Reminiscence - this is a mnemonic effect characterized by a sudden recollection of the perceived material without repeating it after a long time (from one day to 7, or even a longer period of time). Reminiscence is a mental phenomenon that often occurs when perceiving information material with internal logical connections to the content, which produces a strong emotional impression on the individual. The apparent causes of sudden memories have not yet been studied.
Reminiscence refers to such a memory phenomenon that appears after memorizing information without immediately playing it immediately after perception, and after a certain period of time without affecting a person's stimulus series.
The term reminiscence was proposed in psychology by Serbian scholar V. Urbanchich in 1907. The scientist studied the phenomenon that he observed in subjects during memorizing material (verbal, non-verbal character and sensory-motor movements).
The reminiscence effect is most pronounced at preschool age and among younger students. In the field of psychology, scientists have identified higher quality indicators of the delayed reproduction of memorized material, rather than reproducing information immediately after memorizing it.
A sudden reproduction of the material after memorization was studied by P. Ballard. Individuals who memorized stimulus material took part in his experimental studies, but the time for sufficient mastery was not enough. After an interval of 24 hours to 7 days, the subjects reproduced the material. The best results showed reproduction after 2-3 daily interval. The results obtained differed quantitatively high rates, which was fixed in the psychological science of memory, as the phenomenon of Bellard.
Also in psychology, the scientist Pierre Jeanne studied reminiscence. In his writings, he described the phenomenon as an automatic repetition of actions independent of external factors.
Reminiscence is a phenomenon that is quite widespread, and the frequency of its occurrence depends largely on the nature of the material that needs to be remembered.
In the studies of the scientist DI Krasilshchikova, the reproduction of semantic material was revealed much more than incoherent reproduction of the material. Experimental studies have found that interest in the material significantly affects the manifestation of reminiscence.
The occurrence of the phenomenon of sudden memory is influenced by the degree of mastering the content of the material by memorizing. Provided that the individual has not sufficiently mastered the content of the information material, a sudden memory will not take place. If the memorizer tries to reproduce the material directly after the memorization itself, he relies on associations that appear between images and concepts, and if the reproduction is more time-consuming, then the subject relies on a logical connection.
An example of a reminiscence can be called passing a test by a student who memorizes the necessary information by heart without understanding it, comprehending it. Before passing the test, an individual may have a "mess in his head", but information is recalled at the required moment. And after passing the test, the student forgets everything, without understanding the meaning of the memorized. Or, for example, a verse from a student, the wording, the concept. In many learning models, the main thing is the inexpedient memorization of actions, phrases or words, which is achieved by frequent repetition of stimulus material.
Reminiscence can be observed in almost every person. It happens that an individual suddenly remembers this or that song, verse or minor events. The peculiarity of this effect is that this reproduction of the material takes place without any targeted efforts. A person does not draw from memory, does not try to remember the lines from a song, they come up from the depths of memory.
Reminiscence in psychology
Scientists have not sufficiently studied the causal series of the occurrence of sudden memories, the factors causing sudden recall, but the mechanism of the reminiscence effect could be investigated based on the works of domestic and foreign researchers.
The mechanism of occurrence of sudden memories is due to the action of affective inhibition, due to the pronounced emotional experience, the impression of the perceived information material. Emotional inhibition affects the nature of the reproduced material. When playing the memorized information, the story begins with the part that made the most vivid impression, and the logical connection between the reproduced information is lost. In case of delayed reproduction, the information does not lose its logical sequence.
From the point of view of psychology, reminiscence is the process of normalizing the state of fatigue after intense physical, intellectual or emotional stress. After his perception by an individual, informational material is arranged in the head, after which it becomes easier for the person to voice it.
Also, a sudden memory arises in the absence of the layering of many details of a single logical phenomenon, in which confusion arises. There may be conditional forgetting, but after an interval during which stimulus material does not act on an individual and there is no additional load on memory, a sudden memory may appear.
Reminiscence depends on an allusion, which is just a hint, a hint pushing the right thought. In an individual, a sudden memory arises as a result of an allusion. Allusion is an external phenomenon, a stimulus factor that provokes the emergence of an internal reminiscence phenomenon.
The phenomenon of reminiscence is also considered from the point of view of pathology in psychology, when a psycho-traumatic event takes place and the memories take on the character of an obsessive and negative one. Getting into external circumstances, similar to the circumstances of a traumatic event, a person may experience emotional discomfort associated with the effect of an obsessive reminiscence. This state directly depends on the initial emotional state of the individual.
The phenomenon of sudden memory in an obsessive form can be observed in individuals with PTSD. Reminiscence in these cases manifests itself in dreams with memories of acquired traumatic experiences.
The sudden reproduction of early perceived information is often a natural feature of the work of human memory.
If we consider the reminiscence of psychiatry, it can be a symptom of diseases such as traumatic brain injury, alcohol or infectious intoxications, brain pathologies and others.
Reminiscence in psychiatry is considered as a form of obsessive states, as a manifestation of neurosis, as a symptom in depressive states, manifested by uncontrolled chaotic thoughts. Sudden memories can manifest themselves in panic states, fears and phobias.
The manifestation of reminiscence, as a pathological symptom, is characterized by obsession of thoughts and images, and also causes an expressive emotional reaction (anxiety, anxiety, panic reactions, fears) in the individual.
Reminiscence can be the object of attention in the practice of the psychologist, the activities of correctional orientation in order to substitute negative experiences for positive ones, while treating conditions associated with psycho-traumatic situations. Specialist interventions require both intrusive reminiscences with negative emotional symptoms and the complete absence of this memory effect, which may signal disturbances in the work of the CNS or beginning senile dementia.
If a sudden memory takes place in a pathological manifestation, then intervention of a specialist is necessary, who will determine the medical principles of treatment of the disease, manifestations of which are reminiscence. Also, a psychotherapeutic tactic effective and adequate to the disease should be selected by a qualified specialist.