Pacifism - it is an ideology or philosophy, somehow, which promotes a loyal and tolerant way of resolving conflicts, be it political or narrowly social conflicts. Adhering to pacifism, a person in acute situations seeks to preserve humanity, a humane approach to all. Pacifists consider war to be stupidity, a relic of the past, shameful in our age. In human history there have been many wars and forceful seizures. And now, with the seemingly large arsenal of other civilized methods, military conflict remains the most frequently chosen method. Therefore, any war is understood as a negative phenomenon, but completely natural, it took root very stable in our minds.

Reflecting why wars occur, interest leads to the actual topic of pacifism, the principle of non-violence, and the avoidance of war. Adherents of this approach rethink the need for coercive methods to resolve conflicts. They insist on the possibility of a peaceful solution.

The position of the pacifist is a kind of protest against all hostilities. The pacifist rejects everything about war - he is against weapons, violence and being in the army. Pacifists claim that if the money that is invested daily in the army, the war, invested in another, the right direction, then all the people of the state could save from hunger, poverty and give decent housing.

Pacifism, what is it?

What is pacifism from the perspective of terminology? The term pacifism is quite young, it comes from the ancient Latin roots "pax" - the world and "facio" - to do and literally means peacemaking. The word pacifism appeared at the dawn of the 20th century, when the so-called peace congresses took place, the participants of which — writers, journalists, political and cultural figures — united and discussed what mechanisms could be devised so that governments in controversial issues would not declare wars, but decide dispute peacefully.

Further, the definition of pacifism somewhat changed and expanded its meaning. Pacifists began to call themselves people who were against the performance of military service. Then came the sign of pacifism - pacific, developed by a professional designer, originally for the march for nuclear disarmament. In this sign, the semaphore alphabet encodes the abbreviation ND - “nuclear disarmament”, translated from English as nuclear disarmament. It is also believed that the dove's foot is depicted as a symbol of the world. Thanks to youth movements, this sign was spread and received today's breadth of use, denoting the principle of non-violence, rejection of forceful methods of conflict resolution. In the Soviet Union, the ideas of pacifism were rather ironic, its principles were mocked by official representatives. As a result, many people formed the idea that pacifists are subtle, somewhat fake figures.

What are the ideas of pacifism today? Supporters of pacifism explain that their views are extremely simple and consist only in denying the need for war in favor of cooperation.

Pacifists substantiate the benefit of their theory that when they give up on war, from the very preparation of military actions as the content of a military arsenal and service in the army, countries will free up many resources. A number of studies have also confirmed that cooperation is more profitable than competition. However, these views do not work at the state level, since they are only possible when they are fully accepted by the two parties, and no one dares to trust the other side enough to give up protection - the history knows many examples of violations of peace treaties.

Era of pacifism

Today, the ideas of pacifism have become more relevant than ever, as the world has become, in the opinion of many, a large village - the rapid development of new high-speed modes of transport allows us to quickly and easily reach significant parts of the world without significant efforts. Traveling now can take only a few days. The means of communication have also been developed dramatically, and now we can have connections with people all over the world. Therefore, now we can no longer easily start a war with any country on the other side of the world, and not feel any remorse of conscience, because we barely know these people. No, today we communicate so widely with the whole world, so many different countries, that we simply can’t have an idea about their citizens. And to go to war with those with whom you already know quite well - it is much more difficult than to attack the territory as a faceless military object.

It is worth mentioning the philosophy of cosmopolitanism - the vision of oneself not as a citizen of a separate state, but as a resident of the world. The cosmopolitan argues that dissociation is an illusion, and cannot but be a pacifist, since considering himself part of a single world, he sees no reason to fight with his fellows. Cosmopolitans are trying to separate themselves from the ideology of a separate country, instilling patriotism and nationalist views in their citizens, and view them as artificial instruments of controlling the masses from politics.

Also, the era of pacifism is associated with the introduction and proliferation of nuclear weapons. Today, in a global sense, we are all neighbors, and, given the destructive power of nuclear weapons, and the fact that a war can break out with the use of conventional weapons, heat up before the launch of nuclear weapons. This leads to the fact that pacifists reject the very category of just war, as well as wars in defense of national interests.

Ideas of pacifism

Studying the topic of pacifism, you should turn your eyes to the ideas of Christian philosophy, historically considering this issue. You can not put equality between the concept of Christianity and the concept of pacifism. The position of total pacifism is not identical to Christianity, despite popular instructions to love your neighbor or to substitute the second cheek when they hit the first. In balancing these teachings in the Bible, a story is written about how Christ helps to drive money-changers out of the temple building, and he does it very actively.

Christian pacifism does not agitate to a passive position in life, rather the opposite. The middle man in the gospel vision is the one who needs help, who at a particular moment appears in your way of life, whom you have the strength to help. If he helped, he did not pass by at this necessary moment, then he fulfilled the Christian vocation. What does the dictum to substitute a different cheek mean? This means not allowing evil to flare up, this is the position of non-resistance to evil or passive submission to it, certain forms of pacifism. Usually in society evil flares up like a spark from a fire, it is passed on to another person and so multiplies. So this chain of evil, transmitted between people, can cover whole masses of people. When someone finds the strength to break this sequence of evil - for example, they hit him, but he did not answer, did not give up - he thereby blocks the way for the further spread of evil. How to resist evil without using violence? Peacemaking activity is highly valued in Christianity. In the Bible, there is not one promise of eternal life for peacemaking.

The conflict in Christianity is considered as the disagreement of people dependent on each other. They are closely linked together, and the attempt of one to achieve personal goals at the expense of the same interests of the other, or simply without attention to his needs leads to blocking each other, both parties to the conflict lose what they could acquire if they agreed with each other. According to Christianity, only God can use violence, this is explained by the fact that only he knows objectively what is absolute good and what is evil. Man always acts subjectively. This is Christian pacifism.

The problems of pacifism, as we saw in the example of Christianity, concern the finding of the line between peacemaking and the need to fight back. After all, even ardent supporters of pacifism, being in their right mind, will not, while inactive, observe the attack on their loved ones. And this line is very fragile, in certain situations it is difficult to find a balance and unequivocally judge who is right and who is guilty. To solve this problem of pacifism at the public level, the state judicial system is connected. However, for each person personally, this question remains at times open, very difficult for an unequivocal resolution and requiring lengthy internal work in order not to enter into a deal with conscience.