Genius - This is the highest level of unique realization of creative, mental, and active personal capabilities, which are expressed in science, creativity, and inventions. These are achievements that can bring some of the areas of human manifestation to a new level of development. The genius of a person is associated with the concepts of inspiration, innovation, originality, implies the highest degree of productivity and speed of implementation relative to the average representative. The points of view regarding the definition of genius are diverse, from the spark of divine to the conditionality of mental deviations. Psychoanalysis considers genius as the fruit of the sublimation of intimacy, the gestalt approach as the ability of an individual to insight.
Genius is in psychology a unique deviation from the norm of the majority, which occurs less frequently than all other deviations, has concomitant other deviations concerning the organism.
Genius is one of the most elusive and most exciting concepts in psychology. What is supercapacity and the exact parameters of its definition are not installed. For centuries, scientists, philosophers, and psychologists have attempted to explain the nature of genius. However, it is generally recognized that the genius envisages creative abilities exceeding the level of the average person, which relate to any field, i.e. A man of genius is capable of quite good results in those areas that are not adjacent to his main talent. These skills are evaluated in the context of social culture and the time in which a person lives, because Genius is a social phenomenon and can be considered only when comparing social and temporal conditions.
Human genius is defined by four types of theories.
Pathological theory finds a connection between genius and insanity; emerged from observations of geniuses, who often had nervous disorders, a trance state, a tendency to neurosis, and so on. The peculiarities inherent to geniuses are also inherent to the obsessed (unconsciousness of creativity, hypersensitivity, mood swings, etc.), but people with mental disorders do not produce brilliant creations.
In psychoanalytic theory, genius is not explained by the presence of any super abilities, but by the direction in which they are directed, how they are used and developed under the influence of motivation. It is here that the idea is born of the sublimation of sexual energy into creative activity, as well as the compensation of its shortcomings through the development of other qualities.
In the theory of the genius of qualitative superiority, the idea of the presence of deficiencies in geniuses is not allowed, they are recognized as a more developed, distinguished from the rest, kind of people with more developed abilities.
The theory of quantitative superiority determines the conviction not through special abilities, but as a favorable combination of social and economic factors for the development of abilities that are equally embedded in a human being.
Genius is studied using biographical analysis, statistical research, intelligence research, longitudinal research, and various other combinations of these and other methods.
One method of description is the theory of multiple intelligences. It identifies linguistic (writers and poets), mathematically-logical (scientists, financiers), spatial-visual (artists, photographers), musical (composers, musicians), kinesthetic (athletes), interpersonal (lawyers, politicians), intrapersonal (philosophers, psychologists, priests), naturalistic (farmers, botany) intellects. These types have approximately the same distribution over the population and determine the prevalence of abilities in their respective fields. A person with genius has well-developed intellects of several types.