Distress - this in psychology means destructive stress, translated from Greek “di” is a disorder. The concept of distress was proposed by the physiologist Hans Selye in 1936. This state continues to be studied in science and at the moment. What is distress, what is meant by this term? Everyone has heard the concept of stress as a daily manifestation. Distress is a less common concept, however, it will help us to study the topic of stress more deeply, to divide “good” and “bad” stress, to learn the methods of prevalence over stressful situations.

Under the influence of various stressors today, emotional shakes come to the person at every step. If he successfully passes them, "overcomes" a stressful situation, then the skill to resist stress factors only grows, adaptability increases. But if the mechanisms are inefficient or the energy reserves are depleted, then distress comes to the place of beneficial stress. His symptoms - fatigue, irritability, weakening of sexual attraction, headaches, even oddities like unreasonable laughter or unexpectedly increased need for hot or sweet - deserve attention in order to find the cause of destructive stress, which is only intensified without working through.

Distress in psychology

Distress is associated with long-term psycho-physiological stress that leads to the depletion of the deep adaptation resources of a person and can lead to disorders - neuroses, the most common of them, as well as psychosis.

The causes of distress are long-term emotional stress, the impossibility of satisfying physical needs, or inadequate conditions for human life. But not objective conditions are especially important, but their subjective perception by the person himself. Therefore, the concept of distress implies in itself an excessive tension, which takes away from a person the ability to correctly and accurately respond to stimuli from the outside world.

If a person on a daily basis constantly experiences distress, everything does not suit him, there is no acceptance of life and joy from it, then this state of distress leads to the depletion of energy reserves, and subsequently to chronic fatigue syndrome.

Chronic distress is manifested in weakness and lethargy, apathy, and physiologically - in reduced immunity. A person’s ability to rejoice decreases, emotional distress arises — interest in many events disappears, there is no desire to do anything, to come to work, to perform ordinary household chores, even to communicate with loved ones.

Emotional chronic distress contributes to the development of a depressive state. No stimuli can encourage a person, only one desire remains - to relax, lying in bed. However, here it is not domestic laziness, but really the lack of strength for productive activities.

While depression has not acquired a clinical form and is at the stage of chronic fatigue only, psychologists recommend changing the scope of activities, habitual lifestyle and additionally introducing positive stress factors that stimulate various reserve forces of the body and give a charge of vivacity. As a result, with the same life variables, one can change the state of a person. For example, without changing the job, find more interesting sides in it. Among the positive stress factors that should help is early waking up in the morning, charging, which will ensure the production of endorphins, "joy hormones", which will create everything for further activity. It also acts as a cool shower or douche, breathing exercises - as a delay, and stimulation of breathing. But most importantly - the emotional mood, only by working on it, a person can overcome emotional distress. If a person wants enough joy in life, then you need to learn to create this joy, promote it in yourself, cultivate it. The question of what needs to be solved does not even need to be called a problem, because in this case it acquires a negative emotional charge, severity, which finds expression in bodily and unconscious reactions. It is necessary to consider each such situation simply as a question, a task that should be solved, for there are definitely two or three or more solutions. And choosing the best way to solve a problem, a person creates conditions for happiness and joy, since this is a creative process. When we begin to activate the creative forces in the body, we heal the whole body, we feel our own need and productivity, which gives a sincere state of joy and a positive attitude for successful activity further.

The difference between stress and distress

Stress is a positive phenomenon, as opposed to distress. The word "stress" in English means "stress." When a person is under stress, he experiences stress, but after him, relaxation and harmonious relaxation always occur. In the case of distress, after relaxation, there is no relaxation. And the person is in a state of constant clamping. And with the next distressing situation, this state is even more aggravated, with the result that a physiological shift appears - when the body is spasmodic and does not relax. This is the way to the disease.

Stress can not be avoided. From the point of view of positive psychotherapy, stress is an invitation to change, which comes to a person from new conditions. However, few people like to change themselves, usually prefer changes in other or environmental conditions. Well-known physiologist Hans Selye, and he owns the basic works on the topic of stress, wrote that a person can not be healed from stress, but can learn to enjoy it. Therefore, it is not necessary to strive to get rid of stress factors. In English, there is the term "excitement", literally translated into Russian as "excitement", but this word is suitable for describing the positive side of stress - the state of healthy excitement, excitement, agitation, which for some reason are perceived as negative in our mentality.

Hans Selye also compared stress with spicy seasoning and said that when this is not enough, life becomes fresh, but unbearable, if a lot. Therefore, the topic of stress always intersects with the issue of moderation. If stress stirs up interest, motivation and search in art, then this kind of stress is positive and is called eustress. An example here could be a jump from an airplane with a parachute. However, if the pressure increases, attention decreases, fatigue, irritability and frustration come, sometimes alternating with exhaustion and illness - this is a kind of negative stress, distress. The prefix "di" here means double the severity of stress, its immoderation.

The concept of health implies the ability to sometimes be sick, so the main indicator of psychological health is not the complete absence of distress, because it also cannot be avoided, but the ability to determine in time that the body has ceased to be managed with stress, you need to make changes.

Here you need to turn to the phases of stress. The first phase is actually stress. A long time ago, they knew the right and the wrong reaction to primary stress - Alexander the Great chose only those men who blush rather than fade when they frightened. Redness of the skin, which occurs due to the expansion of blood vessels, and even increased heart rate and respiration are a symptom of the release of the hormone adrenaline, which is produced in the first phase. As a result, the blood glucose level increases, which is converted into energy. Pallor, as well as often accompanying her throwing in sweat, immobility, or even loss of consciousness, are indicators of the release of the hormone norepinephrine, which is produced mainly in the distress phase. Norepinephrine gives jumps in blood pressure, and also causes a sharp spasm of blood vessels, a decrease in the level of glucose and metabolic disturbances, including in the muscles, which causes immobility and inhibition of the reaction.

What does the type of reaction depend on? Why are some distressed and others opposite? Here plays the role of the relaxation phase, which must necessarily follow the first phase - the phase of stress. If the second phase of relaxation was missed, then the person enters the third phase, the state of distress.

What is distress? In psychology, distress is a pre-disease state, when, due to the lack of relaxation, the systems of the body undergo super-loads. Therefore, the phase of relaxation after stress is extremely important, necessary for the preservation of health, readiness to bear new loads. Discharge depends on personal preferences, but should always include a full sleep and food with the necessary trace elements, instead of lost ones. Also, the ways of discharge include sex, walks, pleasant physical exertion, massage, watching a movie or listening to music. The more senses will be involved - the better.

If eustress has a healthy effect on the body, rejuvenates and tones, then on the contrary, distress is the cause of many diseases of the heart, nervous system, as well as most diseases that have a psychosomatic nature. Also, distress can push a person to gambling, reckless behavior in society. Most often, it is also the cause of alcohol dependence, smoking, drug and food addiction habits. Solving these consequences without eliminating the main reason - chronic distress does not make sense, because without the skill to correctly exit the stressful situation through relaxation, the person will again become a hostage of his destructive condition.