously perceived together with it. This means that these associations appear when objects are similar to each other.

So, it often seems to people that they have already seen the same dance before, in the same place, but another person was dancing. For example, someone sings in the same tone as a famous singer. Or contemplation of the picture with the landscape suggests the idea of ​​similar memories, when previously observed the landscape in the living. Here, the memory caused by the initial irritation is attributed to phenomena that have never been perceived in contiguity or at the same time. It turns out that one phenomenon excites the second immediately.

Associations by similarity are formed on the similarity of mental connections, which are caused by two similar subjects. So, both dances are similar in style and are played on the same stage. The song is the same, the voice sounds like that of a singer, but it is sung by a person who unprofessionally performs singing himself. Once a man was on vacation, he remembered the sand and the waves of the sea, so when he saw them on the landscape, he mentally transferred himself there.

Such similar moments of perceived objects generate corresponding similar connections, which reflect features common to both objects. Due to this, the excitation of connections of the brain, which belong to one object, naturally causes the activation of connections, which belong to the second.

Such similarity associations are important in learning. So students can compare the studied facts and objects with those studied earlier, find common features, which helps to better memorize and assimilate the necessary information.

Associations of contrast are close to them. The perception of an object causes a memory of another object, which is characterized by absolutely opposite properties. When a person gets to a poorly-crafted stadium, in his memory there are ideas about the previously seen exemplary stadium. Looking for an unsuccessful exercise, for example, performing a flip, you can try to remember how the master of sports performs this flip perfectly.

Contrasting associative connections are temporary and contain ideas about ascertaining objects in the form of elements that are opposite in meaning and nature, which are part of an integral phenomenon. This is facilitated by the fact that in everyday practical activity these opposing objects (self-discipline and disorganization, dirt and cleanliness) are usually compared, which leads to the formation of corresponding nervous connections.

Types of associations are divided into simple and complex. Simple - in contrast, similarity, contiguity. Complicated - in meaning, they arise when one phenomenon is a consequence of another or is part of another object.