Genius - This is the highest level of unique realization of creative, mental, and active personal capabilities, which are expressed in science, creativity, and inventions. These are achievements that can bring some of the areas of human manifestation to a new level of development. The genius of a person is associated with the concepts of inspiration, innovation, originality, implies the highest degree of productivity and speed of implementation relative to the average representative. The points of view regarding the definition of genius are diverse, from the spark of divine to the conditionality of mental deviations. Psychoanalysis considers genius as the fruit of the sublimation of intimacy, the gestalt approach as the ability of an individual to insight.

Genius is in psychology a unique deviation from the norm of the majority, which occurs less frequently than all other deviations, has concomitant other deviations concerning the organism.

Genius is one of the most elusive and most exciting concepts in psychology. What is supercapacity and the exact parameters of its definition are not installed. For centuries, scientists, philosophers, and psychologists have attempted to explain the nature of genius. However, it is generally recognized that the genius envisages creative abilities exceeding the level of the average person, which relate to any field, i.e. A man of genius is capable of quite good results in those areas that are not adjacent to his main talent. These skills are evaluated in the context of social culture and the time in which a person lives, because Genius is a social phenomenon and can be considered only when comparing social and temporal conditions.

Human genius is defined by four types of theories.

Pathological theory finds a connection between genius and insanity; emerged from observations of geniuses, who often had nervous disorders, a trance state, a tendency to neurosis, and so on. The peculiarities inherent to geniuses are also inherent to the obsessed (unconsciousness of creativity, hypersensitivity, mood swings, etc.), but people with mental disorders do not produce brilliant creations.

In psychoanalytic theory, genius is not explained by the presence of any super abilities, but by the direction in which they are directed, how they are used and developed under the influence of motivation. It is here that the idea is born of the sublimation of sexual energy into creative activity, as well as the compensation of its shortcomings through the development of other qualities.

In the theory of the genius of qualitative superiority, the idea of ​​the presence of deficiencies in geniuses is not allowed, they are recognized as a more developed, distinguished from the rest, kind of people with more developed abilities.

The theory of quantitative superiority determines the conviction not through special abilities, but as a favorable combination of social and economic factors for the development of abilities that are equally embedded in a human being.

Genius is studied using biographical analysis, statistical research, intelligence research, longitudinal research, and various other combinations of these and other methods.

One method of description is the theory of multiple intelligences. It identifies linguistic (writers and poets), mathematically-logical (scientists, financiers), spatial-visual (artists, photographers), musical (composers, musicians), kinesthetic (athletes), interpersonal (lawyers, politicians), intrapersonal (philosophers, psychologists, priests), naturalistic (farmers, botany) intellects. These types have approximately the same distribution over the population and determine the prevalence of abilities in their respective fields. A person with genius has well-developed intellects of several types.

Signs of genius

A brief description of a genius individual can be considered as having a person of high intelligence, high creativity, and accompanying these characteristics with high activity of the psyche. What is genius helps to understand not only dry scientific definitions, but also signs of genius:

- non-standard thinking, which is unique in its manifestation and strives for self-expression as a primary task);

- imagination and attention to details (a vivid, innovative and lively presentation of new worlds, concepts, things, ideas, a person lives literally immersed in another world);

- perfectionism and purposefulness (a high level of efficiency, perseverance is necessary to overcome the established views of society and achieve the highest results);

- multipotentiality (development of abilities in several areas at once);

- spontaneity, originality of behavior (as the driving force of the unconscious);

- a high level of self-esteem and energy (inseparable concepts necessary to present the world of their creativity and self-realization);

- age of manifestation (giftedness manifests itself from early childhood);

- a high degree of sensitivity (geniuses pay a lot of attention to details, which other people pass by, subtly perceive what is happening around, are more vulnerable - all this gives the ability for a deeper analysis of what is happening);

- curiosity (the constant desire to obtain new knowledge, the desire to travel, experiment, ask questions).

With all the variety of signs of a man of genius, a high level of intelligence is not fundamental from the point of view of some authors, and the ability to look at it from a different angle, to notice what no one has seen, the divergence of thinking, openness to new experience and admission of their mistakes have great significance.

In addition to signs of genius, it is necessary to highlight the signs of the genius of a creative or scientific work. It is its originality, perfection of performance, novelty, ahead of its time, social significance.

Genius has a social focus and is always focused on changing historical, technical, human characteristics.

Talent and genius

The separation of the concepts of genius, talent, giftedness, ability occurred relatively recently, even after psychology took shape as a separate scientific area.

Genius and talent, what is it? Talent reflects a high degree of development of abilities, usually represented in one area. It is not necessary to exclude outstanding abilities in related fields (for example, the poet will have a penchant for drawing, and a physicist for mathematics), but the leading ability will be clearly visible among the rest. The results of a person with talent will be distinguished by high quality, novelty, originality.

Genius is in psychology the highest degree of talent development, and in several areas, often opposite. It has as its goal a change in the former view of the world order, not predictable, often perceived negatively by contemporaries of a genius, as he breaks the foundations with his discoveries.

Talent and genius are innate, but not genetically transmitted qualities. A couple of talented people can be born an absolutely ordinary child, just as in a family that does not have strong abilities, a genius can appear.

Genius and talent are different in their mode of expression. So, for the manifestation of talent takes time and effort, it can be understood and developed. High giftedness begins to manifest itself from early childhood, independently without much effort, and logically it is incomprehensible.

Genius is unconscious, talent is rational. Genius creates faster than his contemporaries, his creations open a new level of development for the whole society. Talent speaks of skillful performance, but not the creation of something revolutionary, develops, as a rule, in favorable conditions; brilliant talent exists in the world created and is able to influence the course of development of history and man and is able to form in the most difficult circumstances.

Talent is the ability to see what abilities a person is naturally endowed with, compare it with social, emotional and other conditions in order to maximize the full potential. The development and identification of talent can help the surrounding society of the individual. Indicators of talent and the ability to transform already accumulated experience (learning speed, quality of reproduction, originality of transformation) can serve as indicators of talent, but all achievements remain within the framework of what has been achieved.

Genius, on the other hand, exceeds human norms, goes against any conditions and manifests itself independently of society, its benevolence or negativism. Genius paves new ways.

Geniuses were often not understood, considered crazy, and recognized their discoveries and achievements only after death. These are truly unique people who have had an undeniable influence on entire generations and centuries of human history. But how he lived with this gift, ordinary people, and talented people do not understand. Not for nothing, many consider talent as a curse, because the more a person deviates from the norm of the majority, the more he is an outcast in society.