Socialization - It is an integrative process of the subject's entry into the structure of society, through the mastery of social rules, values, orientations, traditions, the knowledge of which helps to become an effective individual of society. From the first days of its existence, a small person is surrounded by many people, he is already gradually involved in collective interaction. During relationships, a person acquires social experience, which becomes an integral component of the individual.

The process of socialization of the person is two-way: a person learns the experience of society, and at the same time actively develops relationships and connections. A person perceives, masters and transforms personal social experience into personal attitudes and positions. It is also included in the diverse social ties, the performance of various role functions, transforming these surrounding society and themselves. The real conditions of the collective life of the most urgent pose a problem that requires each of its connection to the social structure of the environment. In this process, the main concept and advocates socialization, allowing the individual to become a member of social groups, groups.

The process of socialization of the individual in the social strata is difficult and time-consuming, since it includes mastering the values ​​and laws of social life by a person, mastering various social roles.

Socialization of personality in psychology is a topic that is actively studied by many social psychologists. After all, a person has a social essence, and his life is a process of continuous adaptation, which requires stable changes and updates.

The process of socialization involves a high level of inner activity of the individual, the need for self-realization. Much depends on the vital activity of a person, the ability to effectively manage activities. But this process often occurs when the objective life circumstances give rise to certain needs of the individual, create incentives for activity.

The concept of socialization

The described process is determined by the social activity of individuals.

The process of socialization of the individual represents the entry of the individual into the social structure, as a result of which changes are made in the structure of the individual and society as a whole. As a result of socialization, the individual assimilates the norms of the group, values, patterns of behavior, social orientations, which are transformed into attitudes of a person.

Socialization of personality is extremely important for the successful functioning in society. This process goes on throughout the life of the individual, as the world moves and in order to move with it, it is necessary to change. A person undergoes permanent changes, he changes, both physically and psychologically, it is impossible for him to be permanent. It is this important concept, as the socialization of the personality in psychology, that many specialists who study personality, society and their interrelation are engaged in.

In this process, no one is immune from the occurrence of problems.

The problems of socialization are divided into the following three groups. The first one consists of the socio-psychological problems of socialization, which are associated with the formation of an individual's self-consciousness, his self-determination, self-assertion, self-actualization and self-development. At any stage, the problems have specific content, and various ways of resolving them appear. Only unchanged is their importance to the individual. She may not be aware of the existence of these problems, since they are deeply “buried” and make you think, acting in such a way as to eliminate the problem, to find an adequate solution.

The second group is cultural problems that arise, including each stage. The content of these problems depends on the achievement of a certain level of natural development. These problems are associated with regional differences arising in different rates of physical maturation, so in the southern regions it is faster than in the north.

Cultural problems of socialization concern the formation of stereotypes of femininity and masculinity in different ethnic groups, regions, and cultures.

The third group of problems is socio-cultural, which, in their content, have the individual's introduction to the level of culture. They relate to personal value orientations, worldview of a person, his spiritual warehouse. They have a specific character - moral, cognitive, value, semantic.

Socialization is divided into primary and secondary.

Primary - is implemented in the field of close relationships. Secondary socialization is carried out in formal business relations.

Primary socialization has such agents: parents, close friends, relatives, friends, teachers.

The secondary agents are: the state, the media, representatives of public organizations, the church.

Primary socialization proceeds very intensively in the first half of the life of an individual, when he is raised by his parents, attends a pre-school institution, school, acquires new contacts. The secondary, respectively, takes place in the second half of life, when an adult is brought into contact with formal organizations.

Socialization and education

Upbringing, as opposed to socialization, proceeds under conditions of spontaneous interaction between the individual and the environment, is considered as a consciously controlled process, for example, religious, family or school education.

Socialization of personality is a process in pedagogy that is studied incessantly from the process of education. The main task of education is the formation of a humanistic orientation in a growing individual, which means that in the motivational sphere of the personality, social motives, incentives for socially beneficial activities prevail over personal motives. In all that the individual thinks of, whatever he does, the motives of his actions must include the idea of ​​another individual, of society.

Social groups have a great influence on the process of socialization of the individual. Their influence is different at different stages of human ontogenesis. In early childhood, significant influence comes from the family, teenage - from peers, mature - from the working group. The degree of influence of each group is dependent on cohesion, as well as organization.

Education, in contrast to general socialization, is a purposeful process of influencing an individual, which means that with the help of education one can regulate the influence of society on an individual and create favorable conditions for the socialization of an individual.

Socialization of the personality is also an important topic in pedagogy, since socialization is inseparable from upbringing. Under the education refers to a social phenomenon that affects the tools of society on the individual. From this comes the connection between education and the social and political structure of society, which acts as a “customer” for the reproduction of a particular type of person. Education is a specially organized activity in the implementation of the set goals of education, in the pedagogical process, where the subjects (teacher and student) express active actions in achieving pedagogical goals.

The well-known psychologist S. Rubinstein argued that an important goal of education is the formation of a person’s personal moral position, and not the individual’s external adaptation to social rules. Education needs to be considered as an organized process of social interiorization of value orientations, that is, their transfer from the external to the internal plan.

The success of interiorization is carried out with the participation of the emotional and intellectual spheres of the individual. This means that when organizing the process of upbringing, the teacher needs to stimulate their students' understanding of their behavior, external requirements, sensual moral living, and civic position. Then education, as the process of interiorization of value orientations will be carried out in two ways:

- through communication and interpretation of useful goals, moral rules, ideals and norms of behavior. This will save the student from the natural search in which it is possible to encounter errors. This method is based on the content-semantic processing of the motivational sphere and conscious volitional work in rethinking its own attitude to the real world;

- through the creation of certain psychological and pedagogical conditions that would actualize the interests and natural situational impulses, thereby stimulating useful social activities.

Both ways are effective, only with their systematic use, integration and complementarity.

The success of education and socialization of young people is feasible, subject to the use of positive factors invested in social relations, lifestyle, neutralization of factors that prevent the implementation of the tasks of training, education and socialization.

Transformation of the system of education and upbringing can be successful only when it really becomes a public matter. It is worth reorienting social life, cultural environment, the system of training and education to the younger generation.

Socialization factors

There are many factors of socialization, they are all collected in two large groups. The first group consists of social factors that reflect the socio-cultural aspect of socialization and the problems relating to its historical, group, ethnic, and cultural specifics. The second group contains individual personality factors, expressed through the specifics of the life path of each person.

Social factors mainly include: macro factors, mesofactors and microfactors, which reflect different aspects of personal development (social, political, historical, economic), also the quality of life of an individual, the ecological situation of the area in which he lives, the presence of frequent occurrences of extreme situations and other social circumstances.

Macro factors consist of the natural and social determinants of personal development, which are due to its residence in social communities. Macro factors include the following factors:

- the state (country), as a concept that is adopted to highlight a community of individuals living within certain territorial boundaries, united for economic, political, historical, social and psychological reasons. The peculiarity of the development of a state (country) determines the peculiarities of socialization of people in a particular region;

- culture is a system of spiritual aspects of the livelihood of people and their socialization. Culture encompasses all the vital aspects - biological (food, natural needs, rest, sexual intercourse), production (creation of material things and objects), spiritual (world outlook, language, speech activity), social (social relations, communication).

Mesofactors are caused by the person’s living in social groups of average size. Mesofactors include:

- ethnos - a stable aggregate of individuals historically formed on a specific territory, which has a common language, religion, common cultural characteristics, as well as common self-consciousness, that is, the awareness by each individual that they are one and different from other groups. The individual’s belonging to a nation determines the specifics of his socialization;

- type of settlement (city, region, village, village), which for various reasons, gives the originality of the socialization of people living in it;

- regional conditions are features specific to the socialization of the population living in a particular region, state, part of the country that has distinctive features (historical past, a single economic and political system, social and cultural identity);

- mass media are technical means (radio, television, print) responsible for spreading information to large audiences.

Microfactors are the determinants of socialization, related to the upbringing and training in small groups (work collective, educational institution, religious organization).

The most significant in the socialization of the individual is the historical development of the country, group, community, collective. At each stage of development of society, different requirements for the individual follow. So, often there is information that the individual could find himself and be fully aware only within a certain team.

In stable times of social development, individuals were more adapted to society, in which orientations toward group values ​​prevailed, whereas at critical, critical historical moments, various types of people became more active. Some were those who were simultaneously dominated by individual and universal claims, others were those who had escaped from social crises, using their usual stereotypes of orientation to group norms inherent in the stable development of society.

Under the circumstances of a social crisis, the predominance of the second type leads to the search for "external" enemies, the removal of all aliens who approach the group, preferring their own (national, age, territorial, professional) group. Individual factors are also significant. From the side of psychology, the process of socialization cannot be a simple and mechanical reflection of socially tested social experience. The process of learning this experience is subjective. Some social situations can be experienced in very different ways by different individuals, so each person can take completely different social experiences from the same situations. Much depends on the conditions in which individuals live and develop, where they undergo socialization. Quite differently, this process occurs at different stages of ontogenesis, during a period of social crisis.

The social crisis is characterized by the violation of the stable living conditions of society, the failure of its inherent value system, the alienation of people, and the increase in egoism. Particularly negative impact of the social crisis affects: adolescent children, young people on the path to becoming an individual, middle-aged people and the elderly.

The most developed people do not perceive the views imposed on them, they form their own, independent and different from the socially accepted, system of values. But it also does not mean that the vast majority of middle-aged people are not susceptible to the global changes taking place in society. However, the process of their personal socialization proceeds through a strong experience of the personal crisis, or it is relatively easy, if in calm, stable times of social development, it was between social outsiders, but in crisis circumstances their skills were in demand.

Forms of socialization

There are two forms of socialization - directional and non-directional.

Directed (spontaneous) - is a spontaneous formation of social qualities as a result of a person's stay in the immediate close social environment (in the family, between co-workers, peers).

Directed socialization is a system of methods of influence, specially developed by society, its institutions, organizations, with the aim of forming a personality in accordance with the values, interests, ideals prevailing in a given society, as well as goals.

Education is one of the ways of directed socialization. It is a deliberately planned, organized, purposeful process of influencing a developing person, her behavior and consciousness, with the goal of developing in her specific concepts, principles, value orientations and social attitudes and her preparation for active social, cultural and industrial activities.

Both forms (directional, nondirectional) in certain circumstances may be coordinated with each other or, on the contrary, conflict. The resulting contradictions often lead to conflict situations that complicate and impede the process of socialization of the individual.

The spontaneous form of socialization (non-directional) determined by the micro-social environment (close relatives, peers) and often contains a lot of obsolete and outdated rules, stereotypes, patterns, patterns of behavior. Along with a positive effect on an individual, it can also have a negative impact on an individual, pushing it towards negative, deviating from the norms established by society, which can lead to such a phenomenon as social pathology.

Undirected socialization without the inclusion of directed funds may be detrimental to the formation of a person, the social group of this person and the whole society. Therefore, it is very important to supplement it and transform the targeted corrective influences of directed socialization.

But directed socialization does not always lead to a positive educational outcome, which is especially evident when it is used for anti-human purposes, such as, for example, the activities of various religious destructive sects, the imposition of fascist ideology, the propaganda of racist sentiments. Therefore, the directed form of socialization can lead to a positive personality formation only if it is carried out in accordance with moral rules, moral criteria, freedom of conscience, responsibility and principles of a democratic society.

Stages of socialization

The process of socialization of personality takes place in three main phases. In the first phase, the development of social norms and value orientations takes place, the individual learns to conform to his society.

In the second phase, the individual strives for personalization, self-actualization, and active influence on members of society.

During the third phase, the individual is integrated into a social group, in which he reveals the peculiarity of personal properties and capabilities.

The successive process of socialization, the correct transition to each phase leads to a successful completion and achievement of results. Each stage has its own characteristics, and if all the conditions of socialization are met, then the process will be successful.

Allocate the main stages of socialization in the workplace - it is pre-labor, labor, post-labor.

As stages allocate:

- primary socialization, which proceeds from the moment of birth until the formation of the personality;

- secondary socialization, during which there is a restructuring of the individual in the period of maturity and being in society.

The main stages of the socialization process are distributed depending on the person's age.

In childhood, socialization begins with the birth of a person and develops from an early stage. In childhood, the most active personality formation takes place, during this period it is formed by 70%. If this process is delayed, then irreversible consequences will occur. Up to seven years, the awareness of one's own self occurs as a natural age, unlike older ones.

At the adolescent stage of socialization, the most physiological changes occur, the individual begins to mature, the personality develops. After thirteen years, children take on more and more responsibilities, so they become more knowledgeable.

In youth (early maturity) more active socialization occurs, as the individual actively changes his social institutions (school, college, institute). The age of sixteen is considered the most stressful and dangerous, because now the individual is more independent, he consciously decides which social society to choose and which society to join, since he will have to come to him for a long time.

At the age of about 18-30 years, socialization occurs in connection with work and personal relationships. Clearer ideas about themselves come to every young man or girl through work experience, friendship and relationships. Incorrect perception of information can lead to negative consequences, then a person closes in himself, and will lead an unconscious life up to a midlife crisis.

It should be noted once again that only if all the conditions of socialization are met, then, accordingly, the process of socialization will proceed as it should. Especially it is worth paying attention to the adolescent and youthful stage, since it is in young years that the most active formation of the personality and the choice of the social community takes place, with which a person needs to interact for many years to come.