Vegetative-vascular dystonia is a multi-symptom disorder that encompasses a variety of body systems. This failure is an autonomic dysfunction responsible for two key operations in the body: maintaining and maintaining the stability of the internal microenvironment of the body (blood pressure, sweating, body temperature, frequency of myocardial contractions and respiration, metabolic processes), and activation of functional systems adaptations to constantly fluctuating environmental conditions (stressors, physical work, weather fluctuations, climate).
Often in the body of human subjects the efficiency of all elements of the nervous system is upset, the result is the development of the described disorder, which is observed in a third of the world's population. Manifestations of the failure in question are the response of organs to the anomalous and inconsistent functioning of parts of the autonomous system.
Vegetative-vascular dystonia, what is it in simple words? It is wrong to consider the described violation as a separate disease. Rather, it is a symptom associated with dysfunction of the internal organs. It appears due to the malfunctioning of the ganglion system.
The pathogenesis of this disease is quite heterogeneous. More often violation is found in the smallest members of society. Today, according to statistics, this condition is noted in 18% of children.
Below are the factors that cause the development of vegetative-vascular dystonia. A cardinal factor is the predisposition referred to as the "inheritance". More often described dysfunction passes through the female line (in other words, from parent to daughter), rather than from mother to son, and inheritance along the lines of the “originator of the clan” is quite a rare phenomenon. The weakness of the capillaries, the myocardium, often accompanied by organic damage to the nervous system, is also considered to be a frequent cause of the ailment.
Causes of vegetative-vascular dystonia is a consequence of mitochondrial diseases (mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to a breakdown of energy function at the cell level), hormonal disruptions caused, for example, by endocrine imbalance, menopause, or due to a natural hormonal rearrangement in puberty, during pregnancy.
Personal characteristics of the individual also often affect the possibility of the occurrence of this disease. For example, an suspicious individual who is prone to increased anxiety often suffers from the pathology described, rather than individuals who have a more stable psyche. In subjects with such a set of psycho-emotional characteristics, the risk of acquiring dystonia during stress, mental fatigue, and nervous exhaustion increases.
Sedentary existence is considered another condition leading to the formation of the imbalance under consideration. Individuals who have suffered from physical inactivity since childhood are predisposed to all kinds of ailments because of the weakness and instability of the body to a variety of influences from outside. The infectious process that occurs in an organ weakens it, which increases the susceptibility of this organ to the occurrence of other ailments, including the disease described. In addition, infectious foci can be located in the segments of the vegetative system, while destroying the nerve fibers, infringing neurons and individual nodes. This is a prerequisite for the formation of vegetative-vascular dystonia in children.
Infringement of nerve fibers due to osteochondrosis, starting in the cervical segment, leads to a defect in the nervous regulation, in particular, disruption of the functioning of the ganglion system nodes, localized in the cervical segment of the brain and responsible for the performance of the myocardium and central capillaries.
Vegetative-vascular dystonia, in addition to the above-mentioned defects in the functioning of organs, can give rise to the following ailments: pancreatitis, atherosclerosis, allergies, peptic ulcer, professional ailments, injuries of the skull or spine, nervous degeneration, mental disorders, concussion.
Not always the etiological factor of the disease in question is the presence of violations of an organic or physiological nature. Significantly increases the risk of the emergence of the considered state in persons who are constantly in a dysfunctional emotional environment (confrontation in family relationships, unhealthy microclimate at work, sustained intense emotional or intellectual stress, harmful working conditions). All of the above is excellent soil for the formation of the analyzed state.
Symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia
Many subjects today are familiar with the concept under consideration. Often with various disorders, you can see this diagnosis in the patient's medical record. But the true understanding of vegetative-vascular dystonia is absent in the majority.
In the first turn, you need to realize that this disorder is not an independent ailment. The described imbalance is considered to be a secondary manifestation of various disorders and defects in the normal functioning of the capillary system, which inevitably leads to a lack of oxygen to the tissues.
Vegetative-vascular dystonia is also referred to as myocardial neurosis or neurocirculatory dystonia. Considered ailment can be attributed to defects of cerebral circulation. Its symptoms are due to the state of the autonomic system, which is responsible for the balance of homeostasis, regulating body temperature, acid-base constancy, sugar concentration, blood pressure. Responsible for these indicators, the autonomous system facilitates the individual’s rapid response to transformations from the outside and the effects of stimuli. It is due to the presence of the function of regulating the invariance of the internal environment (control over the vegetative reactions) that the human subject adapts to external changes.
Symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia in adults are often quite diverse and can imitate other severe disorders. However, more often the symptoms are presented below the syndromes.
The cardialgic syndrome is represented by the appearance of discomfort in the myocardium region or in the retrosternal space, burning sensation and algia. The manifestations described are not due to physical overstrain and often occur at rest.
Symptomatology of the myocardium and the capillary system is expressed by myocardial rhythm disturbance (tachycardia or slowing of the rhythm), fluctuations in blood pressure, inadequate response of the peripheral capillaries (pallor of the dermis, marbling of the skin of the skin, chilliness of the extremities).
Syndrome disorders of sweating is manifested by increased sweating in the palms and feet.
Hyperventilation syndrome is expressed by an increase in the frequency of breathing, which is characterized by difficulty in breathing and a feeling of air deficiency.
Dysfunction of the digestive system is found in Algia, localized in the lower segments of the abdomen, bloating, unstable stool. In addition, there may be a violation of digestion, which is found in loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting.
Altered urination syndrome is manifested by frequent urination, often painful, in the absence of an inflammatory process.
Violations of thermoregulation are expressed by stable subfebrile condition in the absence of deterioration of health, signs of infectious processes or a decrease in temperature to 35 ° C.
The signs of vegetative-vascular dystonia, described above, can be paroxysmal or permanently present. Long-term dystonia without adequate therapeutic effects leads to secondary asthenia, the development of a depressive mood, the appearance of phobias and the weighting of the passage of vegetative-vascular dystonia in adults.
The above indicates that it is quite difficult to identify any specific and distinct manifestations of the dysfunction in question. Therefore, therapeutic measures and medicine for vegetative-vascular dystonia are selected individually, taking into account all the manifestations and history. And there is no single remedy conquering the violation described. Since the disease under consideration is a complex of syndromes caused by autonomic dysfunction. Most individual manifestations often confirm the presence of other pathologies that are not directly caused by dysfunction of the ganglion system or brain activity. However, in combination with the background of vascular or cardiac manifestations, they give reason to diagnose such a condition as the symptoms of the described disorder.
The following typical symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia in adults can be distinguished: headaches, weakness, excessive sweating, dizziness, panic attacks, drowsiness, increased anxiety, sharp emotional fluctuations, obsessive states, suspiciousness, fainting, growth of myocardial contractions, temperature drops.