Psychology and Psychiatry

Vegetative dystonia

Vegetative-vascular dystonia is a multi-symptom disorder that encompasses a variety of body systems. This failure is an autonomic dysfunction responsible for two key operations in the body: maintaining and maintaining the stability of the internal microenvironment of the body (blood pressure, sweating, body temperature, frequency of myocardial contractions and respiration, metabolic processes), and activation of functional systems adaptations to constantly fluctuating environmental conditions (stressors, physical work, weather fluctuations, climate).

The reasons

Often in the body of human subjects the efficiency of all elements of the nervous system is upset, the result is the development of the described disorder, which is observed in a third of the world's population. Manifestations of the failure in question are the response of organs to the anomalous and inconsistent functioning of parts of the autonomous system.

Vegetative-vascular dystonia, what is it in simple words? It is wrong to consider the described violation as a separate disease. Rather, it is a symptom associated with dysfunction of the internal organs. It appears due to the malfunctioning of the ganglion system.

The pathogenesis of this disease is quite heterogeneous. More often violation is found in the smallest members of society. Today, according to statistics, this condition is noted in 18% of children.

Below are the factors that cause the development of vegetative-vascular dystonia. A cardinal factor is the predisposition referred to as the "inheritance". More often described dysfunction passes through the female line (in other words, from parent to daughter), rather than from mother to son, and inheritance along the lines of the “originator of the clan” is quite a rare phenomenon. The weakness of the capillaries, the myocardium, often accompanied by organic damage to the nervous system, is also considered to be a frequent cause of the ailment.

Causes of vegetative-vascular dystonia is a consequence of mitochondrial diseases (mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to a breakdown of energy function at the cell level), hormonal disruptions caused, for example, by endocrine imbalance, menopause, or due to a natural hormonal rearrangement in puberty, during pregnancy.

Personal characteristics of the individual also often affect the possibility of the occurrence of this disease. For example, an suspicious individual who is prone to increased anxiety often suffers from the pathology described, rather than individuals who have a more stable psyche. In subjects with such a set of psycho-emotional characteristics, the risk of acquiring dystonia during stress, mental fatigue, and nervous exhaustion increases.

Sedentary existence is considered another condition leading to the formation of the imbalance under consideration. Individuals who have suffered from physical inactivity since childhood are predisposed to all kinds of ailments because of the weakness and instability of the body to a variety of influences from outside. The infectious process that occurs in an organ weakens it, which increases the susceptibility of this organ to the occurrence of other ailments, including the disease described. In addition, infectious foci can be located in the segments of the vegetative system, while destroying the nerve fibers, infringing neurons and individual nodes. This is a prerequisite for the formation of vegetative-vascular dystonia in children.

Infringement of nerve fibers due to osteochondrosis, starting in the cervical segment, leads to a defect in the nervous regulation, in particular, disruption of the functioning of the ganglion system nodes, localized in the cervical segment of the brain and responsible for the performance of the myocardium and central capillaries.

Vegetative-vascular dystonia, in addition to the above-mentioned defects in the functioning of organs, can give rise to the following ailments: pancreatitis, atherosclerosis, allergies, peptic ulcer, professional ailments, injuries of the skull or spine, nervous degeneration, mental disorders, concussion.

Not always the etiological factor of the disease in question is the presence of violations of an organic or physiological nature. Significantly increases the risk of the emergence of the considered state in persons who are constantly in a dysfunctional emotional environment (confrontation in family relationships, unhealthy microclimate at work, sustained intense emotional or intellectual stress, harmful working conditions). All of the above is excellent soil for the formation of the analyzed state.

Symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia

Many subjects today are familiar with the concept under consideration. Often with various disorders, you can see this diagnosis in the patient's medical record. But the true understanding of vegetative-vascular dystonia is absent in the majority.

In the first turn, you need to realize that this disorder is not an independent ailment. The described imbalance is considered to be a secondary manifestation of various disorders and defects in the normal functioning of the capillary system, which inevitably leads to a lack of oxygen to the tissues.

Vegetative-vascular dystonia is also referred to as myocardial neurosis or neurocirculatory dystonia. Considered ailment can be attributed to defects of cerebral circulation. Its symptoms are due to the state of the autonomic system, which is responsible for the balance of homeostasis, regulating body temperature, acid-base constancy, sugar concentration, blood pressure. Responsible for these indicators, the autonomous system facilitates the individual’s rapid response to transformations from the outside and the effects of stimuli. It is due to the presence of the function of regulating the invariance of the internal environment (control over the vegetative reactions) that the human subject adapts to external changes.

Symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia in adults are often quite diverse and can imitate other severe disorders. However, more often the symptoms are presented below the syndromes.

The cardialgic syndrome is represented by the appearance of discomfort in the myocardium region or in the retrosternal space, burning sensation and algia. The manifestations described are not due to physical overstrain and often occur at rest.

Symptomatology of the myocardium and the capillary system is expressed by myocardial rhythm disturbance (tachycardia or slowing of the rhythm), fluctuations in blood pressure, inadequate response of the peripheral capillaries (pallor of the dermis, marbling of the skin of the skin, chilliness of the extremities).

Syndrome disorders of sweating is manifested by increased sweating in the palms and feet.

Hyperventilation syndrome is expressed by an increase in the frequency of breathing, which is characterized by difficulty in breathing and a feeling of air deficiency.

Dysfunction of the digestive system is found in Algia, localized in the lower segments of the abdomen, bloating, unstable stool. In addition, there may be a violation of digestion, which is found in loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting.

Altered urination syndrome is manifested by frequent urination, often painful, in the absence of an inflammatory process.

Violations of thermoregulation are expressed by stable subfebrile condition in the absence of deterioration of health, signs of infectious processes or a decrease in temperature to 35 ° C.

The signs of vegetative-vascular dystonia, described above, can be paroxysmal or permanently present. Long-term dystonia without adequate therapeutic effects leads to secondary asthenia, the development of a depressive mood, the appearance of phobias and the weighting of the passage of vegetative-vascular dystonia in adults.

The above indicates that it is quite difficult to identify any specific and distinct manifestations of the dysfunction in question. Therefore, therapeutic measures and medicine for vegetative-vascular dystonia are selected individually, taking into account all the manifestations and history. And there is no single remedy conquering the violation described. Since the disease under consideration is a complex of syndromes caused by autonomic dysfunction. Most individual manifestations often confirm the presence of other pathologies that are not directly caused by dysfunction of the ganglion system or brain activity. However, in combination with the background of vascular or cardiac manifestations, they give reason to diagnose such a condition as the symptoms of the described disorder.

The following typical symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia in adults can be distinguished: headaches, weakness, excessive sweating, dizziness, panic attacks, drowsiness, increased anxiety, sharp emotional fluctuations, obsessive states, suspiciousness, fainting, growth of myocardial contractions, temperature drops.

Types of vascular dystonia

In order to correctly diagnose the condition described by the patient, and to choose drugs for treatment it is important to have information about the differences between the varieties of this condition and the accompanying symptoms.

In the first turn, vegetative-vascular dystonia is characterized by the severity of the course. There are three degrees of flow: mild, moderate and severe.

People experiencing vegetative dysfunction in the light during, almost do not feel its influence. The second and third degrees of percolation can significantly complicate the existence and reduce performance. The mild stage is often almost asymptomatic, as a result of which most people are unaware that they suffer from vegetative-vascular dystonia. She is usually accompanied by inconstant and short-term head algia and some irritability, minor algii in the myocardium, arising in waves due to emotional excitement or physical overstrain. The intervals between such manifestations are characterized by duration. Exacerbations or vascular crises occur once a year or less, which practically have no influence on the ability to work and daily life activity.

The average severity of dystonia is characterized by an increase in the number of manifestations and severity of symptoms. The periods of exacerbation are characterized by duration (several months), remission - short-term. With such a course, crises are quite frequent, which complicates the existence of subjects and affects the ability to work.

The most unpleasant form of the described pathology is a severe degree, characterized by the persistence of symptoms, an increase in the frequency of vegetative crises and the duration of exacerbations, which often leads to a transient loss of efficiency.

The classification of the disorder being analyzed is due to symptomatology, as a result of which the disorder described is of 4 types: hypertonic and hypotonic, mixed and cardiac. Each type is characterized by specific symptomatology, depending on which the medicine for vegetative-vascular dystonia is selected. That is why competent diagnostics is extremely important. Details about the symptoms of each are described below.

Hypertensive type got its name due to the main manifestation - increased pressure. It is worth noting that hypertension here is not the etiological factor that caused the vegetative disorder, but its consequence. The basis for the emergence of this type of dysfunction are disorders caused by the violation of trophism of organs due to dysfunction of the capillary system. This gives rise to a complex of symptoms, which includes arrhythmic disturbances, an increase in blood pressure for no apparent reason and its spontaneous decline to the limits of the norm, migraine attacks accompanied by strong allergies and photophobia, shortness of breath, increased anxiety, excessive sweating, increased temperature, disturbed sleep, trembling limbs, loss of appetite. Often the pressure reaches normal levels after a short rest or sleep.

Hypotensive dystonia develops with the predominance of the activity of the parasympathetic division of the ganglion system. The basis of its symptoms are the processes of inhibition. Vessels expand, consequently the tone falls. The result is a drop in systolic pressure. The type of vegetative-vascular dystonia under consideration is characterized by an abrupt lowering of the “upper” pressure. As a result, the person feels steady fatigue, working capacity is significantly reduced. Muscle weakness and drowsiness are observed. Often, against the background of the described state, appetite decreases, and "hungry" head algias arise, susceptibility to fainting increases.

Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is characterized by "signals" from the myocardium: heart alges in the central segment of the chest, passing into the subclavian or subscapular area, interruption of heartbeat, increased or inhibited heart rhythm. In the described condition, patients feel a lack of air and tightness in the chest area. There are also quite strong allergies, similar to angina, and accompanied by the inherent symptoms of this ailment, but pathological myocardial changes that do not pose a threat in case of vegetative-vascular dystonia.

The considered variations of vegetative disorder are rarely observed without admixture of other types of symptoms. More often there are manifestations, for example, hypotensive dystonia and cardiac or a combination of other types of symptoms.

Often, manifestations of hypertensive type are replaced by hypotensive symptoms or vice versa. The fourth type, called mixed, emerged precisely because of the high frequency of combining the manifestations of different variations of the described state.

Diagnostics

Due to the variety of symptoms, diagnosis often causes difficulties and forces the doctor to exclude various ailments accompanied by similar symptoms. Since dystonia is a multicomplex disorder, then before treating vegetative-vascular dystonia, a thorough diagnostic examination is necessary, since this ailment is characterized by a variety of manifestations, often indicative of other pathologies.

Diagnostic measures must begin with a history. Often during the collection of anamnesis, a generic factor is observed in the birth of autonomic dysfunction and psychosomatic disorders. In addition, the disease is often accompanied by myocardial ischemia, gastric ulcer, hyperthyroidism, bronchial asthma, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, neurodermatitis.

In children suffering from a vegetative disorder, there is often a history of difficulty in the process of carrying them, connective tissue dysplasia, the presence of recurrent focal infectious processes of an acute or chronic course. The state of the autonomous system is assessed by vegetative indicators, namely ensuring the health, tone, reactivity. In order to establish the state of tone, electrocardiography is used, individual complaints and the results of cardiointervalography (cardiac rhythm assessment) are taken into account.

Ensuring activity and reactivity is investigated by conducting a pharmacological test (carried out with medications affecting the arteries and myocardial functionality) or klinorostatic (determined by the response to the transfer of the body from the horizontal position to the vertical position and the maintenance of this position). The information obtained contributes to the assessment of the vegetative response.

Diagnosis of vascular dystonia often uses the following methods:

- Echoencephalography (ultrasound echography);

- electroencephalogram (graphic image of bioelectric brain activity);

- rheovasography (study of blood circulation in the extremities), rheoencephalogram (study of brain capillaries).

These methods contribute to obtaining a complete picture of the functioning of the central nervous system and the patient's condition, the identification of intracranial hypertension and changes in the capillaries. In addition to the above, the patient also needs consultations of some narrow specialists, for example, an oculist, endocrinologist, Laura, a neuropathologist, and sometimes a psychiatrist.

Since vegetative-vascular dysfunction is not a disease of the nosological variety, but is an exclusively malfunction of the endocrine glands, individual organs, the diagnosis of this disorder primarily studies the etiological factor, which must also be taken into account when prescribing targeted therapy.

Лечение вегето-сосудистой дистонии

In the case of the violation described, therapeutic measures should be complex, long-term, take into account the peculiarities of dysfunctions, the etiological factor and individual specifics of the person. With the ongoing course of this violation therapeutic measures will be long.

So, how to treat vegetative-vascular dystonia? As a rule, therapeutic measures involve the use of non-drug schemes, which can be supplemented with sedatives.

Drug-free therapeutic interventions include:

- the maximum possible exclusion of conditions that provoke the onset of symptoms of the described dysfunction;

- a proportionate ratio of the vigil and dream, the observance of the daily routine, including the time for an eight-hour (at least) night's sleep;

- adequate physical exercise (morning exercises, swimming, dancing);

- tempering procedures;

- Massaging of the neck area and head, back massage;

- adherence to healthy nutrition (use of fortified foods, replacement of a part of animal origin with vegetable fats, exclusion of marinades, pickles, drinks containing caffeine);

- psychotherapeutic correction, which focuses on the normalization of the patient's attitude to the circumstances and the elimination of psychological tension;

- phytotherapeutic drugs;

- aromatherapy procedures.

When diagnosing vegetative-vascular dystonia treatment, drugs are prescribed exclusively by the treating physician. The therapeutic effect is focused on restoring the balance in the functioning of the ganglion system. Treatment in adults is mostly symptomatic. The choice of pharmacopoeial means due to the peculiarities of the state. Usually, the appointment of anxiolytics, which eliminate anxiety, fears, and psychotropic drugs, aimed at relieving depression, is practiced. In addition to these categories of drugs, drugs that lower or increase pressure are also used. B-group vitamin preparations and beta-blockers are required.

For venous insufficiency, phlebotonics (Detralex) are used. In order to eliminate headaches, analgesics are used, for example, Spasmalgon, in order to reduce blood pressure indicators, Papazol and Captopril are prescribed. Normalization of the functioning of the brain capillaries is possible with the help of Glycine, it is possible to improve the metabolic processes in the myocardium through the appointment of Riboxin.

It is also recommended that a general strengthening therapy, namely the use of vitamin complexes, the appointment of mineral-containing products containing zinc, selenium and magnesium. In addition to these drugs recommended the use of funds that expand the capillaries (Cavinton), normalizing sleep (Imovan) and adrenaline production blockers (Obsidan).

Also in the therapeutic strategy it is necessary to include water procedures (for example, coniferous or turpentine baths), acupuncture, darsonvalization, electrosleep, electrophoresis (the choice of the drug is determined by individual symptoms).

In order for therapeutic measures to have the desired effect, first of all, a person should change his or her daily routine. Since the adequate functioning of the ganglion system is directly related to the correct balance of wakefulness, work and sleep.

Prevention

People suffering from the disorder being analyzed need to understand the importance of preventive measures, the implementation of which will not be superfluous even for healthy subjects. It should be emphasized that the disorder in question cannot lead to untimely death, since it is only a manifestation of autonomic dysfunctions.

Prevention of vegetative-vascular dystonia in adults and children should include such components as a balanced diet and balanced exercise, the ability to eliminate stress (physical and psychological) and water procedures. In addition, the appropriate organization of the daily routine of work and rest, as well as the allocation of adequate time for a full sleep.

The first position among preventive measures is taken by physical rehabilitation, which includes sports exercises. The most optimal today among the methods of physical rehabilitation is yoga. Its advantage lies in the availability of each, because the exercises do not require special physical training.

The second position given a reasonable diet and maintaining a diet. First of all, the diet of an individual suffering from the disease in question must be tasty and balanced. All foodstuffs used for nutrition should be enriched with minerals and vitamins, since it is these elements that can restore the correlation between autonomous system divisions, support the myocardium, and contribute to the adequate functioning of capillaries.

In the first turn, the nutrition of the patient must be properly organized. Preference should be given to natural products. The diet should contain tomatoes, dill, beans and sorrel. Animal-based fats are recommended to replace with vegetable oils. The amount of consumption of salt, flour products and sugar is recommended to be reduced, and the use of alcohol-containing liquids should be completely excluded.

The third position is occupied by water procedures, among which the most effective is considered to be a contrast shower. This procedure is unable to save a person from this disorder, but as a preventive measure it is irreplaceable. The action of the contrasting soul is aimed at eliminating fatigue, relieving tension, increasing the tone of the capillaries, preventing colds. There are several rules for using the described procedure.

First of all, at the initial stages of acquaintance with this procedure one should not practice too large temperature run. Water temperature should differ by a maximum of 18-20 ° C. In addition, cold water should not fall below the threshold of 18 ° С, and hot water should not exceed 40 ° С. Gradually, the temperature run can be increased. During the procedure, the person should not experience discomfort. It is necessary to begin the process and complete it with cold water, pouring over it at the beginning of the foot, then the knees, gradually moving the shower higher, reaching the shoulder girdle, you must switch to hot water and descend in the reverse order. It is recommended to begin with 5 alternations, gradually increasing to 11.

The use of the above preventive procedures ensures the rapid elimination of the described unpleasant symptoms.