Psychology and Psychiatry

Authoritarianism

Authoritarianism - this is a characteristic of a person, reflecting his strong desire to maximize the subordination of other personalities to his influence. Authoritarianism is a synonym for such concepts as totalitarianism, authoritarianism, totalitarianism, anti-democracy. In the behavior of an individual, this socio-psychological characteristic is expressed in the striving to achieve one's own, dominate the group, occupy the highest position, tendency to manipulate others, achieve goals, but not so much because of their own merits, but with the help of other people and the advantage of their role.

The authoritarianism is quite clearly observed in the relationship of the leader and his followers. It is expressed in the pressure of the head on his subordinates, in the elimination of colleagues or teams from participating in important decisions. A supervisor with an authoritarian management style oversees the wards too closely; checks, privately, how they cope with the responsibilities given to them, which they make decisions in carrying out any assignment, too rudely suppresses all initiatives of the group members, since he sees this as self-will and even encroachment on his personal authority in this group.

Authoritarianism is a characteristic of thinking, which gives an exaggeration and crucial importance to the opinion of certain authorities. Such thinking is characterized by the desire to concretize and strengthen the propositions put forward, by finding and combining various sayings and quotations belonging to certain authorities. Also, these authorities become idols, ideals who never make mistakes and guarantee success for those who follow them.

Authoritarianism in psychology is a characteristic of a person, manifested in aggressiveness, heightened self-esteem, tendency to observe stereotypes, level of aspirations, and weak reflection.

Authoritarianism - what is it

In the development of personality authoritarianism, not only psychological factors, external conditions, but also the situation in which authoritarianism develops are of great importance. A person who has a share of authoritarianism in her character is unprotected from the influence of negative factors; she perceives the world as a dangerous one, carrying a potential threat from everywhere. But in the world it turns out that some start hiding, take a passive position, while others become active because they believe that it is better to attack and defend, therefore they become leaders subordinating to themselves these passive ones.

Authoritarianism is a socio-psychological characteristic of an individual, a style of leadership that he implements in relation to his subordinates, partners in interaction and communication.

Authoritarianism in psychology is a characteristic that has such behavioral signs: aggressiveness, high self-esteem, tendency to dictatorship, behavioral stereotypes, patterned statements.

Authoritarianism characterizes the desire of a person to tight control over the tasks of his subordinates, relatives or colleagues. A person who is characterized by authoritarianism remains so at home, he oversees how well everyone performs his duties at home, without giving a descent.

Since authoritarianism is synonymous with totalitarianism, the opposite here is democracy. If we consider authoritarianism in a political context, as one of the political regimes, then it is worth saying that here power comes down to a specific person (class, party, elite), with the least participation of society, and characteristic bureaucratic methods of managing society.

The authoritarianism of the policy is distinguished by the fact that all power really concentrates on one institution or person, controlled pluralism in actions and political opinions is allowed. Society is required to demonstrate loyalty to the authorities, but excludes the possibility of their participation in making significant decisions for society.

Parents who show authoritarianism in raising a child show their love to children to a rather small extent, they seem to be excluded from them, they cannot understand their need to praise them for their achievements and successes. Such parents relate to their own children, as if to subordinates, give them orders and instructions, which they are obliged to follow without question. Without paying special attention to the needs, desires and opinions of children, not to mention the possibility of a compromise with them.

Families that use authoritarianism in their upbringing value the respect for traditions, respect and obedience quite highly. Rules set by parents are not discussed. Parents who are inherent in authoritarianism think that they are always right, that their rules are the best, that is why disobedience of children is punished, very often in a physical way.

Authoritarian parents can make them tough tyrants. More often, they are simply very strict, but they do not cross the line, leading up to beating up children and cruel treatment. They limit the freedom and independence of the child himself, without justifying his demands on him, accompanying the instructions with severe prohibitions, physical punishment, strict control and reprimands. For the sake of avoiding punishment, children of such parents strive constantly and unquestioningly to obey them, becoming needless. Authoritative parents expect children to become more mature than their peers, that they will be ahead of their age. The activity of such children is low, since this approach in education is focused only on the needs of their parents.

Authoritarianism in education contributes to the development of a number of shortcomings in a child, negative moments in personal development. When the child reaches adolescence, other problems begin to form that the authoritarianism of the parents gives rise to. There are frequent misunderstandings, conflicts, hostility. Some teenagers even leave the house in which they lived with their families in order to free themselves from parental reproaches and rules. But this can be done by exceptionally strong and active adolescents who have enough effort to leave. Uncertain and timid adolescents can’t do this, because they are more pliable, easily obey authority and learn to listen to adults, do not try to make any attempt to solve anything on their own.

Also, children of authoritarian parents in adolescence are more easily influenced by their peers, so they subordinate their behavior to their orders, get used to discuss their own problems with them, and not with their parents. They falsely think that parents will not pay any attention, they will never understand them, so they consider it unnecessary to bother themselves if they are equally wrong. Disillusioned with their expectations, they get closer to the company and move away from their parents, protesting their principles, rules and values.

In relations, authoritarianism is synonymous with despotism, not excluding the relationship of parents with a child. Authoritarianism in upbringing is a big problem, since it leaves its mark in the formation of the child’s personality. According to statistics, boys suffer more from violence in families where parental authoritarianism flourishes. Authoritarian parents are more loyal to girls. Such children are not confident of personal success, they have low self-esteem, they are less stress-resistant, unbalanced and indecisive. There are studies that demonstrate that indecisive children do not know how to socially adapt, they rarely initiate any kind of joint activity with their peers, they are difficult to get acquainted with.

Authoritarianism in upbringing is a negative factor affecting the fact that the child is not curious, cannot act spontaneously, improvise, cannot defend his opinion, becomes irresponsible, and therefore often hears the opinion of older people themselves. Children brought up in authoritarianism form a mechanism of external control, which rests on a sense of guilt and fear of punishment, and when the threat from the outside of punishment disappears, the child’s behavior becomes antisocial.

Authoritarian relations completely turn off spiritual closeness to children, attachment is rarely formed between parents and children, which can lead to hostility, alertness and suspicion towards others.

When a partner is authoritarian in a relationship, the other will suffer greatly. Therefore, a full-fledged family, where the partners will have mutual respect, sincere love, communication on an equal footing, cannot be talked about. When one of the partners realizes that the second one suffers from authoritarianism, he tries to get away from the relationship, as this will only poison the lives of both, he also does not want children raised in tyrannical conditions in the future. Although there are exceptions, when the partner takes the position of the victim, and lives like that all his life.

Often, people confuse the concepts of authority and authoritarianism, but there is a significant difference between them. Authority is a form of influence acquired through certain behavior, wisdom, adherence to certain rules, ethical norms and public morality. Reputable personalities earn respect regardless of personal opinions about the virtues that emu ultimately gives respect. The word authority comes from the Latin. "auctoritas" and means "influence", "power", authoritarian personalities dominate the minds precisely because of their reputation.

Authoritarianism is a style of behavior in which the right of power is proclaimed by a person independently. A person who has a priori power can become an authoritarian leader if he has not been able to adequately cope with the power that was given to him. Since a person already had a certain part of power, it would be very difficult to prevent its expansion.

If we briefly define the difference between the concepts of authority and authoritarianism, then authority is the power that people around them endow themselves with, authoritarianism is the power that a person "knocks out" on his own, forcing others around obedience. Authoritarianism or simply the presence of power does not always mean authority, it must be earned.

How to develop authoritarianism

It is considered by most to be that authoritarianism is a negative characteristic, but there are reasons to believe that there is also a positive point. With proper behavior building, authoritarianism helps the manager cope with the amount of information, with subordinates, various responsibilities, however, authoritarianism in education is a negative tactic and, as mentioned above, the relationship with the child should not be compromised, therefore in this case it is better not to use it. However, a person who is truly authoritarian is everywhere.

If, for certain reasons, a person deems it necessary to develop authoritarianism in himself, this is his right, for this he can use certain recommendations. A person who is endowed with authoritarianism is always self-confident. After all, if he were uncertain, he would not have been able to achieve power, therefore self-confidence must be developed. It is advisable to train in front of the mirror, pronouncing various appeals, slogans, so that you can immediately see which posture is best to take, which look to make. Inner strength increases if outwardly a person looks confident. Surrounding people immediately notice the gait, the look of a strong personality, so when entering the room where there are already other people, the authoritarian person behaves so that others feel that the whole room belongs only to him.

The personality, which is inherent in authoritarianism, recognizes only the closest environment, consisting of individuals like it, but not so strong as to damage it. He respects these “friends”, and he hates “strangers” (not like him). The inconsistency of the "standards" is strongly condemned. Any dissent aggressively suppressed.

You need to remember that any means to achieve the goal is good. If you have to take advantage of this for others, then it must be so. Therefore, it is not necessary to become very attached to people, because they can then become a means in achieving goals.

To behave like an authoritarian person, you must learn to interact with others in a vertical pattern: "If I say, you listen, you don't interrupt, you don't discuss, then you perform." Children are easily affected by such an impact, and often parents are forced to resort to this technique so that the child can do what is right in time.

Often conditions force parents to show authoritarianism, therefore their position is forced. So, mothers charge themselves with a lot of cases, because of which they are in constant stress, which increases tension and translates into pressure on the child. Single mothers become authoritarian "will of fate", no one helps them, so fearing not to cope with raising a child herself, these women turn into despots.

If a manager wants to be authoritarian in the eyes of his subordinates, he can use some methods. For example, to introduce the method of penalties, one of the popular ways to guarantee unquestioning obedience. Thanks to these sanctions, subordinates will develop a fear of punishment, which will be a negative reinforcement of disobedient behavior.

When communicating with subordinates, any conversation should end with the order. It can be varied - from a request to make coffee, or to lay paper in a printer before ordering to go to a meeting, pick up documents. It is worth doing so that subordinates do not relax, do not admit the thought that it is just possible to exchange a few phrases with the boss. It is necessary to develop team intonations in oneself, to polish the tones so that in a single tone one can convey the absolute importance of the task. The voice should be strong, confident, with pressure. Arrangements are clear, concise and clear.

It should not give others to decide important decisions, not to share information, do not ask for their advice or opinion. It is better to sit down, think about everything thoroughly and categorically express your verdict: "I decided - and so it should be. To fulfill!".

Persons with authoritarianism are conservatists; they follow traditions. Their speeches are stereotypical, and their behavior is stereotyped, which claims consistency. The authoritarian individual considers himself a winner, so he is always determined to win, not giving doubts to sneak into his thoughts. Since thoughts are material, one should say to oneself: “I am the best,” “I am unique”, “I am confident”, “I am strong”, “I have the power, I can do everything”, etc. Of course, all thoughts must be firm, positive and directed towards becoming an independent and powerful person. Confidence and pride must exist not only in one head and remain thoughts, they must be manifested in deeds.