There are two forms of socialization - directional and non-directional.
Directed (spontaneous) - is a spontaneous formation of social qualities as a result of a person's stay in the immediate close social environment (in the family, between co-workers, peers).
Directed socialization is a system of methods of influence, specially developed by society, its institutions, organizations, with the aim of forming a personality in accordance with the values, interests, ideals prevailing in a given society, as well as goals.
Education is one of the ways of directed socialization. It is a deliberately planned, organized, purposeful process of influencing a developing person, her behavior and consciousness, with the goal of developing in her specific concepts, principles, value orientations and social attitudes and her preparation for active social, cultural and industrial activities.
Both forms (directional, nondirectional) in certain circumstances may be coordinated with each other or, on the contrary, conflict. The resulting contradictions often lead to conflict situations that complicate and impede the process of socialization of the individual.
The spontaneous form of socialization (non-directional) determined by the micro-social environment (close relatives, peers) and often contains a lot of obsolete and outdated rules, stereotypes, patterns, patterns of behavior. Along with a positive effect on an individual, it can also have a negative impact on an individual, pushing it towards negative, deviating from the norms established by society, which can lead to such a phenomenon as social pathology.
Undirected socialization without the inclusion of directed funds may be detrimental to the formation of a person, the social group of this person and the whole society. Therefore, it is very important to supplement it and transform the targeted corrective influences of directed socialization.
But directed socialization does not always lead to a positive educational outcome, which is especially evident when it is used for anti-human purposes, such as, for example, the activities of various religious destructive sects, the imposition of fascist ideology, the propaganda of racist sentiments. Therefore, the directed form of socialization can lead to a positive personality formation only if it is carried out in accordance with moral rules, moral criteria, freedom of conscience, responsibility and principles of a democratic society.
Stages of socialization
The process of socialization of personality takes place in three main phases. In the first phase, the development of social norms and value orientations takes place, the individual learns to conform to his society.
In the second phase, the individual strives for personalization, self-actualization, and active influence on members of society.
During the third phase, the individual is integrated into a social group, in which he reveals the peculiarity of personal properties and capabilities.
The successive process of socialization, the correct transition to each phase leads to a successful completion and achievement of results. Each stage has its own characteristics, and if all the conditions of socialization are met, then the process will be successful.
Allocate the main stages of socialization in the workplace - it is pre-labor, labor, post-labor.
As stages allocate:
- primary socialization, which proceeds from the moment of birth until the formation of the personality;
- secondary socialization, during which there is a restructuring of the individual in the period of maturity and being in society.
The main stages of the socialization process are distributed depending on the person's age.
In childhood, socialization begins with the birth of a person and develops from an early stage. In childhood, the most active personality formation takes place, during this period it is formed by 70%. If this process is delayed, then irreversible consequences will occur. Up to seven years, the awareness of one's own self occurs as a natural age, unlike older ones.
At the adolescent stage of socialization, the most physiological changes occur, the individual begins to mature, the personality develops. After thirteen years, children take on more and more responsibilities, so they become more knowledgeable.
In youth (early maturity) more active socialization occurs, as the individual actively changes his social institutions (school, college, institute). The age of sixteen is considered the most stressful and dangerous, because now the individual is more independent, he consciously decides which social society to choose and which society to join, since he will have to come to him for a long time.
At the age of about 18-30 years, socialization occurs in connection with work and personal relationships. Clearer ideas about themselves come to every young man or girl through work experience, friendship and relationships. Incorrect perception of information can lead to negative consequences, then a person closes in himself, and will lead an unconscious life up to a midlife crisis.
It should be noted once again that only if all the conditions of socialization are met, then, accordingly, the process of socialization will proceed as it should. Especially it is worth paying attention to the adolescent and youthful stage, since it is in young years that the most active formation of the personality and the choice of the social community takes place, with which a person needs to interact for many years to come.