Psychology and Psychiatry


Identification - this is likening a person to another individual, group or invented character. Identification is the mechanism of protection of the psyche, which is contained in the unconscious identification of the object that causes anxiety or fear. Identification is translated from lat. language "identificare", as identification, the root of "iden" means something that does not change for a long time. Given such a definition, we can formulate the concept of identification, as similarity or conformity with something to an existing sample, taken as a basis, having the designated stable parameters. The mechanism of protection of the psyche is situational, unconscious, in which a person likens himself to a particular other significant person, as a model. The basis of such assimilation is the emotional connection between people.

Types of identification

The identity in the narrow sense is the identification of a person with other people. Allocate primary and secondary identification. Primary is the identification of the infant first with the mother, then with the parent, the sex of which corresponds to the child. Secondary occurs a little later with people who are not parents.

When identifying with a fictional character (from literature, a movie), there is an insight into the meaning of the work of art itself, at which the individual begins to experience aesthetically.

The identification mechanism begins to be active since childhood. The child gradually forms similar traits and stereotypes of actions, value orientations, and sexual identity ripens.

Situational identification is often manifested in children's games. Situational identification examples: identification of the child with his parents, loved one, brother (sister). This identification is expressed in an intense desire to become like a significant person.

Group identification is a stable assimilation of a person to a community and group, it is displayed in the adoption of goals, group values, as their own; comprehend yourself as a group member. The described concept is often found in engineering, legal, criminal psychology, and serves as an identification, recognition of some objects (people), the assignment of these objects to a particular class or recognition by comparing known signs.

Social identification reflects the process of classification, perception, evaluation, self-identity, as an agent who occupies a specific position in the social circle. It is a way of comprehending one’s own belonging to social groups. The identification of a person as a biological individual with social groups makes him a social person and an active person, which allows him to evaluate personal social connections, to use the term “We”.

Personal identification is a set of traits that are distinguished by their constancy; they allow differentiating a particular person from other personalities. Personal identification is understood as a complex of characteristics, which makes a person self-similar and distinctive from others.

Personal identity (Self-identity) is the unity and consistency of life-meaning attitudes, motives, goals of life of the person who understands himself as the subject of active activity. It is also not a collection of special features, or a special quality that a person owns. This is the human self (the true essence). It manifests itself in the actions, actions of a person, in the reactions of others to him, most of all in his ability to understand and maintain the history of the personal “I”.

Identification types also include ethnic identification. Ethnic is one of the most stable types of social identification. It is designated as the emotional result of the cognitive process of self-determination of an individual or a small group in a social space, characterized by an understanding of personal belonging to an ethnic culture, as well as understanding, experiencing and evaluating one's position.

Political identification - the identification of a person with a specific position in life. It is expressed as the unity of the attitudes and orientations of the political subject, the coincidence of ways to achieve political goals, arises from the adoption of political roles and the emotional relationship of the personality with the political force.

Political identification is a statement regarding political leaders, institutions, and various issues related to politics.

What is identification?

Identification identification is the deep need of an individual to establish coincidences and similarities with the object of worship. A person who perceives the world as a system of mysterious phenomena and things becomes unable to independently realize the meaning of being and the purpose of the surrounding world. Such a person needs a stable orientation system, which would enable him to compare himself with a specific sample. A mechanism of this kind was first developed in Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory. He singled it out on the basis of personal observation of pathological cases, and later extended it to a "healthy" spiritual life.

The identification mechanism Sigmund Freud viewed as an attempt of a weak person (or child) to learn from himself the power of significant other personalities who are authorities for him. Thus, an individual decreases anxiety and a sense of fear of reality. It has been established that a person has a deep need to constantly observe personalized patterns in his field of vision. Applied psychoanalysis also studies the types of identification mechanisms associated with the organization of various social movements and the manifestation of the charisma of political leaders.

There are some methods of identification that are applied in different areas of life (psychology, criminology, medicine).

Identification methods include the study of such biometrics: fingerprints, face shapes, retina, iris, voice uniqueness, handwriting and signature originality, "keyboard" handwriting, etc.

Identification methods are divided into static and dynamic techniques. Static - formed on the unique human properties, given from birth, not separate from the organism. These are physiological properties - palm pattern, face geometry, retina pattern, etc.

Dynamic - based on the dynamic (behavioral) characteristics of the individual. Behavioral features are manifested in the subconscious movements carried out by man - speech, the dynamics of typing on the keyboard, handwriting. These dynamic characteristics are influenced by controlled and less well-controlled psychological factors. Due to inconsistency, biometric samples need to be updated when used.

One of the popular methods is fingerprinting. Dactyloscopy is based on the originality of the papillary patterns of the fingers of each person. Fingerprint contouring is acquired using a special scanner, which can be correlated with existing fingerprints in the database and identify the person. Another static method is the identification of the shape of the hand. To do this, measure the shape of the brush. Identification of the uniqueness of the iris and the pattern of the retina is performed by a special scanner that is not hazardous to vision.

Creating a two / three-dimensional face is also a static method. With the help of a camera and a special program, facial features (contours of lips, nose, eyes, eyebrows, etc.) are distinguished. Calculates the distance between these indicators and other parameters. According to the information received, an image of the individual's face is formed.

The dynamic method is the identification of a person by the characteristics of his signature and handwriting. In this method, the main thing is the stability of the uniqueness of the handwriting of each person (feather pressure, curls, volume, etc.). The characteristics of the handwriting are examined, then they are processed into a digital image and subjected to processing by a computer program.

Another dynamic method is recognition by typing dynamics by keyboard keys ("keyboard handwriting"). The process is similar to handwriting recognition. However, it uses a keyboard instead of paper, and instead of a signature a certain code word. The main characteristic is the dynamics of the computer set of this code word.

The voice recognition method is a method that is very convenient in its application. He began to use, due to the extensive distribution of telephone communications and various gadgets with microphones. The problem with this method is factors that affect the quality of voice recognition: noise, interference, pronunciation errors, uneven emotional state, etc.

Identification in psychology

This concept in psychology describes a process where a person is partially or completely dissimilated (rejected) from himself. Unconscious projection by man of his own personality on who and what he really is not: the other person, business, object, location. This is identification, unconscious assimilation with another person, ideal, group, phenomenon, process.

Identification is a significant part of the normal formation of personality.

Identification examples: identifying a child with a father, which means mastering his way of thinking and stereotypes of actions or identifying siblings who exchange information, constantly interact, as if they are not individually individuals.

Identification may be confused with imitation. However, it is distinctive, because imitation is a purely conscious imitation of another person, and identification is unconscious. It contributes to the development of man, until his individual path is laid. When a better opportunity arises, it reveals a pathological nature, further leads to a suspension of development, although it has previously promoted development. This mechanism contributes to the dissociation of personality, that is, the splitting of the subject into two alien to each other personality.

Identification concerns not only some subjects, but also objects, phenomena, psychological functions. The identification of psychological functions leads to the creation of a secondary nature, the individual identifies himself so much with the most developed function in himself that he is far from the initial deviation of his own character, as a result, the true individuality becomes unconscious.

Such an outcome is regular in individuals with a developed primary (leading) function. This has some significance in the individualization of a person. Assimilation of the child to the closest family members is partly normal, because it converges with the original family identity. It is more appropriate to talk about identity, not identification.

Identification with relatives, as opposed to an identity, is not a priori fact, but is composed in a secondary way in the subsequent process. The individual, emanating from the initial family identity in the path of personal development and adaptation, encounters obstacles that require efforts to overcome them, resulting in a stagnation of the libido (vital energy), which begins the search for a regression path. Regression allows you to return to the previous state, and in the family identity. On this path, any identification takes shape, it has its own goal - to comprehend the way of thinking and stereotypes of the action of another subject, for the sake of achieving a certain benefit or eliminating some obstacle, solving the problem.

Collectivist identification is manifested in collective activities, when the experiences of one member of a group are offered to others as motives of behavior that form their common activity. This means unity of motivation and the formation of relationships based on moral principles. Most expressed in complicity and sympathy, when a group member emotionally responds to the success, happiness or grief of each. Collectivist identification is expressed through the recognition of the other and equal obligations for oneself, manifested in the provision of support and participation, the demanding attitude of the others towards themselves.

The psychological basis of collectivist identification is the individual readiness to act in collective activities, to experience, feel others, like yourself. This phenomenon prevails in the group of significant development, without paying special attention to the personal preferences of team members. Manifestations of collectivist identification, mediated by value orientations of joint activities, by meaningful attitudes become stable characteristics of each team member and cease to be dependent on subjective sympathies.

Collectivist identification occurs at about preschool and school age during the cooperation between children.

Narcissistic identification shows self-projection to the “I” as a lost subject if the alienated libido is oriented towards the “I”, while the individual treats the personal “I” as an abandoned object and directs ambivalent impulses to it, which includes aggressive components among others.

Gender identification expresses the integrity of the behavior and self-awareness of the individual, which refers to one of the sexes, is oriented towards the requirements of their own sex.

Gender identification expresses one aspect of gender, which is defined as self-identification of a person with a specific gender, self-awareness of a woman, a man, or an intermediate state. It is worth remembering that gender identity will often, but not always, correspond to the biological sex. Thus, a woman brought up in a certain situation, can feel more like a man, and vice versa.