Reference - is the ability of the group to indirectly influence the emergence and formation of opinions, ideals, human behavior. This interaction factor has no relationship with emotional bindings and reactions (judgments of an emotionally significant person can be perceived less weightily than the opinion of an emotionally neutral person perceived). The values ​​inherent in the personality are not formed from the ideals of the group to which a person’s membership is exclusively formal, but are shaped by a grouping of people where the individual seeks or feels inner involvement.

To provide a reference impact, it is not necessary to directly contact, be formally meaningful and even realistic. In the process of growing up, the reference groupings of personality change, their level of significance changes, with respect to the displacement of sympathies. In psychology, the methodology of referentry appeared, the main indicators of which are the values ​​of sympathy and antipathy. A mature person is a person who has mastered the ability to focus less on society, and more on his own world view and moral principles.

Knowledge of reference relationships as a system and an understanding of their functioning facilitates the construction of group classes of psychological work for the purpose of correcting both the intragroup space and individual individuals. Reference is used, in addition to psychology, in linguistics, biology, sociology, etc.

What is the reference?

With the advent of the social order of society, a person, being born, already belongs to various groupings. A newborn baby already has social groupings (parental family, national and spiritual environment), they are all divided according to social, spiritual and financial status. Further, when a person develops, the number of group accessories grows, and awareness appears, and not the reality of joining them.

The definition of reference was introduced by G.Haiman, and understood reference as a type of relationship, in which an individual’s opinion about the characteristics of himself and the world, values ​​and goals, the feeling and definition of vital foundations are related to which group he is self-assigned to, with whom correlates itself The object of reference relationships can be people or an individual, really existing or not.

Reference itself has the ability to manifest in the interaction of the subject with significant objects in group activities. Objects can be understood as participants of the activity, as well as their emotional reactions, qualities of character, difficulties arising. This type of interaction is mediated, and occurs through the appeal of the individual in the situation of orientation of his assessments to a significant reference group. According to the mechanism of action, reference relations are divided into non-internalized (when behavior is dictated from the outside) and internalized (conditioned not by external influences, but consciously processed factors that have already become internal human motives).

In reference, a measure of the significance of an object or grouping is displayed, and this significance exists solely in the perception of a particular subject relative to the objects. The belonging of an individual to certain groupings of people changes the personality through the internalization of the norms inherent in these associations.

Intergroup reference takes place when a person strives to achieve, refers to a certain external reference group, which determines basic values ​​and socially significant norms corresponding to their worldview. Intergroup reference is determined by the social attitudes of the group, its values, and development vectors.

Reference has a wide influence on reactions and the personality of a person, which proceeds from the requirements of society to comply with its norms, to comply with the behavior of inherent standards. The deeper influence is value-oriented, when a person absorbs the moral and ethical rules of this grouping, it is an internal process of acceptance that cannot be implanted by demands from the outside. And the last layer of influence is informational, since the information emanating from a positively perceived reference group does not pass the proper level of criticism and is considered a priori as correct, trustworthy and realizable.

Principle of reference

Of unique importance for the study of personality is the study of not only its individual characteristics, but also intergroup tendencies and relationships that contribute to the course of the formation of human reactions and attitudes.

The definition of reference is used in the construction of experimental psychodiagnostic studies, which are based on certain principles. This is the principle of adequacy (compliance of the research method with the phenomenon being studied), parallelism (registration of indicators parallel to the process being studied), extremity (creation of such a critical situation when the studied properties are most pronounced), gradient registration (registration of parameters in diverse situations), consistent explanation (use for explanations of only the next two levels of generalization), psychological expediency (not all processes are of a psychological nature) and the principle of referrals adherence

The principle of reference is used to simplify and rationalize the research process in situations where the entire system under study is displayed in a single location, as in focus. In this case, there is no need for a huge number of registration data, which speeds up the research process and increases its accuracy and efficiency. This principle also applies to other scientific areas where similar mapping laws apply.

When studying the attitude of a person to different groupings of people, one can make up his personal portrait, identify a motivational orientation, and professional orientation. The study of the system of these relations is not only a multifaceted method of psychodiagnostics, but also a method of forming and developing a personality, its leading orientations and motives.

The principle of reference in matters of pedagogical activity is important. Identifying child’s reference groupings, meaningful ideas, and people helps to form the necessary personality traits. With proper use of this data and through the use of the principle of reference, it is possible to push a person to certain judgments and actions. What character or direction they will depend on meaningful grouping, as the child will not be particularly critical of the information provided by the reference group or its representative.

Group reference

The reference group serves as a guide for the person and the source of behavioral styles, extra-rationalized or interest-oriented norms and orders, which they later use to compare directly the characteristics of themselves, the events taking place, the behavior of the people around them; may be real or conditional.

There are normative (when the source comes as an edification) and comparative (when the source is the standard for assessing and comparing oneself and society) reference groups; positive (whose views, principles and rules are an example and a guide where the individual wants to join) and negative (the opposite of the values ​​of this group are the values ​​of the individual, causing rejection). Allocate informational, value, utilitarian and self-identification groups.

Informational - a group where a person trusts outgoing information, without particularly subjecting it to criticism and verification of reliability and reliability parameters.

A value group is a group that promotes the values ​​and ideas that a person adheres to (real or imaginary).

Utilitarian - a group that is capable and has the necessary capabilities and tools for rewarding or punishing.

A self-identification group is a real group of belonging that forces a person to follow the norms and styles of behavior approved by her.

Reference groups are reference groups, belonging to which is considered and internally evaluated by a person as a favorable development of events. Under the presence in the reference group means not so much the actual state, as the feeling of the psychological closeness of his ideals. The number of reference groupings in a person is not limited to one group (primary - family, friends, colleagues; secondary - public and religious organizations), but the desire to be in them is not always available due to life circumstances, so they distinguish real and imaginary reference groupings.

The functions of reference groups in relation to the regulation of human life manifestations are as follows: the source of information and experience, the standard of moral and behavioral norms, a reflection of the personality and its manifestations.

Over-orientation of a person to the grouping chosen by him can lead to mental disorder and exhaustion of the body's physical forces. This happens when there is not enough ability, education, a resource, etc. for the person to perform the actions and roles adopted in this group.

When a person chooses the reference groupings, conflicts may arise, which are caused by the presence of contradictions. The emergence of such conflicts is due to situations in which the norms of a real group where a person is composed and an ideal reference group do not match, or when a person chooses two reference groups with opposing ideas.